Fletcher program theses, 1981 -- 2015


This series is part of Fletcher School Records, 1923 -- 2010

Series Overview

Title: Fletcher program theses
Dates: 1981 -- 2015
Call Number: UA015.012
Size: 286 Digital Object(s), 1 Volumes

Description

This series contains selected theses submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the following Fletcher School masters programs: Masters of Arts in Law and Diplomacy, Masters of International Business, Masters of Law in International Law, and Masters of Arts.

Arrangement

This series is arranged chronologically by year.

Access and Use

Access Restrictions

Open for research.

View Online Materials

Use My List to request materials that are not online.

Detailed Contents List


  Title     Request Materials
  Nationalism - Internationalism in the Philosophical Thought from Machiavelli to Mao 1981
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39090011499555
UA015.012.093.00003
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 Add to List
  The Evolution of Women in Middle Eastern Politics: Opportunities for Women in Parliament 2007
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UA015.012.073.00001
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Open for research.
  Multiple Use Services: Meeting the Productive and Domestic Water Needs of the Rural Poor 2007
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UA015.012.073.00002
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Open for research.
  A Strategy for the Long War: The Key Components of Counterinsurgency fro Malaya and the Philippines 2007
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UA015.012.073.00003
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Open for research.
  Towards a New Model of Cooperative Development: Enhancing and Leveraging the Benefits of FDI for Emerging Economies 2007
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UA015.012.073.00004
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Open for research.
  The Market for Microfinance in Brazil: An Industry Analysis 2007
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UA015.012.073.00005
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Open for research.
  Investing in A Newly Deregulated Energy Sector - The Case of Kosova 2007
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UA015.012.073.00006
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Open for research.
  An Examination and Analysis of the Interests Behind United States Political Support of Israel 2007
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UA015.012.073.00007
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Open for research.
  Undermining the Free Oil Markets? China's Petroleum Strategy and the US-PRC-Japan Triangle 2007
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UA015.012.073.00008
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Open for research.
  An Epidemiological Analysis of Malnutrition, Morbidity and Mortality Rates in the Darfur Humanitarian Crisis, Sudan 2003-2005 2007
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UA015.012.073.00009
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Open for research.
  Time to Restructure the Ukrainian National Association: Here's Why and How 2007
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UA015.012.073.00010
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Open for research.
  Energy Relations Amongst the United States, the European Union and the People's Republic of China: A Strategic Triangle or Three Sides without a Triangle? 2007
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UA015.012.073.00011
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Open for research.
  In Pursuit of the Triple Bottom Line: Economic, Social, and Environmental Commitment at Clif Bar, Stonyfield Farm, and Starbucks 2007
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UA015.012.073.00012
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Open for research.
  Public-Private Partnerships: Can the United States Learn from the French Experience to Address its Highway Funding Needs? 2007
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UA015.012.073.00013
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Open for research.
  Developing an Effective Way Forward: U.S. Public Diplomacy in the Middle East 2007
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UA015.012.073.00014
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Open for research.
  Oil, Democracy and the Globalization of the Nagorno Karabakh Conflict 2007
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UA015.012.073.00015
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Open for research.
  Media Independence: Variables Affecting Freedom of the Press: Cross-Country Regression Analysis with Implications on Russian Media 2007
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UA015.012.073.00016
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Open for research.
  Violence and Voices: Armed Political Opposition Groups' Interaction with the Foreign News Media 2007
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UA015.012.073.00017
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Open for research.
  Terror-Crime Nexus? Terrorism and Arms, Drug, and Human Trafficking in Georgia 2007
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Access:
UA015.012.073.00018
Item
Open for research.
  Sub-Optimal Equilibriums in the Carbon Forestry Game: Why Bamboo Should Win but Will Not 2007
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Access:
UA015.012.073.00019
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Open for research.
  Towards a National Information Infrastructure Initiative for the United States: An Analysis of Global Broadband Deployment, Adoption and Policies for Enhancement 2008
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UA015.012.074.00001
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Open for research.
  If We Could Hear & Read Their Stories: A Comparative Analysis of Perpetrator Patterns & Community Responses to Sexual Violence in Liberia & Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo 2008
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UA015.012.074.00002
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Open for research.
  Never Again? The Failure of the International Community and the Media During the Rwanda Genocide 2008
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UA015.012.074.00003
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Open for research.
  A Story of Communication, Power and Vision: Bringing Guatemalan Civil Society into the National Decision-Making Process 2008
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UA015.012.074.00004
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Open for research.
  Violence Prevention Through Bodybuilding 2008
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UA015.012.074.00005
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Open for research.
  Maintaining Socially-Inclusive Economic Growth By Enabling Opportunity: Achieving Sustainable Development in Vietnam 2008
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UA015.012.074.00006
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Open for research.
  Of Peace and Justice: The Impact of Human Rights in Peacemaking 2008
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UA015.012.074.00007
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Open for research.
  Distributional and Welfare Effects of Including Corn into NAFTA and the Social, Economic, Political and International Repercussions for Mexico 2008
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UA015.012.074.00008
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Open for research.
  Resuscitating 'The Forgotten Sector in a Forgotten State': Catalyzing Improved Health Outcomes in Guinea-Bissau through the Millennium Development Goals 2008
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UA015.012.074.00009
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Open for research.
  NGO Mission and Staff Perception: A Case Study of the Finca del Niño 2008
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UA015.012.074.00010
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Open for research.
  Towards a Framework for Culturally-Sensitive Psychosocial Interventions in the Population of Internally Displaced Sudanese 2008
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UA015.012.074.00011
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Open for research.
  The Right to a Fair Trial in States of Emergencies: Non-Derogable Aspects of Article 14 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 2008
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UA015.012.074.00012
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Open for research.
  Farm Animal Welfare and WTO Law: Assessing the Legality of Policy Measures 2008
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UA015.012.074.00013
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Open for research.
  Adopem Bank: Microfinance in the Dominican Republic, A Case Study 2008
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UA015.012.074.00014
Item
Open for research.
  Conceptualizing Climate Change Migration: A Literature Review and Analysis of the State of the Field and its Implications 2009
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UA015.012.075.00001
Item
Open for research.
  Resuscitating 'the Forgotten Sector in a Forgotten State': Catalyzing Improved Health Outcomes in Guinea-Bissau through the Millennium Development Goals 2009
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.075.00002
Item
Open for research.
  Achieving Complex National Security Missions: A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Design and Management of Collaborative Institutions 2009
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UA015.012.075.00003
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Open for research.
  Azerbaijan and Israel: Oil, Islam and Strawberries Pragmatism in Foreign Policy Between Unlikely Allies 2009
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UA015.012.075.00004
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Open for research.
  Geopolitics of Energy in the Caspian Sea Region: Azerbaijan's Challenges 2009
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UA015.012.075.00005
Item
Open for research.
  Collaborative Value Sharing Between Profit and NonProfit Partners in Emerging Markets: The Case of GrameenPhone in Bangladesh 2009
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UA015.012.075.00006
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Open for research.
  Creating Obstacles to Peace: The International Involvement in Darfur 2009
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UA015.012.075.00007
Item
Open for research.
  How to Assess Corruption in Defence: A Framework for Designing, Comparing and Interpreting Corruption Measurement Tools 2009
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UA015.012.075.00008
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Open for research.
  Prospect of Energy Link Between Central Asia and China: A Study on the Development of 'Energy Silk Route,' the Turkmenistan - China Pipeline 2009
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UA015.012.075.00009
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Open for research.
  Additionality of the Clean Development Mechanism: Insights from Central American Case Studies 2009
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UA015.012.075.00010
Item
Open for research.
  One For All and All For One: Intra-Organizational Dynamics in Humanitarian Action 2009
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UA015.012.075.00011
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Open for research.
  Defining Corruption: A Comparison of the Substantive Criminal Law of Public Corruption in the United States and the United Kingdom 2009
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UA015.012.075.00012
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Open for research.
  Mobile Banking: Can Financial Services be Extended to Africa's Unbanked? 2009
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UA015.012.075.00013
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Open for research.
  When Do We Get to Peace? Patterns of Gender-Based Violence in Post-Conflict Liberia 2007
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UA015.012.075.00014
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Open for research.
  The Political Potential of Israel-GCC Business Relations 2009
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UA015.012.075.00015
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Open for research.
  Profits, Planes and Policy: An Analysis of the Midway Airport Privatization and its Implications for Future Airport Privatizations in the United States 2009
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UA015.012.075.00016
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Open for research.
  Tourism and Economic Development in Tanzania 2009
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UA015.012.075.00017
Item
Open for research.
  Unraveling the Paradox: The Resilience of Women's Rights Activism in Iran within the Context of a Changing Political Environment 2009
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Type:
Access:
UA015.012.075.00018
Item
Open for research.
  The WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights and the Doha Declaration on TRIPS and Public Health: Will They Solve the Pharmaceutical Question? 2009
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UA015.012.075.00019
Item
Open for research.
  Achieving universal health coverage in Mexico: The case of Seguro Popular 2010
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Type:
Access:
UA015.012.077.00001
Item
Open for research.
  Theorizing the Economics of E-Waste Trade: Issues, Analysis and Strategies 2010
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Type:
Access:
UA015.012.077.00002
Item
Open for research.
  Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Capstone Doctrine in Addressing UN Peacekeeping Challenges 2010
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Access:
UA015.012.077.00003
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Open for research.
  The Responsibility to Protect: Issues of Legal Formulation and Practical Application 2010
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UA015.012.077.00004
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Open for research.
  Judicial Reform in Afghanistan: Towards a Holistic Understanding of Legitimacy in Post-Conflict Societies 2010
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UA015.012.077.00005
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Open for research.
  A Lifecourse Perspective of Intimate Partner Violence in India: What Picture Does the NFHS-3 Paint? 2010
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Type:
Access:
UA015.012.077.00006
Item
Open for research.
  Biofuels and its Implications on Food Security, Climate Change, and Energy Security: A Case Study of Nepal 2010
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Access:
UA015.012.077.00007
Item
Open for research.
  Global Trends in Demobilizing Guerilla Movements: Lebanese Hizballah, FMLN in El Salvador, and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement, 1989-2009 2010
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Access:
UA015.012.077.00008
Item
Open for research.
  Inadequate Institutions and Inefficient Outcomes in Mexico's Sugar Industry 2010
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.077.00009
Item
Open for research.
  Savings Institutions - Savings Culture: The effect of culture and institutions on financial behaviors 2010
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.077.00010
Item
Open for research.
  Disaggregating the Displaced: The Influence of Refugee Contexts and Origins on Militarization and State Security 2010
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.077.00011
Item
Open for research.
  The Fog of Peace: Comparing U.S. and UN Approaches to Conflict Management in Nepal 2010
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Type:
Access:
UA015.012.077.00012
Item
Open for research.
  The Dawn of a New Arctic Chessboard 2010
Item ID:
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Access:
UA015.012.077.00013
Item
Open for research.
  A Real Great Leap Forward: History, Drivers And Expected Trends Of M&A In The People's Republic Of China 2010
Item ID:
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Access:
UA015.012.077.00014
Item
Open for research.
  From the Desert to the Sea: The Maritime Jurisdiction of an Independent Western Sahara 2010
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Access:
UA015.012.077.00015
Item
Open for research.
  Central Bank Independence in an African Context: the Case of Zambia 2010
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.077.00016
Item
Open for research.
  Non-Agricultural Fair Trade: An Analysis of Economic and Developmental Benefits and Challenges 2010
Item ID:
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Access:
UA015.012.077.00017
Item
Open for research.
  Militias as sociopolitical movements: Iraq's armed Shia groups 2010
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.077.00018
Item
Open for research.
  A dissappearing right of self-determination: The ongoing impasse in Western Sahara and its consequences 2010
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.077.00020
Item
Open for research.
  How multilateral environmental regimes affect policies for forest conservation and ecosystem services provision: The case of Costa Rica 2010
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.077.00021
Item
Open for research.
  Prospects for Global Environmental Accountability Bodies: Assessing the Suitability of the UN Human Rights Treaty Bodies Model for International Environmental Treaty Governance 2011
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.078.00001
Item
Open for research.
  Bottling renewable energy: market assessment of grid-scale storage for renewable intergration in the U.S. 2011
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.078.00002
Item
Open for research.
  Bridging the void: social media's potential to transform intergroup relations in fractured societies 2011
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.078.00003
Item
Open for research.
  A state of inequality: confronting elite capture in post-conflict Guatemala 2011
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.078.00004
Item
Open for research.
  Effects of teacher characteristics on Project ABC outcomes in Niger 2011
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.078.00005
Item
Open for research.
  Securitization of real estate receivables in Brazil 2011
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.078.00006
Item
Open for research.
  The centre cannot hold: impact of the scientific and information revolutions on the nonproliferation regime 2011
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.078.00007
Item
Open for research.
  Mozambique and the Mozal Aluminum Project: perils of megaproject-led economic development 2011
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.078.00008
Item
Open for research.
  Building Peace and the State in Somalia: The Case of Somaliland 2011
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.078.00009
Item
Open for research.
  The Effectiveness of Peacekeeping as a Management Tool for Political Crisis: A Case Study of Somalia 2011
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.078.00010
Item
Open for research.
  Myanmar's Sittwe: A Case of Sino-Indian Geopolitical Competition in the Indian Ocean 2011
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.078.00011
Item
Open for research.
  The Role of Governments in Improving Country-of-Origin Effects 2011
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.078.00012
Item
Open for research.
  The Himalaya Complex: Roads and Conflict in High Asia 2011
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.078.00013
Item
Open for research.
  Exploring theories of change that UNESCO could implement in its media strategy to most effectively contribute to post-conflict and peacebuilding 2011
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.078.00014
Item
Open for research.
  Has a New Political Era Changed Iraqi State? Challenges for a Late Rentier State 2011
Item ID:
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Access:
UA015.012.078.00015
Item
Open for research.
  Media coverage and humanitarian assistance 2011
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.078.00016
Item
Open for research.
  Linkage or Leakage? The Jamaican Hospitality Sector's Demand for Locally Produced Food 2011
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.078.00017
Item
Open for research.
  The Ethiopian-Eritrean Dynamic: Classic Proxy Warfare and How a Small Town is Destabilizing the Horn of Africa 2011
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.078.00018
Item
Open for research.
  Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP): How Does it Contribute to Increated Competitiveness of ASEAN? 2011
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.078.00019
Item
Open for research.
  Post-Cold War Defense Contracting Consolidation: Leadership and Survival Strategies Used by Today's Largest Defense Contractors 2011
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.079.00001
Item
Open for research.
  21st Century Civilian Nuclear Power and the Role of Small Modular Reactors 2011
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.079.00002
Item
Open for research.
  U.S. Public Diplomacy in Pakistan: Challenges and Prospects for the Future 2011
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.079.00003
Item
Open for research.
  New Tools, Old Goals: Comparing the Role of Technology in the 1979 Iranian Revolution and The 2009 Green Movement 2011
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.079.00004
Item
Open for research.
  Two Level War Games: The Domestic Factors that Influence Presidential Decision-Making to Use Force in Minor Conflicts 2011
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.079.00005
Item
Open for research.
  Betting for the poor: Exploring gambling as a financial strategy for low income households in Colombia. 2011
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.079.00006
Item
Open for research.
  Performing Past, Present and Possibilities in Irish Modern Dance Theatre's 'Fall and Recover:' A Case for Using Dance in Peacebuilding 2011
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.079.00007
Item
Open for research.
  Balancing Tradeoffs: Adaptability and Flexibility in the U.S. Legal Approach to Nuclear Arms Control and Non-Proliferation 2011
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.079.00008
Item
Open for research.
  From Aspiration To Obligation: The Evolving Right to Education in International Law 2011
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.079.00009
Item
Open for research.
  Peacebuilding potential of the international private sector in post-conflict/post-disaster societies 2011
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.079.00010
Item
Open for research.
  Catalyzing Social Change: A Comparative Analysis of Female Genital Cutting and Breast Flattening 2012
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.080.00006
Item
Open for research.
  The Dictator's Dilemma and the Politics of Telecommunications in Cuba: A Case Study 2012
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.080.00007
Item
Open for research.
  Modern Family Planning in Mali: An Analysis of the Relative Merits of Fertility Awareness Methods Versus Commodity-Based Methods 2012
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.080.00008
Item
Open for research.
  International Law and Ungoverned Space 2012
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.080.00009
Item
Open for research.
  Monetary and Fiscal Policy of South Sudan: Analysis of a Newly Independent Oil-exporting Country 2012
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.080.00010
Item
Open for research.
  The Compatibility of REACH Regulation with WTO TBT Agreement 2012
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.080.00011
Item
Open for research.
  Another Look East: John F. Kennedy and India 2012
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.080.00012
Item
Open for research.
  Electoral system design? Assessing the evidence for the standard advice 2012
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.080.00013
Item
Open for research.
  Of Lion Hearts, Terrible Wolves and Sacrificial Lambs: A Comparative Analysis of the Rationale and Conditions for Suicide Attacks in Japan during WWII and Iraq Post-2003 2012
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.080.00014
Item
Open for research.
  Peacebuilding Potential of the International Private Sector in Post-Conflict/Post-Disaster Societies 2011
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.080.00015
Item
Open for research.
  The Southern Energy Corridor: Competition and Cooperation for Natural Gas Transportation in the Black Sea and Caspian Region 2012
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.080.00016
Item
Open for research.
  GDP Warrant Design for Greek Debt Restructuring- Lessons from the Argentine Default 2012
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.080.00017
Item
Open for research.
  Global pro bono: The duty of, and opportunity for, the international private legal sector to contribute to rule of law, development, access to justice and human rights in the developing world 2013-04

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Law in International Law at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.081.00001
Item
Open for research.
  How to Create Efficient, Reliable and Clean Electricity Markets: A Regulatory Design for Mongolia and Northeast Asia 2012-09

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.081.00002
Item
Open for research.
  The Wrong Side of the Street: Examining Urban Violence and Resilience in Managua, Nicaragua Through a Spatial Lens 2013-01

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.081.00003
Item
Open for research.
  Civil War in Algeria (1991-2002) and its Aftermath: Analyzing the Emergence & Evolution of Non-State Armed Groups 2013-04

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.081.00004
Item
Open for research.
  When Elections Do Not A Democracy Make: The 2010 Elections in Sudan 2013

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.081.00005
Item
Open for research.
  Letting the Sun Shine in: The Role of Development Finance Institutions in Catalyzing Investments in the Indian Solar Industry 2013-04

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.081.00006
Item
Open for research.
  To what extent will the Panama Canal expansion lower transportation costs and enhance the competitiveness of exports from the United States? 2013-04

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.081.00007
Item
Open for research.
  Reparations for Child Victims of Armed Conflict: Responding to the Rights and Needs of Children in Transitional Justice 2013-05

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.081.00008
Item
Open for research.
  State Manipulation of NGOs: Government-Civil Society Relations in Egypt 2013-03

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.081.00009
Item
Open for research.
  Reaching the Base of the Pyramid: An Analysis of Bakhresa Grain Milling Malawi's Inclusive Business Model 2013-05

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.081.00010
Item
Open for research.
  The Role of Memory in Post-Genocide Rwanda 2013-06

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.081.00011
Item
Open for research.
  Technical Efficiency of Rice Production in India: A study using stochastic frontier analysis to estimate technical efficiency and its determinants 2013-04

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.081.00012
Item
Open for research.
  Participation, National Identity, Media & Technology in Greece 2013

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.081.00013
Item
Open for research.
  Reconciliation Processes in Iraq. The Potential of Truth Commissions on Bringing Democracy 2013-06

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
UA015.012.081.00014
Item
Open for research.
  American Citizen Services: Consular Internship in Guadalajara, Mexico 2013 2014

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
Location:
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
DCA Digital Storage
UA015.012.082.00001
Item
Open for research.
 Add to List
  Impact of Corporate Governance Practices on Financial Performance of Microfinance Institutions in India 2014

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of International Business at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
Location:
Item ID:
Type:
Access:
DCA Digital Storage
UA015.012.082.00002
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  Praeda Preda, Desuetude of a Gendered Code 2014

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Masters of Law in International Law at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy
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UA015.012.082.00003
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  Turning the Lights Back On: Strategies for Private Participation in Electricity Infrastructure in Post-Conflict States 2014

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy
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UA015.012.082.00004
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  Exclusion and Agency in Rio de Janeiro: An Analysis of the Marginalization of Favela Residents and their Resistance to Violence 2014

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
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UA015.012.082.00005
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  End of an era: why the erosion of petroleum's monopoly on fueling transportation should drive Saudi Arabia to raise output and lower prices 2014

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Masters of Arts at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
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UA015.012.082.00006
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  Counterterrorism Lessons for Cybersecurity: How a Decade's Worth of Experience Fighting Terrorism Can Provide Insights into Mitigating the Threat of Cyber Attacks 2014

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
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UA015.012.082.00007
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  Enhancing the Value of Monitoring in International Development: Lessons from Literature and Practice 2014

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
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UA015.012.082.00008
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  Burma's Forgotten Frontline: The Dilemmas of Ethnic Politics, Self-Determination and Democratic Governance (the Case Study of Kachin) 2014

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School.
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UA015.012.082.00009
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  Food Security Resilience in Somalia: A Critical Review and Conceptual Framework for Intervention 2014

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
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UA015.012.082.00010
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  Coercive Coverage? A Study of Media Influence on U.S. Foreign Policy towards Sierra Leone 2014

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
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UA015.012.082.00011
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  Malaria Treatment in Sub-Saharan Africa: Drug Development and Cost-Effectiveness Strategies 2014

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
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UA015.012.082.00012
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  Encouraging Nuclear Innovation: What Small Modular Reactors Can Learn from Nuclear Attack Submarine Development 2014

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
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UA015.012.082.00013
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  The Impact of BRAC's Food for Training and Income Generation Program in South Sudan on Boys' and Girls' Education Outcomes 2014

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
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UA015.012.082.00014
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  From Liberty to Liberation: the Theory and Practice of American Exceptionalism 2014

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
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UA015.012.082.00015
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  Korea's Multiculturalism Policy and Media Discourse 2014

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
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UA015.012.082.00016
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  Dead in the Water? A Comparative Analysis of the Battle Between Consuming and Conserving Two of the World's Most Iconic Seafood Species - Atlantic Bluefin Tuna and Sharks 2014

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
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UA015.012.082.00017
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  Germany's Unwillingness to Lead: The Nature and Exercise of its Power, and How its History, Normalization, and Economic Concerns Have Brought About an Existential Crisis and Reluctance to Lead Alone 2014

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
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UA015.012.082.00018
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  The Somali Insurgency: The Growing Threat of Terror's Resurgence 2014

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
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UA015.012.082.00019
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  Gender-Just Reparations: Key Elements and Approaches 2014

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
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UA015.012.082.00020
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  Resolving the dispute between China and the Philippines in the South China Sea: Mutual gains and valuing environmental goods 2015

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
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UA015.012.083.00001
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  Economic Diplomacy: Concept and Practice in Vietnam - U.S. relations 2015

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
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UA015.012.083.00002
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  Building Sustainable Cities through International Knowledge Sharing and Multilevel Governance for Environmentally Sustainable Development: A Blue Print for Mumbai 2015

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
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UA015.012.083.00003
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  Evolution of the U.S.-Republic of Korea Alliance 2015

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
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UA015.012.083.00004
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  Self-Determination: What Does It Mean for Ethnic Minorities? Lessons for Myanmar from Aceh-Indonesia Experience 2015

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
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UA015.012.083.00005
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  Malaysia's development challenges for moving up the value chain: Analysis of cluster development policy 2015

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
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UA015.012.083.00006
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  The Emergence of Kenya's Innovation and Technology Ecosystem 2015

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
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UA015.012.083.00007
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  Displaced and Stateless Palestinian Refugees fleeing the Syrian Crisis 2015

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
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UA015.012.083.00008
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  Dangerous Dissonance: Armed Groups that Violate Women's Rights, and the Women Who Support Them 2015

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
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UA015.012.083.00009
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  Patterns of Attack: Understanding Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb 2015

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
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UA015.012.083.00010
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  Mass Atrocity Prevention in the Twenty-First Century: Assessing the Risk for Violence in Burundi and Examining Options for US Government Policy 2015

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
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UA015.012.083.00011
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  Enabling Others to Win in a Complex World: Security Force Assistance and the Future of the Regionally Aligned Forces Mission in the Brigade Combat Team 2015

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
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UA015.012.083.00012
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  South-South Technology Cooperation:The Case of Brazil and China's Wind Industry 2015

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
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UA015.012.083.00013
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  The role of Derivatives in the Bankruptcy of Detroit 2015

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Masters of International Business at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
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UA015.012.083.00014
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  Terrorism and Freedom of Expression: An Econometric Analysis 2015

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
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UA015.012.083.00015
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  China, India and the Palermo Protocol: Consent, Compliance and the Influence of International Law on Domestic Policy 2015

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
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UA015.012.083.00016
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  How Do Internally Displaced Women Respond to their Own Situations? A Case Study of the Emergence and Practices of Leadership Among Urban IDP Women in Columbia 2010

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
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UA015.012.083.00017
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  Upsetting the idea of centuries' the origin of the women's movement in Iran, 1850-1925 2015

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
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UA015.012.083.00018
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  U.S. Military Cooperation with Kurdistan's Peshmerga 2015

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
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UA015.012.083.00019
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  The Impact of Policy Responses to the Eurozone Crisis on Democracy, Accountability and the Rule of Law in Europe 2015

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Global Masters of Arts at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
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UA015.012.083.00020
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  Policy Recommendations for Mexican Consulates in the United States regarding the LGBT community 2015

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
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UA015.012.083.00021
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  The Resettlement Process as a Site of Structural Power and Narrative Production 2015

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
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UA015.012.083.00022
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  The Doha Conference - Birth of a new trade round 2002

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Ministers of 142 countries and customs territories gathered in Doha, Qatar on 9-14 November 2001 for the 4th Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization (WTO). The objective was to set the agenda for a new trade round further liberalizing international trade and strengthening the multilateral trade-body.Two years ago in 1999 the delegates failed to agree on the launch of a new round at the 3rd Ministerial Conference of the WTO in Seattle, USA. The failure caused growing fear about the international community's ability to find consensus on multilateral economic policy matters and ultimately creating concern about the stability of the world economy's framework. However two years later WTO members could reach consensus on the agenda for a new trade round. Starting from this puzzling fact that countries could find agreement about issues they could not even discuss two years earlier, the Thesis intends to come up with reasons explaining the changes leading to such an outcome as well as carefully studying in details the negotiations in Doha. Before entering the subject, the methodology chosen shall be explained. The author uses the 'two-level game' framework to bring light in the paper's topic.
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UA015.012.DO.00001
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  The Forty Year Crisis Berlin (1948-1989) 2001

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Armchair specialists, in their ivory towers, may believe that the rolling Berlin crisis of the period 1958-1961 severely stretched the normal usage of the term. This paper argues on the contrary that Berlin was far more than a constant irritation for Moscow. A pawn in the Cold War balance of powers, it caused nightmares for several decade in the major Western capitals, but also guaranteed the post WWII status quo. Berlin holds a valid claim to be regarded as the seat of the longest crisis of the Cold War. The Berlin crisis was only really over once the wall fell down.
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UA015.012.DO.00002
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  Back Channel Diplomacy: The Strategic Use of Multiple Channels of Negotiation in Middle East Peacemaking 2002

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Back channel diplomacy (BCD) refers to official negotiations conducted in secret among the parties to a dispute or even between a party and a third party intervenor, which complement front channels, and are potentially at variance with declared policies. Aspects of secrecy in negotiation have been the subject of descriptive and prescriptive literature. Research specifically focused on the strategic interaction of multiple channels of international negotiation-front and back channels-did not exist. In this study, the cases of Palestinian-Israeli peace negotiations from 1991 to 1998 are rigorously analyzed according to a theoretical framework designed to understand what BCD is, and how it works. This helps us understand why decisionmakers choose to use it. The framework looks at the treatment of the issues negotiated, the role of secrecy, the exclusion of subparties that results from secrecy, the role of third party intervenors, the proximity of decisionmakers to the negotiators, and the strategic interaction of multiple channels (front and back). The overarching condition is that of incrementalist peace negotiations, which proceed from early agreements on principles, to interim accords and finally to a permanent settlement.Decision makers use BCD to mitigate a set of uncertainties that affect many negotiations, but which particularly salient for negotiations in violent international conflicts. The uncertainties regard the i) cost of entry into negotiations, ii) effect of spoilers in the peace process, iii) the lack of information on other parties, interests and preferences that is needed to make the decision to negotiate, and iv) impact of negotiation outcome on the decisionmakers. In helping to manage these uncertainties, BCD is associated with the achievement of early breakthrough agreements where front channels fail. However, under the condition of the incrementalist peace process requiring progressively more difficult implementation, BCD's inherent qualities of secrecy and the consequent exclusion turn problematic. The ability of decisionmakers to conclude accords before spoilers can mobilize against them is progressively diminished, until BCD no longer helps the parties reach agreement, but becomes a substitute for good faith negotiation and ultimately, yields negative returns. The potential exists for renewal of violent conflict.
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UA015.012.DO.00003
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  Digital Deutschland: The Effects of Telecommunications Reform on the Internet in Germany 2001

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: This paper focuses on aspects of the German telecommunications landscape which affect the use of the Internet, and through this, Germany's ability to reach its goal of leadership in the Information Society in Europe. Telecommunications are key to the transformation to an Internet Economy, affecting both the availability and quality of services. The first section deals with the German government's ongoing reforms to open the communications market. We start with the process of liberalization, including changes in the telecommunications law, and the privatization of the national PTT monopoly, Deutsche Telekom, and its ISP subsidiary T-Online. We continue with a look at new competitive carriers for a variety of services, and include explorations of ISDN, DSL, and cable technologies as ways to bring broadband Internet access to more Germans. We will see how the introduction of competition into the German telecom market has affected telecommunications costs including Internet access costs. Flat-rate Internet access pricing is of particular interest, and we will see if this pricing can encourage Internet use. Also discussed is the ability for the Internet economy to help alleviate unemployment, expectations for which are a major push behind German policy toward the Internet.
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UA015.012.DO.00004
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Open for research.
  Development and Conflict Resolution: A Social Capital Approach to Post-Conflict Redevelopment 2001

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: This paper presents an approach for integrating conflict resolution with development by making use of a better understanding of social capital. Development is reviewed and argued to be rooted in colonialism, and as such has serious limitations which hinder its overall effectiveness for civil society. A model of social capital is constructed and explained. Then, conflict resolution is introduced and demonstrated to be trust building. It is compared with development and is shown to complement its shortcomings. Conflict resolution as procedural infrastructure is introduced. Finally, a discussion of how development and conflict resolution fit into the social capital model is presented
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UA015.012.DO.00005
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  Professional Success and Political Failure: Environmental NGOs in the Palestinian Authority 2001

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: This thesis explores the role of Palestinian and Palestinian-Israeli non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in the development of environmental policy and sustainable development priorities in the Palestinian Authority. The thesis focuses on the experiences of environmental NGOs in two related components of state and society building: First, in their contribution to institution-building and policy-making in the environmental sector within the Palestinian Authority; second, in the larger process of expanding civil liberties, developing a functional model of participatory politics, and furthering Palestinian civil society. This paper argues that while environmental NGOs have recorded small but substantive achievements in civic education and capacity-building for environmental protection, they have largely failed in the promotion of participatory policy-making in the Palestinian Authority. Three types of environmental NGOs are examined in the context of their relations with the Palestinian Authority: research organizations and policy centers, public awareness and education NGOs, and binational (Israeli-Palestinian) environmental NGOs. Particular attention is paid to the political conflicts over legislation to regulate NGO activities, the al-Aqsa Intifada, and the problems faced by binational NGOs in their struggle for legitimacy in the Palestinian Authority. The paper concludes with an assessment of professional successes and political failures of environmental NGOs, and an analysis of future scenarios and prerequisites for policy-making that is more inclusive of non-governmental interests.
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UA015.012.DO.00006
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Open for research.
  Foreign Direct Investment as a Catalyst for Human Capital Accumulation 2001

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: This paper explores the role that foreign direct investment (FDI) plays in accelerating the accumulation of human capital. The empirical literature has established a correlation between human capital and economic growth and recent point to anticipated economic growth leading to faster human capital accumulation. Through two distinct but related mechanisms: the signaling of faster economic growth and the introduction of skill biased production methods, FDI creates incentives for workers to pursue more education. The paper presents a cross country empirical analysis as well as case studies from Mexico and Ireland that demonstrate this link.
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UA015.012.DO.00007
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Open for research.
  The Hart-Scott-Rodino Improvements Act of 2000 and The International Effects of U.S. Merger Review Reform 2001

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract:This paper proposes that recent revisions to U.S. premerger notification thresholds under the Hart-Scott-Rodino Improvements Act of 2000 are likely to spur criticism from international competition policy stakeholders; critique will only occur after a medium-term analysis of the impact of the threshold changes with respect to the globalization of business and trends in global competition policy. Some will perceive U.S. competition policy as a tool of U.S. technology policy in that the lower regulatory standards only enhance the dominant technological and economic positions of the United States vis-à-vis her neighbors, rich and poor. And on the basis of a Spartan U.S. record of progress many international organizations and other stakeholders in economic development will grow increasingly watchful of U.S. leadership in arriving at a cooperative international competition framework.
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UA015.012.DO.00008
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Open for research.
  Bandwidth Trading: Market Analysis and Price Volatility Modeling 2001

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: An embryonic market for trading of bandwidth capacity is currently emerging in the United States. Bandwidth trading is forecasted to become the largest commodity market in the world. Though, many problems still remain to see bandwidth traded as electricity or gas. These range from a lack of interconnectivity among carriers to a lack of standards and accepted regulatory framework. This thesis aims at analysing the current market situation for bandwidth trading and at modeling the future behavior of bandwidth prices.
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UA015.012.DO.00009
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Open for research.
  The US policy of 'No Concessions to Terrorists': What are the pros and the cons and the implications for the US? What elements of negotiation should be integrated in the US policy or strategy? 2001

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: The United States has been very tough on the issue of terrorism. The policy of "No concessions to terrorists" was adopted under the Reagan administration and has been since then the bottom line of the US response to the threat of terrorism. In the light of the increasing threat of the emergence of a new age of terrorism, where the motivations of terrorists are more mingled and where their willingness to commit the most violent acts becomes more threatening, there is an urgent need for governments to determine the more effective and realistic response. This thesis will try to examine the implications of this "No concessions to terrorists" policy: whether it is actually true in practice or not and if it is, how does it apply. The Bin Laden's case is a pertinent example that has witnessed the US government's determination to stick to their strict policy. However, the latter seems to allow some exceptions in the case of hostage taking acts where the release of hostages often constitutes part of a "deal". Would this mean that the policy applies differently whether it is viewed as tactical or strategic? Still, the policy is the same as well as the use of force as an essential mean to implement it. The US government seems reluctant to adopt more flexible measures. The questions remain: what are the implications of this policy? What are the pros and the cons of such a firm position? Is there a need to frame and adapt the response to a changing and ever-increasing globalized environment? Does this mean however that the US is condemned to embrace a rigid attitude by dint of much unproductive and unexpected result? Besides, what does the phrase "No concessions to terrorists" literally imply? By definition, a concession is the act of conceding or yielding. And conversely to the common belief, a negotiation is not a concession; negotiating does not mean giving in. Therefore, the US policy does not preclude any aspect of 'negotiation' per se. The term negotiation entails an array of meanings and aspects different from the common and primary definition which suggests that a negotiation takes place when two parties at a table explicitly agree to reach a consensus based on some common interests. As a matter of fact, a negotiation between two parties occurs when each one tries to influence the other in a particular way. According to this meaning, terrorists and the US government do negotiate. Clearly, there is a room for negotiation in the US response to terrorism. Moreover, what additional elements of negotiation should be integrated in the US policy to render it more efficient? One example would be the necessity of knowing, understanding and grasping at the roots of the other party's deepest fears, motivations and expectations. Furthermore, as Clausewitz nicely puts it, "war is the continuation of politics by other means" meaning that even in times of war, governments continue to act and run politics in a similar way as in time of peace. Should this theory apply to the way the US government handles terrorist activities? If so, is negotiation doomed to play a larger part in the modeling of the US strategy?
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UA015.012.DO.00010
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  Using the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) as an Enforcement Mechanism for Small Countries 2001

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Under the current enforcement mechanism of the World Trade Organization (WTO), small countries are not able to implement effective retaliatory measures. Given their insignificant effect on world trade, the suspension of concessions ends up causing harmful effects to their welfare. As a result, small countries lack bargaining power and are not able to force their larger partners to respect their rights under the WTO system. The following paper explore the possibility to implement cross-retaliation, --specifically the suspension of commitments under the TRIPs agreement-- in favor of small countries to overcome ineffectiveness of their retaliatory measures and increase their bargaining power in trade negotiations. The paper includes a legal analysis and illustrates the economic implications of the alternative measure by using the case of the Banana Regime: Ecuador against the European Union.
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UA015.012.DO.00011
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Open for research.
  Globalization During the Yuan Dynasty Under Khubilai Khan's Rule and Lessons for Modern Globalzation Effort 2002

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: The ancient Yuan Dynasty in China was an era that witnessed a small tribal group's rise from obscurity in the steppes of Mongolia and the build up of the largest trans-continental empire at that time. Some even argue that the acceleration of economic and cultural exchanges between Europe and Asia during the Yuan Dynasty sparked the rush of global exploration efforts by various European nations, resulting in subsequent establishment of many global empires by Western colonizers. Thus, it may be said that the Mongols of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries were among the pioneers in the history of human kind in initiating the process of globalization that we are witnessing today. This paper attempts to examine the strategies employed by the Mongol rulers to build and govern their vast empire by using a framework derived from the concept of globalization. In particular, the paper focuses on the effort of the first emperor of Yuan Dynasty, Khubilai, to establish the legitimacy of Mongolian.
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UA015.012.DO.00012
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Open for research.
  The Transnational Crime of Human Trafficking: Positing the Anti-Trafficking Framework on Human Rights 2002

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: The purpose of this paper is threefold: to examine human trafficking as an international human rights issue; to trace the development of an international judicial and law enforcement framework that addresses it as a transnational crime; and, finally, to consider what are some of the most important elements of an effective anti-trafficking strategy at the domestic level. Where appropriate, the paper will draw upon the author's own field experiences in India. Human trafficking, especially the trafficking of women and girls for forced prostitution, is a serious problem in India and neighboring countries of Nepal and Bangladesh. Therefore, India's model of dealing with this extensive trade in women and girls for forced prostitution provides many important insights as to how a developing country can adequately respond to this challenge.
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UA015.012.DO.00013
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Open for research.
  Cultural Commodity, Global Economy: What does globalization mean for the French wine business? 2002

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: No abstract
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UA015.012.DO.00014
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Open for research.
  When 'Power Failures' Undermine International Business Negotiations: A Negotiation Analysis of the Dabhol Power Project 2002

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the institutional factors that lead to the collapse of interntional business deals. To develop a working framework from which to discuss this problem, the Enron promoted Dabhol Power project in Maharashtra, India will be discussed as a case study. Traditional business strategy fails to internalize the social, cultural, political and ideological dimensions of complex business transactions. A preliminary examination of the Dabhol case reveals that many of the problems that led to the inability and unwillingness of the parties involved to implement a business agreement can be explained by negotiation theory. Negotiation theory accounts for the personality of the players, asymmetrical power relations, the lack of cultural know-how, and other complex issues in the pre-negotiation, negotiation and post-negotiation phases that lend insight into why international business agreements may fail. This paper begins with a translation of the history of the Dabhol project, continues with the application of negotiation theory to analyze the problems that arose and concludes with a model that attempts to correlate factors explained by negotiation theory that collectively produce a successful international business negotiation strategy.
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UA015.012.DO.00015
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Open for research.
  Neoliberalism, Populism and Presidential Impeachment in Latin America 2002

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: This essay explores the convergence between neoliberalism and populism that took place in Latin America during the 1990's, and suggests that the presidential impeachments that were observed in the region can be traced back to a dismissal of democratic practices that are part of both neoliberal and populist approaches, what is here called neo-authoritarianism. The historical development of neoliberalism, populism and their hybrid neo-populism are analyzed, and also their individual and joint impacts on democratic practices. The essay explores two case studies of presidential impeachment, Fernando Collor de Mello in Brazil (1990-1992), and Abdala Bucaram in Ecuador (1996-1997), concluding that while the impeachments may represent the success of institutions against neoauthoritarianism, the fact that these presidents were elected in the first place point to deeper problems in Latin America polities.
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UA015.012.DO.00016
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Open for research.
  Determining Country Risk Premiums for Emerging Market Countries 2003

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: When investing in developing economies, companies and investment banks often face a difficult choice in assigning country risk premiums for their investments. While there has been a consensus that risk can be measured as the spread between a sovereign's yield and that of an equivalent maturity US Treasury bond, this analysis assumes that markets are efficient. If such an assumption is true then it demands that at every moment in time, bonds should convey all the available information in the market and provide a fair risk/return ratio for the investor. The purpose of this paper is to question this assumption, and provide insight on an alternative method for calculating sovereign risk premiums.
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UA015.012.DO.00017
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Open for research.
  Commanding Position: GPS, Telematics, and the Dual-Use Conundrum 2003

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: The Global Positioning System (GPS) is the single most important element of the US' dominance of the art of conventional warfare, but it will also likely become, like the internet, a key platform for the telematics revolution: the commercial exploitation of geographical data sensors, databases, computing technology and communications for "spatially aware" applications. This paper examines how commercial competition between GPS and the EU's new Galileo satellite navigation system traces the lines along which military strategy, technology innovation, and "dual use" proliferation meet; and what guiding principles might help policy makers reconcile the interests of commerce to national security.
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UA015.012.DO.00018
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Open for research.
  A World Ocean Mediterranean 2003

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Technology is increasingly "shrinking" the world, yet we continue to accept the artificial division of the world's waters. The goal of this paper is to break this false paradigm by defining the World Ocean, and with an appreciation for current oceanic affairs, reconceptualize the earth's salt water for what it is: a unified, interconnected body of water with universal economic, social, and military implications. The Mediterranean Sea provides a useful case study of how human interaction has evolved previously when man has conquered oceanic space with new technologies. The World Ocean, like the Mediterranean, has evolved in terms of trade, the projection of power, and the movement of cultures and people as a maritime conduit connecting nations. The speed and efficiency with which commercial and military ships transit the globe continue to reduce the barrier of distance, and the World Ocean can now be conceptualized in Mediterranean terms. Viewing the World Ocean Mediterranean with a global perspective helps illuminate broad historical currents, provides valuable insight into understanding the world today, and helps identify both threats and opportunities the world will likely face in the future.
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UA015.012.DO.00019
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Open for research.
  The End of Secrecy?: Dual-Use Remote Sensing Satellite Technology and National Security Implications A Regulatory Framework 2003

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: This paper examines the evolution of satellite imagery in the context of two emerging trends: the information revolution and an increasing level of transparency. Through a study of the historical development of technology, international policies, and emerging tenets of space law, this study observes the burgeoning industry of satellite remote sensing systems. The expansion of satellite imaging illustrates the diverse range of current and future applications of this technology. Domestic and international policies are depicted in order to highlight the ad hoc nature in which the current regulatory framework has evolved. This essay suggests that recent events, combined with the advent of high-resolution imagery available to the general public, have dramatically altered the manner in which the international community perceives the commercial remote sensing marketplace and products. This analysis begins with an overview of remote sensing, continues with a review of policy, space law, and the marketplace, and concludes by submitting a proposal for the creation of a regulatory framework for cooperation and oversight of remote sensing satellites.
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UA015.012.DO.00020
Item
Open for research.
  Keeping Biopirates at Bay: Creating a New Legal and Institutional Protection Regime for Traditional Knowledge 2003

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: It is clear that industry, with increased support from Government, is quickly establishing control over biological resources and traditional knowledge through bio-prospecting and the dominant use of the Western intellectual property systems. Indigenous communities are increasingly losing control over their own resources and traditional knowledge to commercial exploitation by companies and other entities. International instruments as well as regional, national and local efforts have to be strengthened and re-examined in order to turn the tides. Indigenous efforts have to become organized and centralized in order to effect change. There needs to be significant patent law reform if change is to be real. The collective nature of innovation and traditional knowledge must be recognized in national legislation and at international levels.
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UA015.012.DO.00021
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Open for research.
  Sarajevo, Whence Comes They Gloom? Ethnic and Religious Roots of the First World War 2003

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: This paper seeks to identify the dimensions of ethnicity and religion which led to the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand on June 28, 1914. Intertwined is the growth of nationalism in nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Europe. The paper focuses primarily on Slavic nationalism, with some attention to German, Hungarian and Turkish nationalism, as well as the confluence of Islam with Orthodox and Latin Christianity. The overarching goal is to determine what provoked individuals in Serbia and Bosnia to violence. Though the causes of the First World War were numerous and complex, ethnic and religious tensions set the machinery of war in motion.
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UA015.012.DO.00022
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Open for research.
  Zero-Sum Game: Armistice Negotiations in Korea, 1951-1953 2003

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: This paper looks at the Korean War negotiations. Most of the dimensions of negotiation theory were in play at the table in Korea. The paper will cover the prenegotiating, preparation and negotiating phases. The analytical framework for examining the negotiations process will include: an overview of the Containment policy, with a view toward understanding the role of historical context in the prenegotiation and negotiation processes; a historical overview of the Korean War and armistice negotiations; the theory of limited war; the roles of culture and ideology in shaping the parties' perceptions, and their approach to negotiation; the characteristics of threats, and why Eisenhower's threat in 1953 appeared to be decisive where Truman had failed; and The elements of negotiating power, and how negotiating power differs from national diplomatic, economic, and military power.
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UA015.012.DO.00023
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Open for research.
  'Getting to No': An Analysis of Failed Mediation in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict (1993-2000) 2003

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: This paper is a study of the failed Israeli-Palestinian peace process between 1993-2000. The author explores four main questions. The first three questions are: 1) did the Oslo peace process (OPP) set the Israelis and Palestinians on a trajectory that "doomed" Camp David peace negotiations of July 2000 (CD2) from the start?; 2) were there problems inherent to the process and structure of CD2 that led to its failure?; and, 3) how should future mediation attempts of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict be structured in order to meet with more success? The fourth question, however, requires further introduction. The study of CD2 will be guided by a Provisional Framework (PF) of seven criteria set out by the author as necessary ingredients to successful peacemaking processes. This framework was devised after consulting existing literature and scholars in the field of mediation and negotiation in general, as well as after reviewing scholarly pieces focusing on the Israel-Palestinian peace process in particular. After using this framework to analyze CD2, conclusions will be drawn with regard to a fourth and final question: is this prioritized framework an accurate and/ or useful tool for understanding peacemaking processes?
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UA015.012.DO.00024
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Open for research.
  Media in a Society in Transition: A Case Study of Indonesia 2003

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: The Indonesian media is today at a critical moment in its history. Four years after it was liberalised, issues and debates have surfaced today that will affect its long-term viability as a free press. It is time to take stock of the changes that have occurred and address the issues before it goes on an irreversible path. Like other institutions in Indonesia, the media sector is undergoing reform. The media's transformation has taken place against the backdrop of political and economic transition in Indonesia following the tumultuous events that began with the monetary crisis of late 1997, climaxing with the resignation of President Soeharto in May 1998. Since then, the media has redefined its relationship with the state and society. It has contributed to the transition and consolidation of democracy in Indonesia. How has the media in Indonesia changed? What impact does it have on Indonesia's political development and policy-making? Will the advent of the Internet as a new media bring about more democracy and development? What are the prospects for the Internet media in Indonesia? What are the issues facing the Indonesian media today? Has the free press brought about greater democracy and development in Indonesia? What lessons can be learned from the media's development in Indonesia that may have implications for other societies in transition?
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UA015.012.DO.00025
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Open for research.
  Arab Boycott Against Israel and Its Unintended Impact on Arab Economic Welfare 2003

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: This paper analyzes the economic boycott imposed by the Arab world against the State of Israel to weaken the Jewish State's economy and ultimately destroy its chances of survival. While a great deal of literature exists on the topic, little research has been done regarding the costs incurred by the Arab states imposing the economic weapon against its enemy. This thesis aims to understand the self-defeating policy of intentionally distorting trade and investment patterns through the use of a boycott. The paper proposes two hypotheses: 1) The Arab policy of boycotting Israel and blacklisting non-conforming companies created an unfavorable environment for foreign direct investment in the Arab world and 2) the boycott led to worsening terms of trade and a reduction in the volume of trade of Arab countries, leading to an overall decrease in national income and economic welfare. This thesis substantiates the hypotheses proposed by drawing upon concepts of international trade and investment while also opening up questions for future research.
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UA015.012.DO.00026
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Open for research.
  Humanitarian Daily Rations: A Decade of Experience and New Directions 2003

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Between 1993 and 2003, the U.S. government distributed over thirteen million Humanitarian Daily Rations (HDRs) around the world. This paper will discuss the government's original goals for the HDR program, explore the needs of HDR recipients, evaluate the effectiveness of the product, and propose improvements by including non-food items in HDR packets. The HDRs could also be tailored to needs in different regions of the world. Regionally considerate rations could be useful in the media war that accompanies modern conflict. Improvements will not only make for a better product for recipients, but will demonstrate to the American people that the HDR is the best, most cost-effective ready-to-eat humanitarian product that the U.S. government can provide.
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UA015.012.DO.00027
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Open for research.
  Interest Groups, Corruption and the Role of Democracy: Effects on Trade Policy 2003

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: As the United States and multilateral institutions concurrently push both free trade and democracy on developing nations, questions emerge regarding the viability of advocating potentially divergent policies. Does free trade facilitate democracy? Or does democracy facilitate free trade? Can free trade and democracy be advanced simultaneously? This paper examines the effects of interest groups and corruption on free trade and the role of democracy in enabling individuals to influence and distort trade policy. The author concludes that nations can advance both free trade and democracy and asserts that [1] Corruption and interest groups distort trade policies and current indices fail to calculate these effects; [2] There is need for a new system to address the effects of nontariff barriers on economic welfare and a greater role for the WTO in reducing these distortions; and [3] Without civil capacity building efforts and greater government "autonomy", developing countries will have even more distorted trade policies and possibly political instability.
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UA015.012.DO.00028
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Open for research.
  International Environmental Governance 2003

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: The potential for a systemic failure of the natural cycles that support human activities has resulted in the development of international environmental law. States, responding to calls for international cooperation, have concluded several hundred bilateral and multilateral environmental agreements. Paradoxically, scientific evidence continues to present alarming trends of environmental degradation, while choices of economic development continue to imperil the human well-being. Through an examination of efforts to create an international system of governance, this study demonstrates that the institutional arrangement for the promotion of sustainable development has failed to mitigate the crisis that is threatening the future of the planet. The study identifies four causal factors: [1] compliance with international environmental law is weak; [2] protocols to conventions fall short of the broad objectives of environmental regimes; [3] provisions of regimes are duplicated or can contradict one another; and [4] environmental regimes fail to reflect complex natural cycles in order to explain the prevalent paradox. Applying the observations of regime theory, this study emphasizes the need for the creation of an integrated system of international environmental governance.
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UA015.012.DO.00029
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Open for research.
  The New Eastern Question for the European Union: What to Do About Turkey 2003

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Ten mostly Eastern and Central European countries will enter the European Union in 2004, extending its eastern boundaries all the way to Russia and dramatically altering the landscape of the EU. Now, the EU must deal with a new "Eastern Question," namely the potential entry of EU candidate Turkey. It is clearly in Europe's interest to see Turkey aligned with the West and to ensure that it becomes a democratic, constitutional state for the sake of peace, stability and security in the Eastern Mediterranean, but extending membership to this predominately Muslim state requires the European Union to expand its conception of identity and revise its future vision of Europe, a move many EU members seem unprepared to accept. Turkey's resolve to meet EU entry requirements has grown, the country has shown an ability to evolve, mature and, above all else, demonstrate that it is both resolved to and able to meet EU entry requirements. The real question then is whether Turkey will ever be allowed to enter the European Union. This paper examines questions faced by the EU as it attempts to grapple with a near doubling of the number of members in the Union and the major obstacles that Turkey will face in trying to gain entry to the EU, using Poland's experience of five years of negotiations with the EU as a comparison. The paper concludes with a look to the future and each country's probable position within the EU sphere in the years ahead.
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UA015.012.DO.00030
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Open for research.
  Possibilities for Promoting Global Education in Japan 2003

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: This paper investigates the possibilities for promoting Global Education (GE) in Japan. The first section attempts to gain a clear picture of GE in its international and Japanese contexts, its history and development, and its current practices. The obstacles to practicing GE in Japan are also examined. The second section considers the history and development of Education for International Understanding in its international context, as well as its history and practice in elementary, junior high, and high schools in Japan. Using interviews and the results of a survey that included 403 elementary, junior high, and high school level teachers in Japan, the third section examines the attitudes of teachers toward GE. The specific questions addressed in this section include the teachers' level of interest in GE issues, the classroom practice of GE and the reasons for this, the obstacles they face in practicing GE, and what kind of support they need. The paper concludes with recommendations for supporting teachers who have practiced GE and who want to practice GE and for GE promoters (e.g. Educational NGOs and other organizations) who can respond to some of the needs of teachers in teaching GE.
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UA015.012.DO.00031
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Open for research.
  Unconventional Warfare as a Strategic Foreign Policy Tool: The Clinton Administration in Iraq and Afghanistan 2004

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: While there is much literature on the operational and tactical military histories of U.S. Army Special Operations Forces (SOF) within security studies, little analysis exists of their primary mission, unconventional warfare (UW), and its implementation within a greater national security strategy. As the primary and founding mission of Army SOF, UW receives scant attention as a tool of American foreign policy that supports our national interest. This paper assesses U.S. unconventional warfare strategies employed during the 1990s in Iraq and Afghanistan and concludes that the United State ineffectively utilized UW as a strategic foreign policy tool in those two instances. It begins with a brief history of the development of UW doctrine, UW institutionalization within Army SOF, and the integration of SOF and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) for UW operations. The Clinton Administration's decision to implement UW with limited CIA assets is analyzed using prospect theory - a theory of decision-making under risk. The Administration's strategic objectives, while sound, were diminished by the president's lack of commitment to foreign policy, aversion to military solutions, and turbulent domestic politics. In the cases of Iraq and Afghanistan, the president considered four foreign policy options, settling on limited UW. Operating in the domain of losses, President Clinton pursued risk prone behavior by intervening within a hostile state despite risk averse tendencies resulting from past military failures. Ultimately, the decision to implement a limited, disjointed UW campaign outside a greater national strategy contributed to mission ineptitude. Ultimately, further comprehensive strategic analysis is necessary to ensure that the lessons learned from past U.S. successes and failures inform better use of UW assets as an asymmetrical fighting force against like-minded U.S. opponents.
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UA015.012.DO.00032
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Open for research.
  Transatlantic Relations: A Study in Complementarity 2004

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Many commentators and policy makers have referred to the complementary nature of transatlantic relations. This paper examines the concept of complementarity in more detail and demonstrates that complementarity can be viewed on four levels: 1. Interpersonal complementarity: Psychological studies have shown that people react to behavioural stimuli in certain fixed ways. For example, friendly behaviour evokes friendliness, and hostility begets hostility. This Interpersonal Principle of Complementarity can be applied to the transatlantic relationship to demonstrate the US needs to treat Europe as an equal if it wants to obtain European assistance. 2. Power-Law complementarity: The US, as the world's leading democracy, needs international legitimacy to act militarily. By working closely with Europe, the US is more likely to find that its actions are viewed as legitimate. 3. Supplemental complementarity: This is what most commentators refer to when they speak of complementarity. The issue is how the US and EU can cooperate by bringing their respective strengths into a particular operation. In most cases, the US will take the lead in the military operation, while the EU will take the lead in the peacekeeping and civil reconstruction phase. 4. Oppositional complementarity: Opposition is not usually thought of when speaking of complementarity. Nevertheless, complementarity can encompass oppositional as well as supplemental relationships. In the transatlantic context, it is important to manage the relationship such that cooperation is maximised, while opposition is minimised. After setting out the conceptual framework, the paper considers several cases since the end of the Cold War to show how the framework might work in practice. The cases considered are Bosnia, Kosovo, the Middle East Peace Process, Afghanistan, and Iraq. The cases demonstrate the validity of the above framework and the continued relevance of NATO as the primary vehicle for promoting transatlantic complementarity. However, as NATO does not include the EU in its formal structures, the paper concludes by showing that there is a growing need for an institutional mechanism to bring together the three key elements of the transatlantic relationship-- the US, the EU and NATO.
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UA015.012.DO.00033
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Open for research.
  Ubudehe and the Kecamatan Development Projects: Case Study and Comparative Analysis 2004

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Donors have developed a number of different approaches to support decentralization, including grant programs for public infrastructure and community development planning. Such programs are designed both to build local officials capacity to govern, and to build the community's capacity to set its own priorities and design its own development solutions. Two such programs are the Ubudehe process in Rwanda, and the World Bank Kecamatan Development Projects (KDP I, II and III) in Indonesia. Both programs provide grants to local level government to help support a government-sponsored decentralization effort, and to help build community capacity through participatory development planning. The paper finds that while the programs have different contexts, funding and mandates, they faced similar challenges. This paper analyzes these programs based on project documents and evaluations. Costs and benefits of each program are examined in light of the major obstacles they face. The final section of the paper compares the two programs, and draws out the major lessons learned, including differences in context, mandate, financial structure, funding and anti-corruption strategies.
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UA015.012.DO.00034
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Open for research.
  The Hispanic Paradigm: to acculturate or not to acculturate? 2004

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: The aim of this thesis is to investigate the process of acculturation of minorities into American mainstream culture, providing a framework that analyzes the most important factors that influence the process of acculturation. The minority analyzed throughout the research is the Hispanic community because of two main reasons. The first reason is the controversial arguments published recently by Samuel Huntington that alert that Hispanics, especially Mexican-Hispanics, do not acculturate into American culture, which could potentially fragment U.S. culture for the first time in its history. The second reason why I have decided to prove these factors of acculturation in Hispanics is because it is the largest minority in the United States since 2002, with the high probability of becoming the second largest concentration of Hispanics in the world in less than ten years and the eighth largest purchasing economy in the world, ahead of Canada by 2007. Once understood all the factors and differences that affect the acculturation of Hispanics, the ending chapter will be dedicated to understand the marketing implications derived from the emergence of this minority, understanding how to segment most efficiently and analyzing within each segment different consumer behaviors, media consumption and more efficient ways to target and understand this important and growing segment of the U.S. population.
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UA015.012.DO.00035
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Open for research.
  AIDS in Africa: A Security Threat? 2004

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Can a disease constitute a security threat? In 2000 the National Intelligence Council first identified HIV/AIDS as a threat, not only to Africa, but to the United States. This paper explores this shift from national to human security concerns and analyzes how AIDS is capable of severely impacting state structures in Africa. If AIDS is not contained in Africa in the near future, the real possibility exists of state instability and failure occurring throughout the continent. This will affect the United States on many fronts, including its national security interests.
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UA015.012.DO.00036
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Open for research.
  Rice Trade Issues between Japan and Thailand 2004

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Thailand, the largest rice exporting country in the world , had expected new rice market opportunities when the Japanese market was liberalized by the Uruguay Round. However, Thailand was unsatisfied with the Japanese rice market access, claiming that the Japanese rice import regime lacked transparency. In particular, Thailand argued that Japan used de facto country specific quotas to determine the in-tariff quota in its minimum access regime. The alleged "country specific quota" prevented Thailand from attaining a market share in the Japanese import rice market, as it should have been able to do. Is the allegation above warranted? Was the Japanese rice import regime in 2001 -- the so-called minimum access regime -- legal under the World Trade Organization (WTO) law? This thesis purports to examine this claim under the WTO legal order of which Japan and Thailand are Members.
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UA015.012.DO.00037
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Open for research.
  Internatioinal Aid and Democratic Building Process: Cambodia 2004

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: None available.
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UA015.012.DO.00038
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Open for research.
  Microfinance and Conflict: Toward a Conflict-Sensitive Approach 2004

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: In a 1996 report, Geetha Nagarajan remarked that "studies on the consequences of conflicts on the development of financial markets and on issues concerning the design and implementation of financial programmes in post-conflict countries are very limited. In short, issues regarding the development of financial institutions in conflict-affected countries are emerging topics of interest on which there has been little research and even less published." An increasing amount of research on how to do microfinance in post-armed conflict environments has occurred in the ensuing eight years, though little writing links this work to the broader discourse on the development-conflict nexus and the growing international momentum toward conflict-sensitive programming. Moreover, the predominant focus among microfinance researchers is on how conflict impacts microfinance; no writing seems to address how microfinance impacts conflict. This thesis attempts to bridge this gap by proposing three ways in which the mobilization of microcredit could, in itself, dampen conflict tensions and reduce the potential for escalation toward open violence. These three mechanisms, termed "direct", "indirect", and "process" mitigation, evolved out of field research instigated at the request of a small credit union in rural Cameroon to examine the links between credit and conflict. These mechanisms, or typology, form the conceptual heart of this thesis.
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UA015.012.DO.00039
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Open for research.
  The Environmental, Technical and Economic Implications of the White Spot Syndrome Virus on Latin American Shrimp Farming 2004

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: In the past twenty years, export oriented shrimp farming in Latin America and throughout the world has boomed, diversifying national trade, while providing a much needed boost to poor coastal economies. The industry is praised from within, while emphatically lambasted by many international activists who cite the destruction of mangrove ecosystems and coastal fisheries, gains in the hands of a few and politically corrupt structures guiding an ultimately unsustainable extractive industry. In 1999, the White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) epizootic quickly spread through nine Pacific coast Latin American countries, costing billions of dollars in regional export earnings of which most of the economies have yet to recover. However, in all countries, university scientists, farm owners and technicians, NGOs and international development agencies are working on solution to survive with WSSV. This investigation first seeks to account for the short term devastation of the disease, and then examines its long-term effects on the sustainability, both ecologically and economically, of the Latin American shrimp farming industry. Sustainability is examined by analysis of the economic, technical, legal and environmental changes that can be attributed to the disease shock. Data and research was gathered through government and NGO reports and analysis, industry publications and numerous interviews through coastal Peru, Ecuador and Mexico. The experiences of these three countries are explored as representative case studies of the region. It is concluded that on average the disease has left the industry, though crippled, an ecologically more sound, legally more controlled, politically more integrated and overall more sustainable structure than in the past. The massive profits wrought from the low control and hastily planned boom days of the 1980s and 1990s are those of the past. The WSSV has accelerated existing industry trends towards efficiency and scientific understanding to increase profits and survive future challenges while simultaneously decreasing negative externalities.
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UA015.012.DO.00040
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Open for research.
  Legal reform and economic development in Vietnam and China: a comparative analysis 2004

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: none available.
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UA015.012.DO.00041
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Open for research.
  An Analysis of the Treatment of Asset Securitization under the Proposed Basel II Accord and the U.S. Banking Agencies' Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) 2004

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: none available.
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UA015.012.DO.00042
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Open for research.
  Future Relations between Kuwait Petroleum Corporation and the International Oil Companies: Success or Failure? 2004

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Around the world, the relationship between International Oil Companies (IOCs) and oil producing countries ranges from animosity to cooperation; the relationship with Kuwait lies somewhere between these two extremes. Currently, the Kuwait Petroleum Corporation (KPC) is looking towards cooperation with the IOCs, while the Kuwaiti Parliament is wary of allowing IOC participation in Kuwait's only industry. Is there any room for agreement in this economic venture that involves Kuwait's national wealth and sovereignty, and if so, what type of agreement will emerge with the IOCs, KPC, and the Kuwaiti Parliament as players?
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UA015.012.DO.00043
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Open for research.
  The EU and US Trade Authorities: A Comparison 2004

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Comparison of the EU and US trade authorities and review of the possible effects of their respective structures on their capacity to negotiate and bargain in the WTO framework.
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UA015.012.DO.00044
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Open for research.
  When Dirty Money Turns Deadly: Why The Global Anti-Money Laundering Regime is Ill-Equipped to Deal With the War on Terrorism, and What To Do About It 2004

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: One of the reasons that law enforcement agencies have been frustrated in their attempts to curb the flow of terrorist finances is that they are using old weapons to fight a new war. The framework of multilateral agreements, financial industry regulations, and domestic laws around the world that tackle money laundering were written largely during the 1980s to fight the War on Drugs, but are ill-equipped to fight the War on Terrorism. This paper explores the origins and characteristics of the global anti-money laundering regime, and why al Qaeda has been able to exploit numerous weaknesses in that regime. This paper also proposes a set of recommendations that law enforcement agencies and financial institutions should adopt, in order to adapt to the new threats posed to the global anti-money laundering regime by terrorist financing.
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UA015.012.DO.00045
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Open for research.
  Replacing Narco-usurers with Micro-lenders: Agricultural Finance Component of Opium Substitution Programs in Afghanistan 2004

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Most of the focus in the opium substitution and eradication effort in Afghanistan since the fall of the Taliban has been on the development of alternative crops and enforcement of the ban issued by the interim administration. Program managers and researchers are focusing on the price dynamic influencing farmers decisions to cultivate opium, while underemphasizing the credit arrangements developed by narco-traders to incentivize opium cultivation. In the absence of access to other credit sources, small farmers find it especially difficult to resist the possibility of obtaining advances from narco-usurers for the opium crop before planting season. This paper argues that in the absence of effective control on factors influencing demand and prices for opium, the interim administration, NGOs, and donors should focus their attention on factors that influence farmers' decisions to cultivate poppy. Primary among these factors is the availability of credit, since is integral to coping strategies especially for smaller households. Providing alternative agricultural financing mechanisms and programs can be one of the strategies employed by international organizations and NGO's to divert production away from opium, especially in newer opium-growing regions. Designing these programs involves understanding of best practices in agricultural financing, Islamic financing, and administrative constraints in the Afghan environment. This paper analyses the opium credit- relationship that narco-usurers and traders have developed by exploiting the asset insecurity of Afghan households in sustaining the cultivation of opium. In response this paper recommends that agricultural micro-financing programs can play an important role in providing incentives to farmers to switch to crops other than opium, especially in the newer opium growing provinces. It finally makes recommendations about design choices, products, and administrative concerns that organizations can use while outlining their strategy.
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UA015.012.DO.00046
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Open for research.
  Carbon Sequestration and its Potential as a Market Mechanism Tool for Sustainable Development 2004

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: This thesis discusses the viability of carbon sequestration as a market mechanism tool for promoting environmental preservation, biodiversity and sustainable development. Specifically how forest based carbon sequestration projects can be utilized as a viable method of income generation. Bolivia and specifically the Noel Kempff Climate Action Plan will be used as a case study.
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UA015.012.DO.00047
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Open for research.
  Evaluating the Risks and Benefits of Genetically Modified Agricultural Products in the Global Marketplace 2004

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: none available.
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UA015.012.DO.00048
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Open for research.
  Coercion as a tool for third party conflict resolution: roles, modes and use 2004

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: This essay inquires into the use of coercive intervention in international affairs. International relations are structured by the realist, liberal and utopian view of the international system. Each of these theories proposes different security concepts by which international conflict can be deterred or suppressed. Their coexistence and imperfect implementation, however, creates an inadequate international system in which non-state conflicts are not efficiently engaged. Partial accountability and non-integration of international actors are the key shortcomings of this system. An excessive focus on states has created the perverted situation in which state rights dominate over human rights. These shortcomings can be remedied by a comprehensive and far-reaching set of institutional reforms at the international level. Even if an effective collective security system is being restored through reform, its efficiency relies on the credible deterrence of those actors who are capable of affecting the international system. In case of faulty behavior by these actors, the deterrent threat must be executed to uphold international peace and security. Its execution takes the form of forceful interventions, which are implemented by third parties. On the policy level, intervening actors can play a series of roles, choosing among a number of forms and modes of coercive intervention. These choices are not arbitrary but can be matched to the intensity level of the conflict that is being engaged. This matching of intervention with conflict intensity requires a delicate process in which correlations are identified and codified.
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UA015.012.DO.00049
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Open for research.
  Chinese-North Korean Discourse: Pathways to the Future 2004

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: As the United States and North Korea has moved closer to armed confrontation over Kim Jong Il's clandestine nuclear armaments program increasing attention has been paid to the relationship between North Korea and its supposed chief ally, China. The assumption in the international community has been that the North Koreans and the Chinese share a "lips and teeth" friendship that spans five decades. While it is true China came to North Korea's rescue during the Korean War and that today China is North Korea's biggest economic benefactor, these two factors ignore the actual complexity of the contemporary relationship. The central argument of this thesis will be that the current understanding of the Chinese-North Korean relationship is vastly overstated in the direction of a positive interaction and if it is reassessed, the international community would find that the two supposed "partners" are further apart than is commonly known.
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UA015.012.DO.00050
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Open for research.
  Discovering Cyprus: The effects of the Opening of the Green Line on Young Greek-Cypriots and their perception of identity 2004

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: The opening of the Green Line in April 2003 has given the opportunity to Greek-Cypriots to visit the north for the first time since the invasion of 1974. For Greek-Cypriots who were born after that time, this has been a particularly interesting experience, as it has been the first encounter with both the land in the north and with Turkish-Cypriots. Through unstructured, informal interviews, I attempt to gauge the reaction of young Greek-Cypriots to the opening of the Green Line. Many have refused to cross, but those who have done so offer fascinating insights into the perception of Otherness, and more importantly, the process of formation of Cypriot identity (Cypriotism), the development of which, in my opinion, is a vital factor in securing a peaceful and viable solution to the Cyprus Problem. Through noticing the great similarities between Turkish-Cypriots and themselves, appreciating that the dialectic of victimisation cannot be monopolised, and familiarising themselves with the land in the north of the island, the Greek-Cypriots' sense of Cypriotness appears strengthened. The ability to extend the imagined Cypriot community to include Turkish-Cypriots seems a distinct possibility. This effectively sends optimistic messages with regard to the situation that may arise when the two communities are called upon to live together in a bi-zonal, bi-communal, federal arrangement.
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UA015.012.DO.00051
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Open for research.
  Business development services, unemployment and the Kenyan informal sector 2004

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: none available.
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UA015.012.DO.00052
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Open for research.
  Trade and Human Rights: Exploring the Impact of WTO Law on States' Capacity to Ensure the Human Right to Health 2004

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Since the institutionalization of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade in 1994, the World Trade Organization has become the drive for freer trade. However, critics of the organization have complained that free trade had become inconsistent with fair trade, and that the WTO had in fact prevented states from fulfilling their human rights obligations. One particular area of concern is health. In this paper, I will analyze the nexus between WTO law and the human right to health, in an effort to identify provisions that can, in fact, assist WTO members in fulfilling their human rights obligations vis-à-vis the right to health. In applying those provisions, however, WTO members and the dispute settlement body have showed an inconsistent stance in health-related disputes, which coincides with the involvement and influence of political lobbies. It is therefore essential, to guarantee a systematic application of WTO law, in a manner consistent with WTO members' human rights obligation in health, to institutionalize an interpretive approach to WTO law in light of the right to health. Such effort can be achieved only after the relevant international human rights bodies and the NGO community stop attacking the WTO, an attitude that has proved, thus far, counterproductive, but rather collaborate with it. This approach will not only ensure the respect for the human right to health in WTO law, but will also ensure that member states will reap the economic benefits of globalization the WTO has to offer.
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UA015.012.DO.00053
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Open for research.
  The Impact of Economic Openness of Internet Diffusion in Estonia and Slovenia 2004

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: The importance of facilitating increased Internet diffusion has become widely recognized by policymakers in transition and developing countries. Wider use of the Internet will foster both economic and political development. Based on the case studies of Estonia and Slovenia, this thesis proposes that the best way to encourage Internet diffusion in transition and developing economies is through the privatization of an incumbent telecom company and opening the telecom market. Securing maximum openness and fair play in the telecom sector requires the establishment of a truly independent telecom regulatory agency. Telecom regulators need to become more independent and stay free of political interventions. This thesis recommends these policies be combined with liberal trade and foreign direct investment regimes.
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UA015.012.DO.00054
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Open for research.
  Does Being Legal Matter? Legal Status and Livelihood Obstacles for Urban Refugees in the Global South 2004

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: The word 'refugee' generally conjures images of sprawling rural camps with grids of tents, families living in cramped quarters, and fences. When one contemplates refugee hosting areas, one generally does not think of Johannesburg, Cairo, Kampala, Nairobi, Khartoum, Dar es Salaam, and New Delhi. However, together these cities host hundreds of thousands of refugees. Each host government is unique in the degrees to which it accepts refugees into urban areas and allows them to be social and economic actors. In general, the norm in the Global South is one where refugees are confined to camps. Those who migrate to urban areas, either directly from their country of origin, through other countries, or from rural settlements, often do so in violation of the host country policy. Egypt and South Africa are unique in their lack of camp-confinement policies and their acceptance of refugees in urban areas. The fact that some refugees have government permission reside in urban areas while others do not creates a system of legal and illegal urban refugees. Faced with limited or non-existent assistance, all of these refugees are left to their own resources in order to meet the basic needs of food and shelter and eventually move beyond a survivalist existence. This paper examines the extent to which refugees living legally in urban areas throughout the Global South face the same livelihood challenges as refugees without legal status.
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UA015.012.DO.00055
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Open for research.
  Empowered Communities: How New Communications Technologies and Applications are Enabling Communities of Influence to Form and Develop 2004

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: A question often being asked in the aftermath of the dot-com boom is: to what extent does the Internet enable communities of influence to form and develop? Governments, NGOs, companies, and individuals are interested in what may prove to be longer-lasting value than simply commercial, or 'pre-IPO.' This paper attempts to answer this question by a considered, empirical study of what communities are and what factors or aspects of community development are particularly affected by the Internet. Communities fall, in size and scope, somewhere between individuals and supra-national entities. So, first, some of the literature on 'communities as proto-nations' is reviewed, as looking at nations helps frame subsequent discussions on community. Then, four main elements for community formation and development are examined: identity and culture; communication, networks, and language; visualization; and facilitation of action. Each is discussed in some detail, with citations from the literature, with comments about the relevance of new communications and information technologies, and discussions of relevant examples. Next, a selection of online communities, ranging in size from supra-national (The U.N. Information and Communications Task Force) to sub-national (a group of Italian schools who have joined together to write, edit, and publish a national newspaper) is presented. Each is discussed and looked at for its relevance to community-building and the use of technology to achieve results. A technology review starts with a short description of the collapse of the 'dot-com revolution' and the spectacular declines of some of the world's largest telecommunications and media companies. During this period, it is argued, three of the Internet's ongoing achievements and trends have been obscured: there is sufficient infrastructure in place to allow the Internet to operate cost-effectively and to continue to grow; while the number of users has peaked in the United States and Europe, Asia, the Middle East and Africa are experiencing strong growth in users and in web sites; and there are a number of new or improving technologies which are making it easier than ever to communicate and form communities of common interest. The paper ends with an analysis of one community against the four main elements of community formation mentioned above. A major conclusion is that, since many of these new technologies and applications (e.g. Instant Messenger, Internet Protocol telephony, Web logs) are being heavily used by children, it is possible to believe that the generation which is currently growing up and is comfortable with the broad array of communications and community-forming technologies, now and soon-to-be available, will have a better chance of using them to positive advantage than those currently in power.
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UA015.012.DO.00056
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Open for research.
  Riba in Islamic Jurisprudence: The Role of 'Interest' in Discourse on Law and State 2004

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: The study of Islamic Finance provides a unique opportunity to examine both the evolution of Islamic legal science, and the current struggle between fundamentalist and moderate movements over the role of Shari'a law in the modern legal system of the Islamic state. Shari'a compliant financial instruments are those that do not contravene prohibitions in Islamic revelatory texts against riba, 'interest,' and gharar, 'speculation,' in business transactions. Although making profit off loans is illicit according to the Quran, several classical jurisprudential methodologies have been employed to create financial instruments, which concur with the letter of the law, if not the spirit. The existence of these products points to a tension between textualism and essentialism at the core of Islamic legal theory. The tendency to apply a rigid 'textualist' framework on to Shari'a law in the area of finance is countered by the growing significance of Islamic Economics, which concerns itself with wider issues of economic and social justice and permeates religious/political discourse today. The issuance of a fatwa in December 2003 by the premier institute of Sunni legal scholarship, Al-Azhar University of Cairo, permitting pre-specified fixed rate bank deposits, ignited a stormy debate whose backdrop is the 40-year struggle in the State of Egypt between proponents of positive and divine law - a debate which is being settled in the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court. It is with surprising tenacity that the issue of Riba inserts itself into contemporary discourse about authority and authenticity in Islam. It is well worth an examination.
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UA015.012.DO.00057
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Open for research.
  Warning of Terror: Explaining the Failure of Intelligence Against Terrorism 2004

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Many scholars have studied intelligence failure and developed theories to explain disasters such as the attack on Pearl Harbor. Others have examined the rising threat of terrorism, and see it as posing a particularly difficult challenge for the intelligence community. But little work has been done to integrate the earlier literature on intelligence failure with the newer threat of terrorist attack. This thesis attempts to answer the question: How well do traditional theories of intelligence failure and strategic surprise account for the inability of the intelligence community to warn of terrorist attacks? Three schools of thought can be found in the literatures on intelligence and on terrorism, and for each school several hypotheses will be developed and tested against a particular case study: the bombing of the U.S. Marine Barracks in Lebanon in 1983. While the Beirut bombing does appear to confirm several of these hypotheses, none of these schools of thought will be shown to satisfactorily explain the limitations of the intelligence community in the fight against terrorism. While the factors that produce surprise in terrorist attacks are familiar, the nature of that surprise, and the effects created, can be very different. Instead, an alternative approach toward the study of intelligence failure will be briefly introduced. This is what sociologist Charles Perrow has called normal accident theory. Accident theory suggests that while traditional theories of intelligence may be sufficient to explain the causes of intelligence failure, the inevitability of that failure may arise from the complex nature of the intelligence system. In addition, normal accident theory suggests that much of the literature on intelligence failure, which focuses on the problems caused by human perception and cognition, may be misguided and even counterproductive.
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UA015.012.DO.00058
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Open for research.
  Al Qaida: The Ideology of Killing in the Name of God 2004

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: none available,
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UA015.012.DO.00059
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Open for research.
  The Palli Karma-Sahayak Foundation (PKSF) as a Regulator of Microfinance Institutions in Bangladesh 2004

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Over the last two decades, microfinance has become a popular vehicle for poverty reduction and economic development in Bangladesh. As the microfinance industry continues to experience high growth rates, and as concern about the need to protect the poor engaged in microfinance activities increases, the question of whether and how to regulate and supervise microfinance institutions (MFIs) also grows in importance. On May 2, 1990, the Government of Bangladesh (GOB) established the Palli Karma-Sahayak Foundation (PKSF) as a not-for-profit financial apex organization. As an apex organization, PKSF's purpose is twofold: (1) to perform financial intermediation through the distribution of collateral-free loans with concessional rates of interest, financed by development banks and international donor agencies, to its partner organizations (POs) that perform grassroots microcredit operations and (2) to develop sustainable microcredit institutions. PKSF has several characteristics that are thought to render it a good candidate as regulator. In Bangladesh, where access to credit is scarce and donor funds are decreasing, MFIs are obligated to comply with PKSF's strict reporting and performance standards to receive its credit. PKSF also has extensive experience appraising, monitoring and supervising diverse MFIs. PKSF has a highly qualified, professional staff that is trained in microfinance. In addition, PKSF's mission statement is encourages MFI product and process innovations and the expansion of new products. Finally, PKSF places great emphasis on building institutional development in order to strengthen its own capacity as an apex funding institution and the capacity of its POs, which promotes the sustainability of the industry. However, there are some financial and non-financial costs that must be considered as part of this discussion. The administrative costs of registering all MFIs under one roof could force closure of MFIs and raise interest rates, hurting more of the poor who depend on their services. PKSF also may not be an effective regulator for local MFIs that do not receive or depend upon funds from PKSF or donor organizations for its operations. On the other hand, the legitimacy and promotional benefits that would accrue to small locally funded MFIs may be great enough to attract funds and increase outreach to offset these initial costs. If PKSF compliance standards can serve as a benchmark for the financial health of deposit-taking MFIs, like a credit report, confidence in the sector would be expected to increase, thereby attracting more depositors and investors than there would have been if regulation reform had not occurred. Further research and investigation into quantifying the size and weighing the potential costs and benefits of regulation reform should be considered to determine the best course for implementation.
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UA015.012.DO.00060
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Open for research.
  FCC's Community Group-Lending: Relieving the Constraint Placed on the Institution's Poverty Alleviation Impact by Program Design Weakness 2004

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Fundo de Cràdito Comunitário (FCC) is one of the largest microfinance providers in Mozambique, serving more clients than any other institution in the nation. About 85% of its client portfolio is engaged in their community group-lending program. Unfortunately, many intra-group delinquencies are occurring, leaving clients to select between one of two costly coping strategies. First, many non-delinquent clients have to use profits or savings to cover the repayments of delinquent group members; this necessarily constrains the net benefit that they are able to realize from borrowing, and may produce a net cost. Second, other non-delinquent clients, in order to avoid ensuring this cost, have resorted to forcefully confiscating the personal possessions of delinquent group members in order to cover their repayment. This leaves the latter clients worse off for having borrowed credits from FCC. This thesis provides two possible explanations for the sub-optimal performance of FCC's poverty alleviation impact. First, in light of the careful examination of the necessary components that any group-lending scheme must possess, the study argues that FCC's community borrowing group structure is not always conducive to the effective exploitation of necessary group-lending mechanisms (informational advantage, peer-monitoring/pressure, and informal insurance). This inhibits clients' ability to mitigate the costs of borrower delinquency. Second, relying on data gathered during a market research campaign, it is argued that the loan terms are proving to be too onerous for borrowers, causing delinquencies that force other clients to adopt costly coping strategies. Policy reform recommendation are then offered to assist FCC overcome these impact constraining difficulties.
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UA015.012.DO.00061
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Open for research.
  The humanitarian space in peril - how do recent political developments affect the work of international relief NGOs 2004

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: The 'humanitarian space' of relief NGOs is more than ever endangered. Many political developments, such as belligerent military doing aid work, deliberate targeting of aid workers or politicisation of aid, are not new, but accelerating, aggravating trends. They are challenging how international relief NGOs work today and how they will work in the future. Humanitarian aid agencies are forced to adjust and position to the increasing complexity of this environment.
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UA015.012.DO.00062
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Open for research.
  Carbon finance and solar water heating technology: exploring possible synergies through five case studies 2004

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: This paper explores the potential of carbon finance to boost markets for solar water heating (SWH) technology in developing countries. The promise of greater adoption of SWH systems into a global energy paradigm is important for sustainable development efforts, since SWH systems can yield multiple local and global environmental, economic, and public health benefits. Carbon finance, in particular, is an important vehicle for sustainable development due to its ability to harness market forces for the greater good. In this paper, after a brief introduction of the issues, the second section offers an outline of the political, economic and environmental context in which carbon finance has evolved to become an important tool for the global effort to reduce emissions of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. This paper then examines specific carbon trading mechanisms that have developed over years of negotiation and trial and error, such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and the Community Development Carbon Fund (CDCF), and it provides an overview of the myriad components of these mechanisms that are especially critical for their meaningful contribution to sustainable development. It concludes the third section with a summary of the current market for carbon-based commodities. The fourth section offers a survey of SWH technology and describes some of the technology's attributes that make it a suitable component of sustainable development efforts. This section also introduces many of the barriers that have traditionally prevented SWH from gaining a foothold in the residential and commercial energy sectors. The fifth section then explores how the CDM and CDCF could affect SWH markets. It does this first through a specific examination of these mechanisms' operational modalities and then attempts to find possible linkages where SWH markets can take advantage of carbon markets. Through the lens of five case studies of countries that have active SWH markets Barbados, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa the sixth section assesses the state of the SWH market in those countries and seeks to find more precise possible synergistic relationships between those markets and carbon finance. It explores many aspects of the these countries' demand for hot water, prevailing market conditions for conventional fuels and SWH technology, barriers to greater SWH adoption, and current initiatives to strengthen the position of SWH in the domestic marketplace. This section concludes by offering some insight into the potential for carbon finance to influence SWH markets. Finally, the last section offers some closing remarks and considerations for future activities to stimulate further synergies between carbon finance and SWH markets.
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UA015.012.DO.00063
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Open for research.
  Private securities litigations against foreign firms: empirical findings 2004

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: As foreign firms all over the world are increasingly cross-listing on U.S. stock exchanges, there is a vigorous discussion going on among academics as to why foreign firms cross-list on a U.S. stock exchange. One of the most discussed reasons is the 'bonding hypothesis' according to which foreign firms cross-list on US stock exchanges in order to leapfrog their home countries' weak legal institutions by agreeing to abide by U.S. securities regulations. The bonding hypothesis is criticized by several academics for two reasons. First, foreign firms are bound to a different, and arguably to a less stringent securities regulation regime. Second, the Securities Exchange Commission is criticized for insufficient enforcement of its rules on foreign issuers. However, most of these studies have disregarded private securities litigation as a way to enforce bonding with the U.S. regulatory regime. This paper is an exploratory study that presents an overview of the academic discussion relating to the bonding hypothesis and to constructively reflect on the critique against it. I find that large accounting scandals during recent years have induced the Congress to enact more severe corporate governance regulations for both foreign and domestic firms. Foreign firms are increasingly treated equally with domestic firms. Nevertheless, the standards remain lower for foreign firms today. Even though the extraterritorial reach of U.S. securities filing requirements is limited, the U.S. courts have been able to establish a broader extraterritoriality for the U.S. securities fraud provision. Thus foreign firms with a lower level of commitment to the U.S. markets (level I ADR) are held liable under the U.S. securities fraud provisions. Consequently, the threat of securities litigation under securities fraud provisions bond the foreign firms to the U.S. corporate governance regime and to the same insider trading rules than the U.S. based firms are bound to. Thus, private securities litigation has an opportunity to serve as a mechanism to enforce bonding with the U.S. securities regulation. The descriptive analysis confirms the findings of literature review and reveals that foreign firms are increasingly interested in cross-listing on the NYSE and voluntarily bonding to the most stringent securities regulations. Most of the new cross-listing on the NYSE are from civil law countries and from emerging markets. This finding is consistent with the prior research on the bonding hypothesis that firms from lower corporate governance regime are motivated the most by the bonding reasons to cross-list. The data reveal that the private securities cases enforce foreign firms to bond to the U.S. securities regime. Foreign firms are treated uniformly with domestic firms, and the likeliness to get sued is equivalent for both foreign and domestic firms.
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UA015.012.DO.00064
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Open for research.
  The U.S. Orange Juice Tariff and the 'Brazilian Invasion' of Florida 2004

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: The Florida citrus industry has always been buffered from overseas competition by a U.S. tariff on orange juice. During the 1990s four Brazil-based orange juice processors (BBPs), including the two dominant orange juice exporters in the world, purchased plants in Florida. By the beginning of the current decade the four companies controlled nearly half the processing capacity in the state. The orange juice tariff is currently threatened by negotiations over the FTAA (which is scheduled to enter into force by January 2005), as well as in the WTO. As a prominent participant in these negotiations, Brazil is demanding U.S. concessions in agriculture, including specifically the orange juice tariff. While the industry has defeated attempts to reduce or eliminate the tariff in the past, never before have foreign companies, which would benefit from a removal of the tariff, been significant actors within the industry. This paper investigates the role that the BBPs are playing and could still play in the debate over the orange juice tariff. The first analytical section of the paper investigates the motivations for the BBPs' FDI in Florida. The paper then analyzes the industry's competitive landscape, and finds that the BBPs have accelerated the downstream consolidation of the value chain. Next, the possible effects of tariff elimination are discussedwith a conclusion that the industry would be hurt, but not destroyed. The final section tests the hypothesis that the entry of the BBPs into Florida has increased the likelihood of a U.S. concession on the tariff. It concludes that the BBPs have not inserted themselves into the political mix for several reasons, including ambivalence (due to vested interests), a fear of anti-foreigner sentiment, and a scarcity of nonmarket strategic resources. In the conclusion, the paper speculates on the future of the tariff debate and discusses broader implications emanating from this case.
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UA015.012.DO.00065
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Open for research.
  The Physical Security of Refugees in Kenyan Camps: Legal and Human Rights Implications 2004

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: This thesis explores the kinds of security problems that refugees face in Kenyan camps (Kakuma and Dadaab) as well as the measures taken to protect the refugees. The author tries to discover whether international norms protecting the physical security of refugees in camps exist. Is the physical security of a refugee living in a camp a right, and if it is, under what legal order? International refugee law? International human rights law?
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UA015.012.DO.00066
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Open for research.
  Civil Society and the FTAA: A Case Study in the Lobbying Strategies of US-based NGOs 2004

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: The pace of economic and trade liberalization has increased dramatically in recent years. Advocates of increased liberalization point to the long-term economic benefits that global open markets encourage: increased efficiency, greater variety in consumption, increased income. Critics of further trade liberalization often cite the severe, economic hardship that often afflicts the poorest sectors during the transition period, and the limitations international trade agreements can place on national sovereignty over domestic public policy decisions. The two camps are often pitted against each other with little effective dialogue occurring. This paper will examine the effectiveness of and strategies used by United States' NGOs in influencing the Free Trade Agreement of the Americas. The hypothesis that US-based NGOs exhibit a 'boomerang effect' in their strategies is examined. It is suggested that the anti-FTAA positions do not resonate with the United States Trade Representative (USTR) and that therefore these organizations have found greater impact on the FTAA draft text and negotiations by partnering with Southern NGOs to influence Southern governments. The paper concludes with recommendations on improving the effectiveness of NGOs that are critical of the FTAA.
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UA015.012.DO.00067
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Open for research.
  Justice, Peace and Reconciliation in Post-Conflict Societies: the Case of Sierra Leone 2004

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: The subject of this thesis between law, philosophy and political science could easily fall into the trap of a scholar discussion of the given subject, away from the daunting realities of the people those subjects are dealing with. Justice and Policy-making in post-conflict societies have a face, the one of the victims, perpetrators, 'most responsible ones' and bystanders. One should not forget the crucial human dimension of those issues, as war crimes are born in flesh, heart and mind. This paper aims at reviewing the literature existing on the subjects of peace, justice and reconciliation and their links in the post-conflict agenda and reality. Indeed, it appears that post-conflict has become a field in itself, resulting in the three notions being conceived as concomitant, though very little evidence of the well-founded of this approach has been proven yet. This analysis will attempt to demonstrate that the recurrent association over the past year of those three notions of peace, justice and reconciliation, in the post-conflict locus and agenda, has resulted in its auto-validating use, and the progressive erosion of the necessary prudence its largely axiomatic nature requires. The chosen angle to approach the subject will evaluate post-conflict theory and experiences around the challenge and goal of justice faced by countries emerging from protracted conflicts such as Sierra Leone. Indeed, while justice has long been the victors' prerogative, tainting the very enterprise with selective bias, one has seen with the end of the Cold War the appearance of a new pragmatic paradigm. This new paradigm intends to connect post-conflict justice's implementation with the concomitant challenges of fostering peace and reconciliation. Such a paradigm results from a syncretic association of many trends born out of the identification of justice as the force capable of legitimizing a given peace agreement (not necessarily enforced on the ground) and stabilizing in the meantime, and beyond, the post-conflict transition. From this perspective, the locus of justice is used to frame a comprehensive approach encompassing both peace and reconciliation in post-conflict settings. Moreover, the authoritative use of the legal discourse offers a legitimization of this concomitant approach. Yet, if the limited corpus of endorsed positive experiences should have undermined the high expectations associated with post-conflict justice, the latter seems to have benefited paradoxically from the legal experiments led in the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda. In fact, more than concrete (or rather lack of) successes on the ground, it appears that the repetitive use of the theoretical dimension of this enlarged justice approach has led to its self-validation among the post-conflict agenda's actors. Incidentally, it seems that as for the challenges/ goals of peace and reconciliation, the definition of what should be understood by post-conflict justice remains evasive, in spite of the large consequences it has in the post-conflict agenda's determination, and the very commitment of International Community (IC). As such, I have taken the party to approach the subject of post-conflict justice in exploring the conventional/agreed association of justice and peace (I.) as well as of justice and reconciliation (II.) in order to assess the ground, both scholarly and in reality, that founds the conception of justice currently displayed in on-going post-conflict cases. This analysis will try to highlight the limits of the present definition of post-conflict justice and the lack of realism and clarity of its objectives, through the perspective of past experiences as well as in the light of post-conflict Sierra Leone. Indeed, due to its tragic history over the last ten years, Sierra Leone finds itself at the confluence of these recent evolutions in the 'fields' of post-conflict justice, peace and reconciliation. Sierra Leone (III.) is indeed in the unprecedented situation of having made the choice of an internationalized Court given with the mandate of judging the 'most responsible ones', the Special Court for Sierra Leone (part A.), as well as of a Truth and Reconciliation Commission (part B.). Moreover, as a result of the scope of the crimes committed during the ten-year conflict, as well as due to the role played by amnesty in the peace settlement, an important part of the legacy is being left to the respective communities, emphasizing the importance of local processes of dispute resolution and reconciliation (part C.). While an attempt to design a post-conflict agenda that would address the challenge of justice and reconciliation in a coherent, complementary and reinforcing mode has been envisioned, little of this idea has been yet implemented in Sierra Leone. Therefore, Sierra Leone will provide a crucial and much needed reality test to the post-conflict justice-peace-reconciliation approach, through the establishment of both the TRC and the SCSL, and their respective jurisprudence. Additionally, this experience is taking place at the time of the take off of the International Criminal Court (ICC) and could also impact the development of this instance. Indeed, the United States are adamant promoters of Sierra Leone mixed-tribunal, as a counter-strategy against the ICC. Ironically, Sierra Leone finds itself caught up between those divergent dynamics, having signed a bilateral impunity agreement with the United States while being part of the ICC. However, it is important to keep in mind that the 'experiment' dimension of Sierra Leone with regard to the post-conflict agenda should not ultimately prove detrimental to those the populations it is supposed to serve.
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UA015.012.DO.00068
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Open for research.
  Emergence of New Political Identity in the South Caucasus: Energy, Security, Strategic Location and Pragmatism 2004

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: The South Caucasus is a boiling pot of various faiths, ethnicities, historical memories and political orientations, has traditionally been subject to strong, often overwhelming external pressures. The example of strong regional partnership between Azerbaijan and Georgia, two nations with very different dominant ethnic and religious groups, shows that not only a cooperative arrangement within the South Caucasus is possible, but also that it is, clearly, in the interest of its participants. Following the wave of strong nationalism, Azerbaijan and Georgia, unlike Armenia have opted for more pragmatic politics. Pragmatism became a trademark policy for Baku and Tbilisi establishing foundation of strong bilateral partnership. The Azerbaijan-Georgia partnership forced the world to look at the Caucasus in a new, different way. Much of this new pragmatism has been built on the ability to balance various pressures in a dynamic regional equilibrium. This includes careful consideration of perceptions of national security in the region, which are focused on potential negative influences of Russia and Iran; the unresolved state of the Armenia-Azerbaijan and other regional conflicts; and the challenge of strengthening state institutions. At the same time, Caspian energy projects play a key role in bringing about positive changes in the South Caucasus and promoting cooperative model of regional integration.
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UA015.012.DO.00069
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Open for research.
  The 'National Interest' Tradition and the Foreign Policy of Albania 2004

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: With the demise of communism, Albanian foreign policy was punctuated by an era of fundamental change qualitatively separated from the past. That era is being marked by Albania's efforts to build a democratic society that, if successful, would enable Albania gradually to prosper and enjoy closer ties with neighbours and the Western world as well as with their political, economic and security organisations. Today there is a widespread agreement that Albania's political philosophy and institutional environment are changing significantly along with moral principles and interests with which it feels identified. This turning point in the nation's history has resulted in growing pressure on Albanian leaders to 'reinvent' the foreign policy of Albania. Calls have been issued for the formulation of new strategies and policies that would create conditions that promote Albania's stability, security and prosperity, and would prepare the nation to deal with realities of nationalisms in Southeastern Europe as well as the prospects of regional co-operation and European integration. Clearly, Albanian leaders will need some guidelines for the formulation and analysis of foreign policy as well as for deciding in a systematic fashion, what activities to oppose and where to let events run their course. Traditionally, at least in the Western world, the concept of national interest has served as this standard. A commonly accepted definition of 'national interest' -- at least in the Western world -- refers to it as 'the general and continuing ends for which a nation acts.' However, if the concept of national interest is to be of greater utility, it must be more precisely defined so as to provide a greater measure of policy guidance to decision-makers. For several reasons, defining the new Albania's national interests is particularly difficult. First, this process necessarily takes place in the domestic context, and reflects the character of the internal political system and the relative fortunes of political leaders, parties, factions, and schools of thought. The severe political instability that prevails in Albania produces substantial uncertainty about how it will come to define and defend its national interests. Second, by virtue of its geo-political position and location and the identity of its neighbours, Albania must confront security threats, inescapable diplomatic relationships, worrying scenarios, and neighbouring trouble spots. Establishing priorities among these issues will, at times, be difficult. Third, Albania, as a former-communist society with a legacy of chronic isolation, absent socio-economic modernisation and a daunting democratic deficit, could not immediately put in place a coherent and widely accepted conception of its national interests and requirements -- it could not even conduct a well developed national debate. In view of these considerations, it is not surprising that Albania has yet to determine its identity, its national interests, or its place in the world. In other words, Albania faces the task of developing its national purpose as a political ideology and of articulating a vision of the national interest, which refers to something of substance and weight in the life of nations. That is the aim of this work, to provide an account of the concept of the national interest and to examine the choices that confront Albania as it seeks to define its national interests. The argument here is that, if Albanian foreign policy needs to mature and emerge successful from the trials of the new era, it should follow 'one guiding star, one standard for thought, one rule for action: the national interest.'
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UA015.012.DO.00070
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Open for research.
  High-Tech Innovation in Emerging Markets: The Case of Mexico 2005

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: This paper presents an exploratory study of innovation systems supporting the electronics and IT industry in Guadalajara, Mexico. Specifically, this study focuses on the effects of linkages with Regional Innovation Systems (RIS) and Supernational Innovation Systems (SIS) at the firm level. Analysis of data gathered in a 2004 survey of 39 companies in Guadalajara suggest that the RIS is more effective than the SIS in building and maintaining innovative capacity through R&D departments and overall R&D activity. The findings imply that, in the case of Mexico, the most effective policies to promote innovation will focus on regional linkages and capacity-building, rather than looking to firms with supernational linkages as a main source of capacity building and spillovers.
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UA015.012.DO.00071
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Open for research.
  A Global/Local Approach to Conflict Resolution in the Mining Sector: The Case of the Tintaya Dialogue Table 2005

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Mining-related conflict has become a permanent feature of the political landscape in many developing countries, where encounters between mining companies and local communities are increasingly characterized by public protest, violent conflict and the notable absence of state intervention. Despite this trend, little research has been done to understand the factors that promote successful conflict resolution between mining companies and host communities. This paper investigates an innovative approach to corporate-community conflict resolution that uses transnational advocacy coalitions to support mining-affected communities at both the micro and macro levels. It analyzes the effectiveness of this global/local strategy in the context of recent stakeholder negotiations at Peru's Tintaya copper mine, and asks whether transnational advocacy coalitions can bring about the kind of participatory engagement that promotes rights-based development. The analysis finds that these coalitions, by pressuring companies in their home countries and empowering local communities through grassroots organizing and training, can effectively facilitate negotiations that build trust between the parties, reduce power asymmetries and lead to lasting agreements.
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UA015.012.DO.00072
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Open for research.
  Modeling and Employing the Human Security Approach: A Health Security Perspective on the Current International Response to the HIV Epidemic 2005

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Like all neologisms, human security carries a lot of hope. Particularly in the sector of health, human security has introduced a new urgency, a greater political will and a sense of connectivity between the houses of 'haves' and 'have-nots'. The impact of global infectious diseases, violence and diseases related to poverty threaten the gains of development in low and middle income countries. What should a human security approach to health issues, particularly HIV, entail? Drawing on work by Sabina Alkire (2002), this paper asserts that human security interventions should be based on three principles: the focus on the individual as the nexus of analysis, the use of equity as the process, and the pursuit of institutionalized, responsive and preventive solutions. The importance and utility of these codes are elucidated by means of application to the concept of 'health security'. It is argued that a greater emphasis on social determinants of health, a higher rate of civil registration to ensure inclusion of vulnerable groups and a primary care approach to health delivery embody the spirit of health security. The validity of these arguments is tested by relating their relevance to the current international response to the HIV epidemic. This paper then concludes with some policy recommendations and emphasizes the central role of good governance in all human security programming.
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UA015.012.DO.00073
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Open for research.
  Constitution-Making and Immutable Principles 2005

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: The concept of immutable principles broadly defined as unchangeable, substantive principles which provide a check on a political process has impacted constitutions in two manners. First, the difficulties of developing new constitutions in post-conflict situations has occasionally been alleviated by the usage of immutable principles, the clearest example of this being South Africa's Constitution of 1996. Second, immutable principles have been used to limit the amendability of certain constitutions, making certain rights or principles permanently entrenched. This has been seen in Germany and India. The purpose of this thesis is to compare and contrast the historical usage of immutable principles in these two different settings (i.e., limits on the formulation of new constitutions versus limits on existing constitutions), and to outline considerations for their continued use.
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UA015.012.DO.00074
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Open for research.
  Decentralization and Human Security in Kosovo: Prospects of Local Government Reform for Promoting Democracy, Development, and Conflict Mitigation 2005

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Five years after war ravaged the former Yugoslav territory of Kosova/Kosovo, decentralization has emerged as a promising strategy for addressing key challenges to democracy, development, and sustainable peace in the troubled province. The principle of decentralization enjoys widespread support from both of Kosovo's major ethnic groups the Albanians and the Serbs as well as the international community that has been administering the province since the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) intervened to halt Serb ethnic cleansing of the Albanian population in 1999. However, each of these groups has distinct ideas concerning the purpose of decentralization and how the process should be carried out. This paper will examine the current decentralization debate in Kosovo and analyze the extent to which the proposals put forth by the Council of Europe (CoE), the Provisional Institutions of Self-Government (PISG) and the United Nations Interim Administration in Kosovo (UNMIK), and the Serbian government would would promote human security in the province. This paper begins with an overview of Kosovo's present demographic composition. Chapter 2 outlines the major demographic trends affecting the province during the war and the post-conflict period and discusses how these trends have influenced the current decentralization debate. It also provides background on the evolution of local government in Kosovo over the past five years through outlining key UNMIK Regulations and their implications for local governing institutions. Lastly, it examines the origins of the major decentralization proposals currently under consideration. Local government reform has the potential to bolster human security through improving democratic representation in Kosovo. A well-designed decentralization strategy could achieve this goal through bringing institutions of local government closer to the people and increasing their authority and accountability. Chapter 3 begins with a discussion of the current status of democracy in Kosovo. It traces the progress that has been made over the past five years towards the important goal of laying a foundation for sustainable democracy in the province. It then describes the decentralization strategies proposed in the CoE recommendations, the Prishtina/Pristina Plan endorsed by UNMIK and the PISG, and the Belgrade Plan devised by the Serbian government. It considers the critical issues of how many local government units would be created according to each of these decentralization strategies, how the boundaries of these units would be determined, and how these units would be governed. It also analyzes the implications of each decentralization plan for enhancing democratic representation throughout Kosovo. In addition to promoting representative democracy, decentralization can bolster human security in Kosovo through improving its level of development and the quality of its public services. Chapter 4 provides an overview of the standard of living in contemporary Kosovo, using information gleaned from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Kosovo Human Development Report 2004. Kosovans have the lowest level of development in the Balkans, as measured by the UNDP Human Development Index (HDI). Poverty and unemployment are pervasive, particularly in rural areas. Moreover, many Kosovans lack access to such basic services as education, health care, and water and sanitation. This situation is exacerbated by confused lines of accountability that make it difficult for Kosovans to determine who is responsible for providing which services. Nevertheless, the population remains confident that local government reform would improve public services and foster development in the province. The chapter then evaluates the CoE, UNMIK/PISG, and Serbian government decentralization plans in terms of their prospects for advancing development in Kosovo. It describes which responsibilities would be devolved to local governing units under each plan, and how these proposed arrangements would affect the quality of services and level of development in the province. In addition to affecting democratic representation, service provision, and development levels, decentralization has the potential to strengthen human security through supporting peace and stability in Kosovo. Local government reform is closely linked to the sensitive ethnic issues at the core of the Kosovo conflict. The plans proposed by the CoE, UNMIK/PISG, and Serbian government would have radically different implications for Kosovo's ethnic composition. Depending on which plan is selected and how the chosen plan is implemented, decentralization could mitigate ethnic tensions and foster stability in Kosovo by giving minority communities greater autonomy and more channels to promote their interests without resorting to violence. However, decentralization also risks hardening existing ethnic divisions and undermining stability, both within Kosovo and throughout the Balkan region. Chapter 5 evaluates the decentralization strategies proposed by the CoE, UNMIK/PISG, and the Serbian government in terms of their potential to alleviate the ethnic tensions in Kosovo. It recognizes that local government reform will only succeed in the province if it obtains support from minority communities in general, and the influential Serb community in particular. To this end, it analyzes the extent to which each of the aforementioned proposals would safeguard minority rights and provide minority groups with channels to advance their interests, as well as how acceptable each proposal would be to minority communities; especially the Serbs. It also considers the possible impact of decentralization in Kosovo on the delicate ethnic balance in Serbia, Macedonia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina. The paper concludes by discussing recent developments in the decentralization debate, including approval of a pilot municipality proposal. It evaluates the implications of this proposal and suggests strategies to ensure that the final decentralization plan for Kosovo meets European Charter standards and can be sold to both the Albanian opposition and the Serb community.
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UA015.012.DO.00075
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Open for research.
  Japanese Constitutional Reform and Maritime Security in East Asia 2005

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Maritime security is becoming one of the top areas of concern for states in East Asia. Japan, with its large and technologically advanced navy, is in a unique position to shape the regional maritime security order. Currently, legal restraints placed on the use of force under the country's pacifist constitution limit Japan's ability to project its influence. Proposed changes to the constitution, however, may alter the situation dramatically. This paper examines the likely effects of constitutional reforms on Japan's future role in East Asian maritime security.
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UA015.012.DO.00076
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Open for research.
  U.S. Missile Defense: Implications for Sino-U.S. Arms Race 2005

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: In December 2002, President George W. Bush officially announced his plan to begin deployment of initial missile defense capabilities in 2004-2005. The deployment of missile defense is an essential element of the United States' broader efforts to meet its new strategic challenges in the twenty first century. Once deployed, missile defense can secure the U.S. force projection capability while providing an additional safety net against growing threats from WMDs in the hands of hostile regimes and international terrorists. But, Chinese government has strongly criticized the U.S. missile defense plan. Beijing warned that U.S. missile defense could not only undermine strategic stability, but also lead to the proliferation of nuclear weapons and missiles. A primary reason for Chinese criticism against missile defense is that even a limited system would undercut China's own nuclear deterrent vis-a-vis the United States. Currently, China has only about twenty liquid-fuel silo-based ICBMs that can reach the U.S. If U.S. would initiate a first strike, the Chinese assume that only a handful of Chinese ICBMs would survive. And the handful that would survive the first strike would be captured by missile defense systems. Many in China believe that such disadvantage would pose a serious menace to China's ability to employ its nuclear weapons to deter possible U.S. pressure and aggression in East Asia. Then, what would Sino-U.S. strategic relations look like under the fully-deployed missile defense, as well as how would it be affected by actual missile defense architectures employed? The thesis takes up this question and argues that prospects for Sino-U.S. arms race depend on the different types of missile defense architecture: limited, limited layered, and robust. And whether China enters into an arms race with the U.S. or not under the respective type of architecture is constrained by five variables: grand strategy in Chinese history; nuclear doctrine; military technology; economic resources; and China's commitment to arms control regimes.
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UA015.012.DO.00077
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Open for research.
  State Responsibility for Global Climate Change: The Case of the Maldives 2005

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: This thesis will attempt to impute global climate to States on behalf of the Maldives, thereby giving the Maldivians the opportunity to be compensated for the loss of their homeland. It will firstly seek to establish state responsibility within the context of international human rights law. By this, it will implicitly determine if there exists a justiceable human right to the environment. Secondly, it will examine the general sources of international law in an effort to determine state responsibility.
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UA015.012.DO.00078
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Open for research.
  Imagined Nations: Toward a Functional Approach to the Future of International Relations 2005

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Beginning with a review of definitions employed in scholarship on nationalism, including Benedict Anderson's Imagined Communities, this thesis moves directly to an examination of the loosening ties between political geography -- understood as the superimposition on the globe of territorial boundaries marking the extent of state sovereignty -- and the functions and characteristics ordinarily associated with nationhood, in an effort to demonstrate that the requirement of international law that sovereignty and statehood follow control of territory only is increasingly out of step with the needs and verities of world politics and society. It then surveys some theories of networked nations and other nonstate communities, as well as historical and current examples of nonterritorial networks that in various ways present features similar to those commonly understood to be possessed by nations. It attempts to derive from these examples a functional approach to nationhood that is, an approach that defines nationhood not with respect to what a candidate nation is but rather according to what it does. Having advanced this functional approach to nationhood, the thesis then describes some candidate imagined nations, and examines two prison nation and queer nation more closely, in an attempt to evaluate the functional model's ability to track more closely than the legal definition of statehood candidate nations international roles and significance. It concludes with some tentative predictions about the future of the international system understood as one in which states are not the only, or even the primary actors, as well as some prescriptions for future research on the international personality of nonstate networks.
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UA015.012.DO.00079
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Open for research.
  Capitalizing on Women's Traditional Roles in Israeli Peace Activism: A Comparison Between Women in Black and Checkpoint Watch 2005

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Women's peace activism in conflict areas lies at the intersection of traditional and non-traditional. On the one hand, a growing body of literature and research refers to women, when compared to men, as more peace loving. On the other hand, peace activism, or any kind of activism for that matter, is practiced in the public sphere, and challenges defining societal and political roles of women. As women in the 21st century, following feminist activism, are continuously encouraged, to go outside the home and against their traditional social place, the question remains: What if women's unique skills are the significant asset they offer to conflict management and conflict resolution? Does capitalizing on women's unique skills as peace activists creates the necessary culture of peace on the way to the resolution of a conflict? In this paper I have chosen to examine these questions through the work of women peace activists in Israel. The research is divided into four main parts. The first section provides the theoretical framework for women's peace activism in conflict areas; The second part focuses on women's peace activism in Israel, elaborating on the social context of women's activism in Israel; the third part covers the case studies I have chosen to compare Women in Black (in Hebrew Nashim beshachor) and Machsom Watch (in English: Checkpoint Watch), which represent two different strategies for their involvement in peace activism; and finally the conclusions section refers to the initial question of this work, particularly regarding the context of Israeli-Palestinian conflict. It is not my objective to discuss the contribution of women's peace activism to the status of women in the societies they work within, or specifically in Israel, since the link between feminism and peace activism is not a consistant one. It is my intention, however, to highlight the strength, cooperation and legitimacy emanating from women's peace work in Israel where non-traditional activism is complemented by women's perceived traditional roles in Israeli social narrative.
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UA015.012.DO.00080
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Open for research.
  Chinese National Unity vs. Uyghur Separatism: Can Information and Communication Technologies Integrated with a Customized Economic Development Plan Help Avoid a Cultural Collision? 2005

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Current tension in China's Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region created by the Chinese desire for greater national unity and the Uyghur desire for independence is leading the two cultures to a potential collision. The Chinese government is practicing five policies to reduce the Uyghur threat: the politicization of Islam, migration of Han Chinese into the region, and the use of language, education and media to accelerate assimilation of the Uyghurs into the dominant Han culture. This paper analyzes the five policies from a communications perspective and proposes a telecenter ICT solution combined with a customized economic development program to help mitigate the Uyghurs' desire for independence.
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UA015.012.DO.00081
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Open for research.
  The Fair Trade Response to the Coffee Crisis. Achievements, Limitations and Prospects of a Voluntary Certification Scheme 2005

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: The collapse of the International Coffee Agreement in 1989 has been followed by a dramatic drop in world coffee crisis and and by a perception of a large-scale social crisis among rural populations in developing countries. The Fair Trade movement which has arisen out of Alternative Trade Organizations based in industrial countries is an attempt to redress income differences between industrialized and developing countries through trade that benefits poor farmers to uplift them from poverty. This study examines the effectiveness of the Fair Trade system in the case of coffee at achieving its own goals which include both absolute poverty reduction as well as social justice understood as redistribution of wealth from the rich to the poor. Since Fair Trade is designed as a response to the current system of global trading relationships and the characteristics of the coffee market in particular, global trends in the coffee sector are being examined that point to paradigm shifts in both coffee demand and supply, the development of a differentiated coffee market and restructuring of the coffee supply chain. These processes have negative impacts on small-scale coffee growers in many producing countries but also offer opportunities to escape the downward spiral of coffee prices. Fair Trade represents one of them. The development mechanism of the Fair Trade system will be illustrated in a cost-benefit analysis of a participating producer cooperative in Mexico. The analysis shows that the size of increases in income for individual farmers varies according to a number of factors but can be substantial. On the other hand, it is often over-looked that obtaining and maintaining certification is expensive, and even more so if producers are also certified as 'organic', while organic certification also implies an even higher price premium. Apart from increases in income Fair Trade brings along a variety of other benefits, both individual, in the form of price stability and enhanced access to credit and training, and collective ones. The latter include environmental goods, development projects, investment in infrastructure to upgrade the cooperative's activities and organizational strengthening through better access to market information. To determine the Fair Trade system's ability to redistribute profits between actors in consuming and producing countries, gains from participation for the various operators in the coffee supply chain are examined. The results seem to indicate that apart from coffee cooperatives, all other agents, including roasters and retailers, obtain substantial price premia from Fair Trade coffee sales and that the system's successes in reducing the profits of large industry players are therefore limited. Fair Trade organizations and firms are market participants that try to challenge conventional profit-oriented companies by outcompeting them and by creating sustainable businesses. The aim of this endeavour is to ultimately induce a change to mainstream business practices in favor of producers also outside of the Fair Trade system itself, ideally with major companies behaving in an ATO like manner and guaranteeing decent trade conditions and prices to farmers. A third criterion against which Fair Trade is being evaluated is therefore the extent to which Fair Trade has had an impact on conventional business practices and in extension on the well-being of poor producers more broadly. A survey of other initiatives in the coffee market aiming at sustainability and its comparison to the Fair Trade system shows that industry changes are underway, but that the standards that are evolving are likely to show little resemblence with the Fair Trade standards. Again, the movement's success is a partial one. Finally, the growth perspectives for Fair Trade coffee both in the mainstream and in the niche market are being examined.
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UA015.012.DO.00082
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Open for research.
  A Memorable Process in a Forgotten War: Forgiveness Within Northern Uganda 2005

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Northern Uganda has experienced a devastating war for the past eighteen years, forgotten to the rest of the world. Within this war-torn society of Acholiland, a sub-region of Northern Uganda, the author highlights how processes of forgiveness have occurred and are ongoing, arguing that they have a significant impact on the process of conflict resolution. In addition to providing evidence of forgiveness through her personal observations and interviews, research she conducted with the Acholi Religious Leaders Peace Initiative (ARLPI) and extensive secondary source material, the author outlines the theories of forgiveness and the historical context of Northern Uganda. In the central part of the thesis, the author lays out possible reasons behind why forgiveness is playing a role including the influence of religion in Acholiland, the failure of other methods of conflict resolution, cultural explanations, and a sense of family prevalent between the Acholi and many of the abducted members of the Lord's Resistance Army, the insurgency group. The author then provides a solid analysis of the impact of forgiveness as well as lessons learned from the Northern Uganda case of forgiveness.
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UA015.012.DO.00083
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Open for research.
  Global Research and Development Investment Practices; does General Electric differ from the trend? 2005

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: This survey-based comparative study examines the trends observed in an empirical study of 32 multinational firms' research and development (R&D) investment practices and compares and contrasts the data and results to that of the General Electric Corporation (GE). The quantitative comparison between the two studies demonstrates that GE R&D investment practices were consistent with 4 of the primary 5 trends observed in the initial empirical study. Consistencies were found in the practices of motives, locational characteristics, the relationship between R&D facilities in home country versus abroad and mode of entry, and were not found in evolution of FDI in R&D centers over time. The adoption of these practices might present practitioners and academics a set of best practices in investment-related considerations when defining a development plan for international expansion of its R&D practice. Key words: globalization of research and development, foreign direct investment, mode of entry into foreign markets.
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UA015.012.DO.00084
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Open for research.
  Drafting a New Consensus on Conscription: Germany Debates the Future of Compulsory Military Service 2005

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: The thesis assesses the current debate in the Federal Republic of Germany over the future of military conscription. Included is a discussion of the early nineteenth-century origins of conscription and a focus on the evolution of compulsory military service in Germany both as a military and social issue after the founding of the Federal Republic of Germany. Emphasis is placed on not only the evolving needs of the Bundeswehr during and since the end of the Cold War but also the question of defense equity (Wehrgerechtigkeit) based on conscription. The thesis contains a detailed survey of the debate within and between the political parties about whether to continue conscription or to establish an alternative basis for military recruitment.
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UA015.012.DO.00085
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Open for research.
  Strengthening the Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Weapons Nonproliferation Regimes 2005

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: When the United States eventually ceased negotiations in the United Nations Security Council and invaded Iraq in 2003 with a stated goal of quelling the use or spread of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) from that country, it became apparent that institutions associated with international security would have to be strengthened in order to assure states that they could effectively orchestrate multilateral measures to counter WMD proliferation. Because of state necessity to first and foremost protect national interest, without more effective international nonproliferation regimes, countries will continue to take unilateral action against perceived WMD threats. This analysis will briefly survey theory associated with institutions and regimes. It will then analyze the perils posed by WMD, weaknesses of the WMD nonproliferation regimes, and measures being taken or proposed to ameliorate those weaknesses. It will conclude with twelve policy recommendations which, if implemented, would assist in strengthening the worldwide WMD nonproliferation structures.
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UA015.012.DO.00086
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Open for research.
  Understanding the Role of Cross Sector Strategic Alliances: An Analysis of Private and Nonprofit Sector Relations 2005

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: The issue of corporate social responsibility is one of increasing interest for business, nonprofit, and governmental leaders. While it is generally understood that socially conscious practices lead to the improvement in environmental quality, human rights, and overall social well-being, the underlying challenge lies in striking a balance between social and economic longevity. Within most developed countries, and a growing number of developing countries, the three sectors of society (public, private, and nonprofit) traditionally fulfill separate and complementary societal roles. However, over the past two decades, the delineation between the three sectors' responsibilities has blurred, and there is an increasing need and pressure from the general public for changes in the roles of each sector. This paper specifically analyzes the importance of cross-sector alliances between the nonprofit and private sectors and the various levels at which a collaboration can be achieved. It argues that as a result of shifting sectoral roles, strategic alliances between these two sectors are more important now than they have ever been. The paper draws on existing alliance theories and suggests a set of core and secondary characteristics, which are necessary components for any cross-sector alliance. Additionally, this paper applies the postulated model to three case studies to analyze and compare the application of the fundamental characteristics. The paper concludes with recommended future research topics.
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UA015.012.DO.00087
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Open for research.
  The Transformation of the Afghan Refugee: A Study of the Impact of the Displacement Experience on Afghan Women and Children Living in the Islamic Republic of Iran and Pakistan 2005

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: With the goal of better understanding the impact of displacement on refugee communities and its affect on rebuilding efforts back home, this paper maps out the Afghan refugee displacement experience. I examine the impact that displacement has had on Afghan refugees in the Islamic Republic of Iran and Pakistan by focusing on two groups: women and children and adolescents. I argue that the period in exile, although disorienting and traumatic, has also had a profound empowering impact on the lives of the Afghan women and, to a lesser extent, children. Both the migration to another state and the experience of living in a host country has altered their way of life. Interestingly, the refugees in Iran and Pakistan had divergent experiences reflecting the different government refugee policies, composition of refugee community, and cultural, religious, and social values of the host states. I analyze the empowering outcomes of displacement by examining a number of key issues, namely livelihood and economic coping strategies, education, and gender and familial relations of Afghan women and children living in Iran and Pakistan.
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UA015.012.DO.00088
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Open for research.
  Capital Markets in Emerging Economies: A Case Study of the Nairobi Stock Exchange 2005

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Over the past two decades, capital markets in developing countries have experienced a rapid evolution. The aggregate market capitalization of countries classified by the IFC as emerging markets rose from $488 billion in 1988 to $2,225 billion in 1996. Trading on these stock markets rose in similar magnitude, growing from $411 billion to $1,586 billion in that period. International donors, governments in developed countries and international financial institutions seem to pay more attention to the Asian and Latin American emerging capital markets in contrast to the African markets (particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa) as evidenced by few studies and literature on the development of capital markets in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study will, therefore, focus on capital market development in Africa, with the Nairobi Stock Exchange (NSE) as a case study. The NSE has continued to increase in importance in economic growth and capital market development in Kenya and the East Africa region. The study will, therefore, explore the path of its development with an emphasis on its structure and organization; rules, regulations and practice; trend in market performance; recent developments; challenges to development; and the way forward in the new millennium. The lessons from this study as well as the recommendations for the future will contribute to the understanding of the development of other capital markets in Africa and other developing regions of the world.
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UA015.012.DO.00089
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Open for research.
  U.S. Failures in the Pearl Harbor Attack: Lessons for Intelligence 2005

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: In this thesis, I will examine the reasons why the United States failed to prevent the Japanese surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, and will extract lessons from the failure. There were some problems of collection, analysis, and management in the U.S. intelligence. Each defect is not uniquely attributed to the U.S. intelligence per se but is inherent to a cognitive and behavioral limit of human beings. The lessons of Pearl Harbor are not omnipotent tools to prevent a surprise attack, yet they will make a significant contribution to breaking the constraint and will mitigate casualties by enemy attacks. This thesis recommends that intelligence officers should learn the historical lessons at heart to deal with a future contingency.
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UA015.012.DO.00090
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Open for research.
  Imaginging Surprise: Locating the Causality of Strategic Surprise 2005

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: The task of this thesis is to investigate and locate the causality of strategic surprise. It argues that causality is located in the function of cognitive rigidities. It uses cases studies to develop the idea of cognitive rigidity. Using the insights from the case studies this thesis will propose three models codifying points of origin of cognitive rigidity. Model A represents cognitive rigidity originating from the adoption of abstract assumptions. Model B represents cognitive rigidity originating from learned historical experience. Model C represents cognitive rigidity originating from operational rigidity. The thesis also briefly considers remedial therapies to mitigate cognitive rigidity.
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UA015.012.DO.00091
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Open for research.
  Winning Hearts and Minds Through Actual Deeds: U.S. Public Diplomacy During the Occupation of the Philippines in Comparison With the American Involvement in Iraq Today 2005

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: This MALD thesis asserts that, following its occupation of the Philippines in 1898, the United States attempted an early demonstrable form of public diplomacy, one that, in the general absence of the global communications tools available in Iraq today, emphasized the use of concrete actions and initiatives as a basis of appeal and persuasion to win Filipino support for the Americans and their Philippine policies. Following a discussion of past U.S. military and civilian efforts at public diplomacy in the Philippines, the paper assesses current U.S. public diplomacy efforts in Iraq. Finally, the paper addresses relevance how, if at all, American efforts at public diplomacy in the Philippines might provide some guidance for current U.S. attempts to win hearts and minds in Iraq. This study will demonstrate that, though the U.S. occupation of the Philippines yielded some public diplomacy successes most notably through the work of American teachers the military's need to suppress the Filipino insurrection, and, later, the U.S. political desire to Americanize the islands, undermined public diplomacy efforts, resulting in failures to win the people over.
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UA015.012.DO.00092
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Open for research.
  Colaborar - Ñamba'apo OÑondivepa - Collaboration: An Analysis of Inter-Agency Collaborations in Developmental Technical Assistance in Paraguay 2005

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: The United States Peace Corps has paired private American citizens with communities in developing countries for over forty years, yet it suffers a crisis of personality. Created ostensibly for the purpose of aiding developing world peoples, it is frequently criticized for providing a richer and more meaningful experience for the volunteers themselves than for their host communities. This paper examines Peace Corps' history and organizational culture as compared with the United States Agency for International Development, or USAID. With the Millennium Challenge Account threatening to alter the way in which USAID conducts development assistance programs abroad, it appears that USAID, like Peace Corps, should perhaps reevaluate its operations, and consider collaborating with other US Government agencies. Through two case studies of Peace Corps Volunteers in Paraguay, this paper looks at how they have worked on USAID-funded projects, and how this collaborative effort may be an attractive model for the future.
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UA015.012.DO.00093
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Open for research.
  Evaluating Transitional Justice Mechanismsí Effect on Reconciliation: Case Study Sierra Leone 2005

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Utilizes institutional theory and in-country empirical field research to evaluate to what degree transitional justice mechanisms (both truth & reconciliation commissions and international courts) are achieving their goal of contributing to national reconciliation in post conflict countries. Sierra Leone is studied in depth, but the methodology and policy recommendations are applicable broadly to aid scholars and practitioners in the field of transitional justice.
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UA015.012.DO.00094
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Open for research.
  Post-Conflict Democratization and Depoliticizing of Conflicting Identities: Constitutional Transformation in Bosnia and Herzegovina 2005

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: In situations of identity-based conflicts and their post-conflict transformation, what ought to occur is the depoliticizing of conflicting identities because those should not be enshrined legally as a sole political reality. The depoliticizing of conflicting identities, and consequently transformation of conflict, will take place through the societal re-conceptualizing of political identity and broadening of the concept of power through redefining the cultural and political discourse. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of depoliticizing group identities, the study utilizes the case of Bosnia and Herzegovina. I propose for Bosnia to undertake the re-making of its constitution as an initial step toward depoliticizing wartime identities. The recommendation of this study is for the population to be actively engaged in constitutional change through popular participation which will take place in a two stage process, civic education and popular consultation.
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UA015.012.DO.00095
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Open for research.
  How Marketing Mumbo Jumbo Can Help Poor Countries Grow: The Case of 100% Columbian Coffee 2005

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: This work starts with an overview of the consequences of falling prices in manufactures for developing countries and the role marketing and country branding can play in promoting exports to high income countries, where differentiated products are sold with high margins. To understand how branding works, the second chapter presents a summary of scientific findings regarding the psychological dimension of branding, focusing on the role emotions play; it also analyses the main traits of today's branding. Building upon this framework, chapters III and IV, review the case of the 100% Colombian Coffee campaign, and examine its brand equity, history, and recent development. As a conclusion, some guidelines are given to poor countries in order to take advantage of marketing techniques when exporting to the US and Europe.
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UA015.012.DO.00096
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Open for research.
  Revealed Preferences in US Bilateral Aid, 1960-2000 2005

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: This paper proposes and evaluates determinants of US bilateral foreign aid. An earlier cross-country comparison of donors (Alesina and Dollar, 1998) suggested two determinants that offer limited explanatory power as determinants of bilateral aid flows: colonial relationships and political ties. As the US has no colonial relationships, the former makes no prediction of US bilateral aid spending. The latter is measured by proxy in Alesina and Dollar's work, through the correlation of UN votes between donor and recipient. As they acknowledge, this measure potentially suffers from reverse causality (Alesina and Dollar, 1998). I offer four hypotheses for determinants of US bilateral aid spending: 1. Trade ties with the recipient country. 2. Operations of the US military, 3. Political events in the recipient country, and 4. Economic events in the recipient country, In order to test these hypotheses, I use data from the USAID Green Book, which specifies types of spending including military and economic assistance, and modalities of spending including loans and grants (USAID 2002). The Green Book data are the dependent variables in cross-sectional regressions on indicators of governments political leanings and democratic performance, indicators of economic health, the presence of a named US military operation, and indicators of economic relationships with the US. Indicators of governments' political leanings come from the World Bank's Database of Political Institutions. Democratic performance comes from the Polity variable in the Polity IV dataset from the University of Maryland's Integrated Network for Societal Conflict Research. Indicators of economic health are found in the Penn World Table, from the University of Pennsylvania's Center for International Comparisons. The list of named US military operations comes from Global Security, a Washington think tank. The closeness of economic ties with the US is measured with the IMF's Direction of Trade Statistics historic series. The specific composition of the variables and controls is listed below in the section 'Data'. The regressions in Tables 1 to 4 assess the revealed preferences of the US foreign aid programs in aggregate. Washington allocates bilateral aid to countries that are trading partners, that are poorer, that are secular, and that have strong nationalist executive parties. US bilateral aid rises in response to adverse economic shocks. US bilateral aid falls in real per capita terms over time. Economic assistance, and specifically USAID spending, is highest when centrists and nationalists control the executive branch. Economic assistance shies away from countries with major religious parties. Contrary to popular opinion, Washington (on an intercontinental, decades-long scale) does not lavish aid on right-wing governments, nor does it systematically undermine the left.
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UA015.012.DO.00097
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Open for research.
  China's Banking System and How Citibank Can Capitalize on its Liberalization 2005

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: The potential that China's economy holds as it moves to a more liberal market economy is limitless, and Western firms are eager to become the first movers in their industries to take advantage of this promise. Western banks are no exception. Chinese regulations have historically limited the operations of foreign banks, but with the entry of China into the World Trade Organization, that is all slated to change - in theory. Geographic limitations for foreign banks are to be lifted by December 2006, along with a host of other restrictions that have retarded the growth of these Western banks and the Chinese banking sector as a whole. Progress on these liberalizations has been slow, however, and Chinese regulators have even put other limitations in place that will hurt competition in the long run. This is far from the only problem facing the Chinese banking sector. Decades of policy lending have saddled the four state-owned banks with an unhealthy level of non-performing loans from state-owned enterprises. Asset management companies have been created to manage these NPLs, but the situation is far from stable. A lack of corporate governance has also created an environment where management of banks is opaque and corruption widespread. The risks inherent in this industry are great. In this environment then, what is Citigroup's best method of operation? Once reentry to the market was allowed, Citigroup pushed hard to maintain its control in China by avoiding joint ventures and operating independently. As this strategy stalled and its competitors gained the upper hand in the country, Citibank changed its approach to embrace joint ventures and entertain the idea of buying into the state bank system. Is this the right approach? Citibank is right to pursue joint ventures at this time, especially because building its own structures in China would be cost-prohibitive and too slow to develop. At the same time, the bank must be careful with whom it associates in China. The possibility of corruption or mismanagement is still significant with regard to partnerships with state-owned banks. It also cannot expand its offerings too quickly or expose itself to too much risk. It should use its government connections to speed up the deregulation process, plan for the time when this becomes a reality, and train native Chinese workers in Western bank practices. Citibank is currently not the most successful foreign bank in China; that title belongs to HSBC. A combination of prudent growth and innovative service upgrades should allow Citibank to compete with and eventually overtake its rival in this burgeoning market.
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UA015.012.DO.00098
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Open for research.
  Toward a More Sustainable Democracy: Public Participation in Justice Sector Reform 2005

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: In both researching and participating in the process of planning and implementing rule of law reforms, I saw several trends that seemed to indicate a need for change. It is these themes that have guided the development of this paper and my hopes of its application in future rule of law promotion efforts. The experience of donors and practitioners in countries around the world in recent years has illustrated that: Reforms led by international donors do not always coincide with local priorities or needs; Institutional reforms often unravel after the international community's departure due to a lack of domestic capacity or support; The broader public is often excluded from and disillusioned with the reform process; Reforms do not always adequately address the need to develop a participatory tradition or the existing public cynicism about democratic participation in government. Certainly, these are themes already raised by a wide range of scholars and practitioners. Current wisdom now dictates that: Development of both the process and content of reforms should include local input and be subject to local control; Local capacity-building should be a priority in the reform process from the outset; Civic education is a necessary antecedent to effective democratic participation; The reform process itself is equally as important as its final product in determining the legitimacy of the institutions it creates. Even among those that agree with these points, the question remains as to how these goals can be most effectively accomplished. The research and program analysis I present here examines how public participation in rule of law reform may complement existing initiatives to help achieve these goals. Such an approach is certainly not immune to critique. Many international donors, state governments and publics alike are skeptical about either the value or efficacy of public participation in government reform and work, not least because it remains a new field of exploration with little empirical evidence to support it. There is, however, much anecdotal evidence of state and local reforms of the police and judiciary where public involvement was a key component in building public trust in the reform process and the government, increasing the legitimacy of the police and judiciary, and improving the accountability and effectiveness of these institutions. Through the analysis and examples included in this study, I have attempted to provide an objective assessment of the potential benefits and drawbacks of a participatory approach, raising issues relevant to international and state actors considering whether to integrate public participation in their particular reforms. I have also sought to address how civic education and gradual public engagement may be used to reduce public cynicism and reticence toward democratic participation. In vetting the rationale, opportunities and practical challenges to such participation, it is my hope that the initiatives discussed here may be successfully integrated into current and future reform programs to provide a more holistic approach to rule of law promotion in new democracies.
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UA015.012.DO.00099
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Open for research.
  Reducing Refugee Rights? A comparative analysis of shifting refugee policy and practice in Mozambique and Guinea 2005

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: There is a stark contrast between the ever expanding body of international law which addresses the protection of refugees and the imposition of increased restrictions due to stringent state policies and practices which refugees face in host countries. Expanding refugee protection at the international level takes the form of new covenants and declarations, increasing numbers of signatories on and ratifications of existing instruments, and regional agreements between groups of states. On the other hand, policies and practices of refugee hosting governments have sometimes led to a curbing of refugees' rights. Some countries, which at one time had quite friendly approaches toward refugees, have scaled back their liberal practices and reduced the rights afforded to refugees. This thesis aims to better understand the factors that are leading host countries to shift their policies and practices toward refugees from liberal to stringent. The paper will focus on developing countries, particularly in Africa, which have signed onto refugee rights instruments and have, at one time, had relatively liberal stances toward acceptance and treatment of refugees. Through an exploration of two case studies - Guinea and Mozambique - the drive behind the states' shift from liberal policies and practices, which limit the rights of refugees within their borders, will be explored. In short, this paper addresses the research question: what are the main factors which drive states to shift from liberal to stringent policies and practices towards refugees?
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UA015.012.DO.00100
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Open for research.
  Diplomatic Investments 2005

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: This paper argues that the aims of American and Chinese commercial policies promoting foreign direct investment (FDI) have been successfully aligned with the effects of their implementation; private sector interests have complemented and reinforced the commercial policy intentions of both nations to encourage development while at the same time helping to promote the peaceful resolution of bilateral tensions. This successful alignment of governmental policies and business interests has given rise to diplomatic investments, which continue to play a role in defining opportunities for stable and productive mutual gains for both countries. The study begins with an overview of the current state of economic integration between the U.S. and China, identifying some of the key benefits which the implementation of diplomatic investments have brought to the bilateral relationship in terms of economic development and political stabilization. This dual advantage of effectively implemented pro-FDI commercial policies is further elaborated on through a blending of both realism and complex interdependence frameworks; a combination of both theories is used as a complementary means for analyzing this dynamic. A brief historical account of commercial policies is then provided in an attempt to demonstrate a positive correlation between pro-FDI policy implementation and non-violent conflict on the one hand, and instances of armed conflict during periods devoid of such policy initiatives on the other. A statistical analysis is next undertaken to demonstrate how the FDI policy implementation process has created a framework for cooperation which enables private sector interests to naturally promote a more stable and productive framework for economic interdependence. The changes brought about by increased economic integration have made both countries increasingly vulnerable to a prolonged cessation of bilateral commercial activity, further reinforcing both national and private sector interests in building a stronger structure for the peaceful resolution of conflict. These theoretical, historical, and statistical interpretations of the pro-FDI policymaking process are then applied to three case studies in which recent potentially violent crisis situations were peacefully resolved. Explanations for the peaceful resolutions of the Taiwan Strait Crisis of March, 1996, the Chinese Embassy bombing in Belgrade in May, 1999, and the EP-3 Incident of April, 2001 would all be incomplete without an appreciation for the pacifying role played by government commercial policies and the market forces they helped to unleash through the promotion of foreign investments. Expert testimonies regarding each case are included to demonstrate that policymakers, academics, and business leaders alike recognize the importance of FDI in promoting cooperative resolutions to the geopolitical conflicts in question. The paper concludes by stating that the successful management of the bilateral commercial policymaking process contributes to peaceful, non-violent diplomatic relations between the U.S. and China because economic security for both countries has become increasingly tied to the continuance of structurally interdependent trade and investment. As long as economic growth is maintained and both countries continue to benefit from FDI exchanges, these current trends are likely to continue.
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UA015.012.DO.00101
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Open for research.
  The Dual Imperative to Enhance National Security and Foster Human Rights: The United Nations and the Adoption of Resolution 1373 2005

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: On September 28th, 2001, the United Nations (hereafter, the UN) Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 1373, through which it codified abstract and specific rules pertaining to terrorism which are obligatory and binding on all member states. While mainstream discourse has pointed to the opportunities provided by Resolution 1373 to build a consistent and coherent global anti-terrorism regime, international human rights advocates have raised grave concerns over its sanctioning of human rights violations by state authorities under the guise of countering terrorism. This dually descriptive and prescriptive paper will investigate the impact of Resolution 1373 on the global human rights regime, its actors, and its institutions by exploring the following three questions: 1) Does the mandate of UN Security Council Resolution 1373 pose a threat to the international human rights regime?; 2) What precedent does the Security Council's legislative act set?; and, 3) Do the implementation and enforcement mechanisms, and obligations contained within Resolution 1373 condone state behavior that is ultimately detrimental to states' citizens? By examining the philosophical, structural, and functional components, as well as the political factors that led to the establishment of Resolution 1373, the study proposes that the resolution poses a threat to the international human rights regime by providing states with the façade of UN sanction to implement sweeping anti-terrorism measures. Albeit lofty in its objective to build a global standard to assist states in taking practical measures to prevent the scourge of terrorism both domestically and internationally, the Security Council and the institutions of Resolution 1373 lack the current capacity to monitor states' compliance in a manner that recognizes and reinforces global human rights norms. Through the adoption of Resolution 1373, the Security Council circumvented the traditional use of treaties and conventions to develop broadly-agreed upon international norms under the guise of multilateralism, and essentially provided an avenue for US unilateral assertions. More honest multilateral endeavors provide the only true mechanism to foster a more holistic conception of security that seeks to protect citizens from the vastly complex threats to their human security, including those posed by the threat of terrorism.
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UA015.012.DO.00102
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Open for research.
  An International Institutionalist Approach to the Globalization of Emerging Infectious Diseases 2005

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Globalization is often discussed in the context of economics, through telecommunications, international trade, manufacturing strategies, and global capital flow. Whether or not a state is democratically elected, the effects of globalization are more often than not seen yielding state sovereignty to industrialists, investment bankers, media moguls and other transnational actors. Over the past forty years these processes of globalization have caused a dramatic increase in the emergence and reemergence of more deadly forms of infectious disease. Professor David Fidler asserts that because of the eroding boundaries between and within states, the effects of globalization have undermined that ability of sovereign states to protect their citizens from emerging infectious diseases in the conventional ways. The unprecedented speed of the spread of infectious disease has eroded the distinction between national and international public health. While politicians, scholars and business leaders recognize that the forces of globalization are among the most potent at work within late twentieth century international relations, they have yet to realize the extent to which the evolving boundaries of state sovereignty in the global community will affect the spread and combat of emerging infectious disease (EID). Infectious diseases more readily cross borders as a result of the proliferation of interstate travel and trade, this increases contact among humans with dissimilar immune capacities and facilitates the transmission of disease by increasing the availability of vulnerable hosts. This has raised concerns that have threatened the international state system for centuries. In the 14th Century, quarantine procedures were first introduced to help curb the impact of infectious agents carried aboard commercial ships. While commercial shipping remains a channel for disease transmission, air travel has raised new and more complex dangers with respect to transmission. Poor air circulation aboard international flights can infect an entire flight with respiratory viruses such as SARS, and air travel facilitates the spread of highly contagious hemorrhagic viruses such as the Ebola virus of central Africa, as well as Mad Cow disease and other prion-like illnesses that could be transmitted on the shoes of contaminated individuals. The structure of the state system with its focus on sovereignty further complicates the challenges posed by the spread of infectious disease. Traditionally, state sovereignty has protected the way individual states regulate their physicians and pharmaceuticals, thus keeping international regulation at bay. With few enforceable incentives to cooperate and regulate antibiotics, private actors mismanage and overuse antibiotics. More often than not antibiotics are over prescribed, sold over the counter, or sold on the black market. Overuse of antibiotics dramatically increases the extent to which microbial agents develop resistance in the developing world, this overuse has contributed to increased resistance in such cases as malaria, tuberculosis, and more recently, syphilis. Beyond the added challenge of drug resistance there are the socioeconomic concerns that follow when new microbes proliferate in developing countries. Although early warning mechanisms might protect other states in the immediate future, they have the potential to destroy the already unsteady economies of the developing states by engendering fear among tourists. This not only makes it more difficult to combat the disease, but also provides a disincentive for states to warn people of emerging illness. The current international health regulation policies of the World Health Organization have met limited success. The WHO, does not have the necessary enforcement power to effectively combat the newly emerging illnesses that pose the greatest threat to the world community. International health institutions have yet to neither develop the necessary resources nor take advantage of the international institutional mechanisms available to meet their public health goals. I will argue that through the development of global public policy (GPP) networks in the context of the international institutionalist approach, laid out by Robert Keohane, one will not only strike the necessary balance between the protection of state sovereignty and the protection of the health of individual citizens, but also find the most effective and efficient approach. In the following section, I will discuss the relevant international theoretical approaches to enforcement of international rules and regulations, in order to describe the framework and policy guidelines that have lead to my conclusions about the effectiveness of GPP networks as they apply to EID. In section II, I will discuss to origins and nature of the threat posed by EID along with the current economic and social implications. In section III, I will discuss three internationally significant EIDs, how they are spread, describe the globally significant consequences of such threats and how GPP networks can not only help to limit disease proliferation but pool together valuable resources that can facilitate the finding of a cure. Finally in section IV, I will summarize the GPP approach, and describe its future potential.
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UA015.012.DO.00103
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Open for research.
  Alliance for Progress or Alianza Para El Progreso? A Reassessment of the Latin American Contribution to the Alliance for Progress 2005

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: This thesis argues that the origins of the Alliance for Progress, despite having been extensively studied and written about, have not been portrayed with full accuracy. I argue that this was the case because students of the Alliance have approached it largely as a policy of the United States government, what, in turn, resulted in a series of conclusions that misrepresented the origins of the Alliance for Progress by assigning the wrong relative importance to the different factors that played a role in its creation. By redefining the Alliance as what it really was, an inter-American policy, and approaching the study of its origins, including its Latin American origins, I reassess the origins of the Alliance for Progress. I show that, contrary to what it is generally believed, the Alliance's main purpose was not only or even mainly to prevent the spread of communist revolutions and Soviet infiltration in Latin America but to genuinely pull the region out of economic, social and political despair. I also demonstrate that the most important characteristic of the Alliance's nature was not its magnitude as a foreign aid program but the revolutionary features of its policy prescriptions. As a consequence, I establish that the Alliance's most important conceptual foundation was not a new theory of foreign aid in the United States but the rich, sophisticated and influential Latin America structuralist school of thought. Moreover, even regarding its dimension as a major foreign aid program, I show that the original idea about the need for a more engaged participation of the United States in inter-American affairs, accompanied by a more generous commitment of funds, also originated in Latin America.
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UA015.012.DO.00104
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Open for research.
  Towards 'Peace Writ Large'?: Use of Evaluation in Assessing the Impact of Israeli/Palestinian Peace Education 2005

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: This paper examines the way in which organizations engaged in peace education evaluate the impact of their programs at both the micro- and macro-level. Looking at three organizations engaged in peace education work in Israel/Palestine, I will focus on the organizations' capacity to assess the impact of their work, in particular examining the ability of peace education programs to contribute to the larger goal of conflict transformation.
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UA015.012.DO.00105
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Open for research.
  Assimilation and Exclusion: An Analysis of Failed Policy in Macedonia 2005

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: According to multiple political scientists, there is a direct correlation between the heterogeneity of a country's population and the potential for ethnic politicization and violence. In the face of such heterogeneity, governments face various options to limit the potential damage, including forming a national identity which transcends ethnic bonds; instituting a policy of assimilation; and following a program of exclusion. Given the relatively recent appearance of Macedonia in its modern form, its ability to create a national identity which would encompass all ethnic groups found within its borders was extremely hindered. Additionally, there was a historic use of forced assimilation and harsher forms of homogenization in the Balkans. When faced, therefore, with Albanian nationalism in the 1980s and 1990s, Macedonia's following a program of assimilation and exclusion was understandable and predictable. Via policies such as educational reform, restrictions on language and family size, and economic, cultural, and political exclusion, the Macedonian Government attempted to counteract Albanian nationalism. The Macedonian Slav majority, however, was unable to bring the desired results of their exclusionary and assimilative policies to fruition. The Albanian minority's most innocuous resistance involved boycotts to peaceful protests, while the more violent ranged from the throwing of rocks to acts of terrorism. In fact, the ethnic Albanian resistance almost resulted in the dissolution of Macedonia by means of a referendum on Albanian autonomy and the subsequent declaration of the independent republic of Ilirida. Although the initial aim of the policies of assimilation and exclusion was to shore up Macedonia's political and territorial integrity, the result was almost the opposite; Macedonia was on the brink of civil war by 2001. This essay will analyze the rationale behind the Macedonian government's policies, the methods of Albanian resistance, and an explanation of the failure of government policy.
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UA015.012.DO.00106
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Open for research.
  The Strategic Corporal and the Emerging Battlefield: The Nexus between the USMC's Three Block War Concept and Network Centric Warfare 2005

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: The modern international security environment has undergone significant changes since the end of the Cold War. The U.S. Marine Corps, recognizing the changing landscape of war, articulated its vision of future warfare as the Three Block War. Concurrent to Marine Corps conceptualization of the Three Block War was an explosive growth in information technology developments. These developments, along with demands to reduce military spending, combined with the changing face of war to generate tremendous pressure upon the US military establishment to adapt. Emerging from these pressures was a desire to operationalize the information technology advancements realized at the end of the 20th Century in what is being called Network Centric Warfare. These two vectors, refining the Three Block War model and Network Centric Warfare, have come to be important elements to the strategies and tactics used in Operation Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom as well as components to the consequent debate about the appropriate future structure and composition of the U.S. military. The convergence of the Three Block War and Network Centric Warfare has led to renewed importance and significance of individual actions on the battlefield, the rebirth of the Strategic Corporal for 21st Century warfare if you will. The nexus of the Three Block War, Network Centric Warfare, and the Strategic Corporal have been put to the test in Iraq. In the fight for Fallujah, the small unit leader emerged as a center of gravity. His ability to affect the tactical level had strategic implications. To maximize the positive effects of these small unit leaders, the Marines developed their strategy to integrate the Three Block War principles with Network Centric Warfare concepts. They used the training concepts developed for the Three Block War and augmented them with the equipment developed for Network Centric Warfare. The result was tantamount to a human network centered on the small unit leader, the Strategic Corporal.
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UA015.012.DO.00107
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Open for research.
  Interpreting the Enemy: A Game Theoretic Model of Conflict with Applications to the Korean and Iraq Wars 2005

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: This report presents a game theoretic model of conflict and applies it to the Korean and Iraq Wars. The model segments international conflict into impasse, event, interpretation, challenge, and counterinterpretation phases. If a nation's leaders are frustrated in their efforts to mobilize resources against a perceived security menace, they will interpret an unexpected security event to resolve the impasse in their favor, even if the evidence linking the menace with the agent causing the event is weak. The leaders are likely to challenge the menace in an effort to validate their interpretation. The challenge will be widely counterinterpreted as a belligerent act, mobilizing support against the challenging nation. The agent should provoke the security event if it believes that the leaders will issue the challenge, and if it stands to gain enough from the mobilization of support. In Korea, the Truman administration was frustrated in its efforts to obtain resources to rearm the United States against the Soviet menace. When North Korea invaded South Korea, the administration linked the event to the Soviets, effectively resolving the impasse in its favor. It then went on to challenge the Soviets, protecting the Chinese Nationalists on Taiwan from attack by the Soviet-allied Communist Chinese, and leading a multinational force that drove the North Koreans out of South Korea and invaded North Korea itself. The intervention and invasion were seen as belligerent acts, and the Communist Chinese mobilized to North Korea's support, driving the U.S.-led forces essentially back to the original border between North and South Korea, where the war stagnated. The Truman administration managed to triple the defense budget, while the North Koreans won a crucial ally, gains that arguably outweighed the costs of carnage. In Iraq, the Bush administration desired to simultaneously cut taxes and increase military spending. When the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 occurred, the administration was quick to impute a linkage between al Qaeda and Saddam Hussein, and to argue that the Iraqis had advanced in a program to produce weapons of mass destruction, which might slip into the terrorists hands. The Bush administration challenged Saddam Hussein to either disarm or be invaded. The ultimatum was partially supported by the United Nations Security Council, but the U.S. and a coalition of the willing eventually invaded Iraq without a U.N. mandate. The decision, compounded by the subsequent failure to find weapons of mass destruction or al Qaeda linkage, has caused much of the world to counterinterpret the U.S. as a belligerent power, eroding its international legitimacy and increasing sympathy for bin Laden among Muslims. The Bush administration had its cake and ate it too, a tax cut and a massive increase in defense spending while from bin Laden's perspective, Muslims fighters have engaged U.S. troops in bloody and prolonged insurgencies, particularly in Iraq, and al Qaeda's support base among networked, radical Muslims has broadened and deepened.
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UA015.012.DO.00108
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Open for research.
  Branding America: An Examination of U.S. Public Diplomacy Efforts After September 11, 2001 2005

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: This paper explores the public diplomacy efforts of the United States after September 11, 2001 within the context of public diplomacy theory to make the case that the application of the private sector marketing technique of branding was not the sole reason the campaigns failed. Using the efforts of Under Secretary of State Charlotte Beers as a case study, I will explain why her case proves the U.S. needs to dramatically shift its public diplomacy efforts from crisis management in the Middle East to a global emphasis on building relationships in the future. In this paper, I explore the concepts of public diplomacy and branding to uncover the similarities that may have proved useful and the differences that may have spelled disaster ultimately concluding that the failure of the public diplomacy campaigns under Beers had less to do with the application of branding techniques to public policy and more to do with institutional, cultural and political factors. The paper concludes with prescriptions for the future conduct of U.S. public diplomacy advocating the need to take a long-term global perspective and to back away from short term myopically focused crisis management in a region where the U.S. Government is not a credible messenger. To restore this lost credibility, a two-way system of communication and understanding needs to be implemented through public diplomacy around the world.
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UA015.012.DO.00109
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Open for research.
  '10+3' Mechanism and its Development: A Comparative Analysis with the EU Experience 2005

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Compared with the high integration level of Europe Union, 10+3 mechanism is still in its very preliminary period of promoting East Asia regionalization; and it probably won't reach the level of EU in the foreseeable future, owing to different driving forces and constraints in the two regions. One of the major elements that guarantee EU achievement is said to be the homogeneity of democratic system in each member country, which 10+3 mechanism is going to lack for quite some time in the future. On the other hand, the willingness of promoting regionalization manifested by East Asia countries derives more from the desire for economic stability and continuing growth, in contrast with the longing for permanent security in West European countries in the early 50s. Different constraints and motivations determine the different path of integration in these two regions. With all the differences, there are some interesting similarities between the development of 10+3 and the early EU experience. To name only a few, 10+3 was born out of the East Asia financial crisis, while European integration came after the scourge of World War II; Before the initiation of Free Trade Agreements (FTA) were put on the table, there was an episode of Bilateral Monetary Swap Agreements in East Asia, in contrast with that of Coal and Steel Community in Europe before it started building a common market. Taking into account all the similarities and differences, a comparative analysis of these two integration processes might produce some useful findings for future development of 10+3 mechanism. This thesis, when combing the evolution and projecting the future of 10+3 process, tries to explore similarities and differences of these two integration process, for the purpose of extracting useful EU integration experiences while recognizing specific distinctions and constraints in East Asia. The thesis basically consists of four parts. The first part explores the genesis and evolution of 10+3 and theoretical diagnosis of its driving force. The second part addresses the two crucial steps of 10+3: the financial cooperation and the initiation of various FTAs across the region. The third part set forth the development of institution building, security cooperation in the framework. The fourth part argues that regional relations with United States will be indispensable in the future. The concluding part discusses various uncertainties on the development of 10+3.
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UA015.012.DO.00110
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Open for research.
  Crossroads in Sino-Japanese Relations: Exploring the Impact of Anti-Japanese Sentiment on Japanese Firms' Business Relations in China 2005

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Do unresolved historical tensions negatively affect current business relations between countries? This paper explores the question of whether popular anti-Japanese sentiment in China impacts Japanese firms' business relations in China. Drawing on relevant history, current trends, and key conceptual frameworks, the paper seeks to interpret the discrepant evidence from cases, media accounts, research studies, quantitative data and interviews with practitioners, which present contradictory portraits of the impact from anti-Japanese sentiment on Japanese firms in China. Upon analysis, it is found that national identity its salience, associated social norms, and encouragement of activism is the determining factor in driving the public expression of anti-Japanese sentiment in action in the business realm. In private transactions, however, where the benefit and cost to the immediate actors involved are of primary consideration, Chinese business behavior tends to be driven more by rational choice than by national identity. Thus, the impact of anti-Japanese sentiment on business relations represents the sensational exceptions rather than the general rule. Nevertheless, anti-Japanese sentiment carries real risks for Japanese firms in China, which may heighten if anti-Japanese national identity salience is sustained at the current high level. At a crossroads in Sino-Japanese relations, the quantifiable impact of historical grievances through the negative effects of anti-Japanese sentiment on current business relations may as yet prompt a final reckoning of the past between the two great powers of Asia.
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UA015.012.DO.00111
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Open for research.
  Renewable Development: The Economics and Policies that Drive Wind Energy Development 2005

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Renewable Development: The Economics and Policies that Drive Wind Energy Development is a business plan that was also submitted to the Tufts Frigon Social Entreprenuership Competition. It details how a wind farm would be built in the Midwestern United States, as well as the financial, social and environmental returns on investment. It also includes a comparative policy analysis which looks at the principal drivers in Europe and the United States. This section also includes policy recommendations which could further increase the market size.
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UA015.012.DO.00112
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Open for research.
  Strategy of Domination: ZANU-PF's Use of Ethnic Conflict as a Means of Maintaining Political Control in Zimbabwe, 1982-2006

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Zimbabwe is currently a country in crisis politically and economically. President Robert Mugabe's extreme policies against the opposition have led to Zimbabwe's international isolation. Within Africa, however, Mugabe has largely been shielded from criticism. The framing of his campaign against the opposition within the rhetoric of anti-colonialism has created a veil of legitimacy behind which Mugabe has been free to act. This paper argues that Robert Mugabe and his ZANU-PF party have habitually used ethnic conflict as a self-serving political weapon in Zimbabwe. It first develops a two-tiered theoretical framework within which the case of Zimbabwe can analyzed. It then analyzes three case studies in which Mugabe utilized ethnic conflict to neutralize political opposition: the campaign against the Zimbabwe African People's Union (1982-1987); the legitimization of the seizure of white-owned farms by ex-combatants (1998-2005); and the repression of the Movement for Democratic Change (2000-2006).
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UA015.012.DO.00113
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Open for research.
  Gender Roles in Refugee Camps: The Lasting Impact of Refugee Interventions in Tanzania 2006

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: The foundation of the African household lies in the relationship between men and women. This thesis explores how this fundamental relationship is affected by humanitarian assistance in refugee camps that promotes gender equality. The analysis of returnees' perceptions of gender relations suggests that changes engendered by the promotion of gender equality in refugee camps are not permanent. However, it is possible that the exposure to the idea of gender equality may contribute to the overall presence of these ideas in the minds of Burundians. Thus in the long term, interventions may in fact contribute to changes in Burundian gender roles and its development.
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UA015.012.DO.00114
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Open for research.
  On Our Own: Unilateralism in Israeli-Policymaking 2006

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Israeli policy-makers have turned towards unilateralism as opposed to bilateral diplomacy as a means to manage the security crisis stemming from the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. This thesis seeks to analyze and present what type of Palestinian State would be in Israel's best interest and to analyze and present the benefits and costs of unilateralism versus other policy options such as diplomacy. Analytic models, including game theory, focused on case studies such as the Disengagement from Gaza and the terrorism of Hamas. In addition, opportunities and obstacles for mediation by the United States were analyzed and the leadership strategies and styles of Ariel Sharon were compared with those of Ehud Olmert. The conclusions drawn by this study are that to be effective from the Israeli perspective, a Palestinian State must not present a security threat, nor a demographic threat, and be permanent and stable. Unilateral policies can lead Israel closer to this end-state, including a long-term interim Palestinian State with Provisional Borders, but ultimately only bilateral negotiation will lead to a permanent two-state solution to the conflict.
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UA015.012.DO.00115
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Open for research.
  Foreign Tourism in Brazil: Is the Sky the Limit? 2006

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: The Federal Republic of Brazil is a vast expanse of natural beauty that is just waiting to be discovered by foreign tourists. The country has what foreign tourists want: miles of deserted beaches, unspoiled natural beauty, a vibrant people and culture, and an infectious lightness of heart. Foreign tourism is strong, but has the potential to skyrocket off the charts. Why has this not happened yet? It is a promotional issue in that most foreign tourists have not been informed yet of the splendor that awaits them. Thus, the federal government has initiated a promotional branding campaign with the goal of showing the beauty of Brazil to the world. Such efforts are a good start, but deep challenges exist that must be overcome if the foreign tourism industry is to reach its massive potential. Some of these issues are more societal and others are simply a result of a lack of attention. Nevertheless, the federal government faces a considerable task as it must fight the tourism battle on two fronts. Internationally, it must continue to push ahead with its branding campaign in order for the world to see Brazil in the best possible light. Domestically, it must deal with the various problems faced by the foreign tourism industry. If successful, the future of foreign tourism in Brazil is certain to be bright. In this paper, I attempt to analyze the present state of the foreign tourism industry in Brazil, examine the hurdles that it faces, and then present recommendations for how to improve the industry. I begin with a background description of foreign tourism in Brazil. I then look at the role of tourism in the country's foreign direct investment. I next explain the concept of state branding and describe how the Brazilian government is using branding as a tool to enhance the county's image abroad. Following this, I investigate the difficulties faced by Brazil's foreign tourism industry, and conclude with recommendations for how the government can attract a greater number of foreign tourists.
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UA015.012.DO.00116
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Open for research.
  Industrial Policy Options for Developing Countries: The Case of the Automotive Sector in Thailand & Malaysia 2006

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Industrial policies are formulated in order to guide the course of economic development. In a country whose government has industrial policies, the market force is more or less distorted due to government intervention. It can also be the case that the government uses industrial policy to correct market distortion resulted from domestic monopoly. However, there is no uniformity in the essence or the extent of industrial policies. Different paths chosen by the governments lead to different patterns of industrial development. Even similar strategies could bring about different results when implemented under different environments. This thesis focuses on the policy options for developing countries in particular. The options studied here are the extent of the government's involvement in industrial development. The case study of the automotive sector in Thailand and Malaysia reveals that Malaysian state entrepreneurship, through the national car projects, hinders the development of the industry competitiveness. When the government gets involved in production, domestic competition is limited in order to protect its interests. Thus, the protected producers are not under pressure to upgrade their production capabilities. Further, it incurs greater burden on domestic consumers by raising domestic vehicle prices, yet creates less jobs than the Thai policy does. On the contrary, by staying out of production activities, the Thai state is able to draw the line between public and private interests. It encourages competition in the domestic market and was able to introduce liberalization to the industry earlier than the Malaysian state. The local producers, hence, are forced to improve their products in order to survive and the industry thereby experiences rapid expansion, contributing greatly to employment in the country.
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UA015.012.DO.00117
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Open for research.
  Failure at the Speed of Light: Project Escalation and De-Escalation in the Software Industry 2006

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: This thesis is about failure -- more specifically, failure in the software industry. Failure is an attractive subject because everyone experiences it, allowing people to understand on a personal level what will work in business -- and what won't. Failure is also a concept that is difficult to define, as there are many different academic opinions on the subject. The aim of this thesis is to take a look at notable failures in the software sector, and draw lessons from them in the context of organizational failure, looking at the internal and external factors that caused the projects to fail. It will look at three cases where software projects failed. Two of the cases were very public, involving not only corporations but also governmental bodies, including the City of Denver's Computerized Baggage Handling System project and the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Virtual Case File project. The third case deals with failure within a private company, the ArsDigita Corporation; while the company was still privately held, the information around the company's problems was made public by dissatisfied leaders and employees within the company. We shall look at the three cases through the framework of project escalation, which is defined as an escalating commitment to the project even after signs of failure are evident. We also discuss how each project de-escalated, and what kind of effect this had on the firms involved. In taking a look at each project, we will see that software had little or nothing to do with the failure at all. Instead, the internal and external factors surrounding each project contributed to its problems. Escalation and de-escalation are very important tools used to prove this, as they categorize the internal faults that each firm experienced while trying to execute their goals. However, external shocks to each project also played their part in the project failure. Following the three studies are short descriptions of systems that have been created in response to the problems project managers have encountered, showing us that companies realize that escalation is a problem, and they are proposing new strategies to identify and deal with it.
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UA015.012.DO.00118
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Open for research.
  Misreading Moscow: Toward a New Interpretation of Russian Peacekeeping in the Early 1990s 2006

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Since the early 1990s, the topic of Russian peacekeeping has received a certain amount of academic attention, much of it negative. Many of the criticisms that have been leveled against Russian peacekeeping have a basis in fact and will be addressed in this paper, but an analysis of the primary documents and the debate which went on in the Russian Federation during the mid-1990s reveals a much more complex picture than simply that of a post-imperial actor bent on regional hegemony. This paper places the Russian peacekeeping experience within general trends in UN peace support operations, evaluates the efficacy and shortcomings of Russian peacekeeping efforts and examines the factors which influenced Russian peacekeeping.
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UA015.012.DO.00119
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Open for research.
  Education in Complex Emergencies: A Case Study of the IRC Guinea Education Program 2006

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Civil wars in Liberia and Sierra Leone sent tens of thousands of people across the border to safety in Guinea. The newly arrived refugees started schools on an ad hoc basis to protect their children. Intervention by the International Rescue Committee, an agency that has traditionally specialized in humanitarian relief, took on the mandate to organize the refugee schools into one system and to implement programs as part of the relief effort. The lives of the refugees were changed because the IRC sponsored education programs gave an entire generation of children, and tens of thousands of adults, access to a formal education, to non-formal programs and vocational training they otherwise would not have had. The programs made a difference because: Tens of thousands of children ages 5-17 were given the opportunity to attend formal school programs equal to the formal programs in their home countries. Non-formal education programs were relevant to the lives of the refugees. In many cases, it was the first time these beneficiaries had ever been exposed to the information they received regardless of the setting. Knowledge and skills gained by the children and adults have been verified via documents that certify learning, training or skills. Because the countries of origin recognize the documents, the refugees can continue schooling or access employment upon repatriation. The statistics, revealed for the first time, are dramatic. For example, the first IRC sponsored school year came to a close in July 1991. Data show reveal that 9 percent of the population of refugee students would could have attended school actually did attend IRC sponsored schools. A decade and a half later, when the school year came to a close in 2005, the percentage of the population of refugee students would could have attended school increased to 61 percent. This thesis is an analysis of how and why that change occured.
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UA015.012.DO.00120
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Open for research.
  The Risk of Democracy: Theoretical and Empirical Considerations on the Effects of Electoral Uncertainty on Latin American Emerging Markets 2006

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: I derive two basic models from political-business cycle (PBC) theory and the original obsolescing bargain model to assess the level of political and economic risk associated with Latin American elections. The first model posits that the economic risks associated with the victory of a given candidate are a function of both ideology and the macroeconomic outlook of the country. The second model builds on these assumptions to analyze the specific case of the risk of expropriation or measures tantamount to expropriation, as well as of other disruptive policies such as sudden tax hikes. It posits that this particular risk is a function of the ideological preferences of the government, as in the first case, but also of the economic cost associated with the policy. I contend that the models help explain past and recent instances of macroeconomic instability and expropriation events. I also argue that the PBC model explains why the lead of left-wing candidates in Mexico and Brazil has not resulted in an increased perception of risk for these countries as measured by sovereign spreads--in spite of the notion that these types of candidates are invariable associated with investor malaise. I also argue, however, that the models and the theories from which they are derived are best understood as frameworks for the analysis and that it is difficult to generalize the conclusions derived from any given case.
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UA015.012.DO.00121
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Open for research.
  The Invisible Enemy: Suicide Terrorism in Chechnya and Sri Lanka 2006

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Suicide terrorists strike without warning and are difficult if not impossible to stop. The use of suicide terrorism around the world continues to grow, as does its use against civilian populations. The study of a suicide terrorist is very difficult because they are almost always dead before any one has any knowledge of their intent. This form of violence is becoming ever more prevalent today in various conflicts around the world. It is therefore paramount that a deeper understanding of suicide terrorism is understood in order to develop means with which to combat it. This paper discusses suicide terrorism theory and the importance of both the organizational and the individual motivations to use suicide terrorism as a weapon. Using a comparative case study of two conflicts that have used suicide bombers I will draw out similarities and contrasts to highlight what causes individuals and organizations to use this weapon. In reviewing the cases of Chechnya and Sri Lanka this paper will explore the history of each conflict, the ideology used by each organization to legitimize the use of suicide terrorism, the organizational structures of these terrorist organizations, individual motivations for individuals within these groups who volunteer for suicide missions, and review measures to counter suicide terrorism. The aim of this research is to explore suicide terrorism's use in two specific conflicts in order to gain an understanding of the motivations for its use and an increased awareness of the triggers that cause individuals to volunteer for these missions. These issues are essential for consideration in attempting to combat these attacks before they occur.
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UA015.012.DO.00122
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Open for research.
  World Bank-Financed Resettlement in China: The Influence of Property Rights in Resettlement Practices and Outcomes 2006

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: This paper explores the influence of property rights in World Bank resettlement policies and practices within China, a country without private property protections. Using two case studies to demonstrate the intricacies of different resettlement projects, the paper attempts to highlight practices of potential risk for resettled people and areas in which the protection of property rights could be stronger.
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UA015.012.DO.00123
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Open for research.
  Transnationalism in New York City: A Study of Remittance Sending by Ecuadorian Migrants 2006

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Based primarily on 21 interviews of Ecuadorian immigrants carried out in New York City, this thesis presents findings that look at the tradeoffs migrants face when they send remittances. In addition, the data collected provides insights on the reasons behind their decisions and the broader implications of remittance sending for this particular immigrant group. This information is presented within the larger context of migration theory and explores the phenomenon of recent Ecuadorian migration. The study reveals the prevalence of remittance sending among Ecuadorian immigrants and the potential for sending collective remittances. The findings from the small study also point out areas for further research about this growing immigrant community in New York. With this in mind, a set of policy recommendations largely based on the participants' feedback are presented for the Ecuadorian government and civic groups to improve the level of organization and unity within the Ecuadorian community in New York City and facilitate the transfer of resources to their communities back home.
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UA015.012.DO.00124
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Open for research.
  Democratic Islamists? A Case Study on the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS) 2006

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: This study seeks to contribute to a heightened understanding of Islamism as it relates to political parties functioning within democratic or democratizing countries. To begin, it will very briefly examine theoretical Islamist approaches to participation in democratic systems to establish that many Islamists do believe that Islam and democracy are compatible and that the participation of Islamist political parties in democratic systems is permissible and, indeed, desirable. With this basis established, the core contribution of this study follows with an in-depth analysis of the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS), its evolution, and its political agenda in the areas of Islamic law and governance, democracy and domestic politics, foreign policy and security, and economics. The experience of PAS, which has peacefully participated in Malaysia's quasi-democratic system since the period before independence from Britain in 1957, may challenge many of the assumptions commonly held about Islamist parties, while at the same time reinforcing others. It finds that PAS is a politically savvy actor that has demonstrated its adaptability to electoral conditions and challenges. Despite this adaptability, it is unlikely that the group -- even in the face of complete liberalization of the Malaysia political process -- will ever achieve national political power given Malaysia's demographics, cleavages within the Malay-Muslim community, and institutional challenges that favor the incumbents. Yet, this assessment shows that presently PAS can be called a party of democratic Islamists and that its position as the most powerful opposition party in the country serves the cause of greater democratization within the Malaysian political system.
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UA015.012.DO.00125
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Open for research.
  Development of Supporting Industries for Vietnam's Industrialization 2006

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Vietnam opened up to the outside world in the early 1990s, and expected that the massive inflow of foreign direct investment (FDI) would accelerate economic growth. However, FDI inflow actually decreased after a small boom in the mid 1990s. While various external factors are responsible for this, internal factors have also affected the flow of FDI. In particular, the weakness of supporting industries is considered to be one of the primary factors responsible for this. Competitive supporting industries are required to attract more FDI into Vietnam, because multi-national corporations (MNCs) consider them to be an important factor in the decision to expand FDI, in addition to labor costs. Moreover, the development of supporting industries is necessary for amplifying FDI's positive externalities in Vietnam. Although many developing countries are trying to attract FDI in order to accelerate economic growth, the net externalities of FDI for host countries seem ambiguous.
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UA015.012.DO.00126
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Open for research.
  Afghanistan, Education and the Formation of the Taliban 2006

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: In the past half-century alone, Afghanistan has seen the collapse of its monarchy, the installation of a Soviet secular state, a successful Mujahideen insurgency to overthrow the Communist government, debilitating factionalization of Mujahideen clans, the precipitous rise and collapse of the Taliban government, and the installation of Hamid Karzai's fledgling government in the wake of post 9/11 US intervention. Underlying these successive waves of conflict has been an ongoing struggle between secular and religious control of Afghanistan's educational institutions. Control of the education system has been a mobilizing force for the conservative Islamist movement, the socialists, the overthrow of the Soviet government and the subsequent rise to power of the Taliban. This thesis will examine both the symbolic and the substantive role that the education system in Afghanistan has had in precipitating these successive waves of conflict with a particular focus on the madrassa system and its impact on the emergence of the Taliban.
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UA015.012.DO.00127
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Open for research.
  Exporting Jihad: Iran's Use of Non-State Armed Groups 2006

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: This paper examines Iran's use of non-state armed groups to achieve its political and security objectives. It recognizes the use of non-state armed groups as being a critical component to an Iranian security doctrine that is guided by strategic asymmetry. Specifically, it examines: the political and strategic cultures that contribute to the use of non-state armed groups; the structural components that facilitate their use; the operational particulars of the groups which Iran utilizes; the broader implications of their strategic employment. To achieve this qualitative study, this paper uses an architecture for the study of non-state armed groups. This architecture was developed by Professors Richard Shultz, Douglas Farrah, and Itamara Lochard in the US Air Force INSS Occasional Paper (57), entitled Armed Groups: A Tier-One Security Policy. This framework provides four categories of non-state armed groups, and it utilizes six variables for the analysis of individual groups. Analysis leads this study to conclude the following: Iran's senior leadership sees the exportation of jihadi insurgencies as paramount to achieving its long-term ideological goals.
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UA015.012.DO.00128
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  Beyond Preferential Market Access: Enhancing the Development Potential of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (Agoa), a Focus on the Economic Community of West African States (Ecowas) 2006

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Trade preferences targeted at developing countries have been a feature of developed countries' commercial policies for the past forty years. There are several debates on whether such preferential trade agreements yield benefits to participating countries. This paper, using the example of the fairly generous Africa Growth and Opportunity Act (over 98 percent of products from qualifying sub-Saharan countries to the US receive duty free treatment), examines some of the underlying reasons for the poor performance of preferential trade arrangements on the export performance of eligible countries of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS).
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UA015.012.DO.00129
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Open for research.
  Under What Conditions Should Donors Promote Consulting Services in Developing Countries? 2006

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: This paper examines how the provision of consulting services to businesses in developing countries can be improved by setting out a framework for assessing when it is well justified for donors to intervene in the consulting market. Much donor thinking on consulting services has focused on how to deliver the services effectively, but less thought has addressed the conditions for intervention. This paper attempts to fill that gap and offer direction for future research. The paper first describes the donor history of consulting services and tells a story of intervention evolving from direct provision to market intervention and most recently fragmenting along multiple theoretical faults. In response to the volatile conceptual history, the paper lays out a four part framework for assessing whether intervention is well justified under given circumstances. The first piece of the framework requires showing that the benefits of consulting services are greater than the costs in the society. Second, potential market failures are examined to help explain low levels of service provision in situations where benefits outweigh costs. Third, equity rationales for intervention are considered. Fourth, even when potential benefits and a demonstrated market failure exist, donors must have a cost effective method of intervention; the paper provides a description of how to determine if the intervention is cost effective. The framework offers intervention options corresponding to potential problems discovered in steps one and two of the framework. The paper reaches four conclusions. First, empirical research is required to determine (1) the degree to which business cash flows change due to consulting assistance, (2) the costs of consulting services, (3) the commonness or diversity of knowledge and advice demanded by businesses, and (4) the factors contributing to monopoly. Second, information failure deserves careful attention as a determinant of need for strategy consulting interventions. Third, promoting guarantee schemes is an under explored option. Finally, there may be many circumstances which don't call for intervention.
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UA015.012.DO.00130
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  Industrial Revolution: International Outsourcing in Manufacturing 2006

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: The purpose of this work is innovation and outsourcing; and the relationship of the two to firm success. Since companies of all types and sizes now use outsourcing to some degree, understanding the full impact of this activity on a firm's ability to innovate is crucial. This is especially important as outsourcing gets closer to the firm's value creating activities and core competencies. Some firms are already doing this successfully; others do not. Because the ceramic tableware industry is a highly competitive consumer goods segment that miraculously continues to survive import competition, this research will look under the plate and examine outsourced manufacturing in the industry. Cracks in the fine glaze of the industry in the western economies are obvious, but outsourcing has the potential to introduce new life into old favorites that have lined the cabinets and set the table for generations. How a firm decides to implement outsourcing dictate whether this proposition pays. Using case studies and a decision framework, the paper establishes an integrative way to evaluate offshore outsourcing. The decision framework, comprised of key economic and business strategy theories, dictates a decision to outsource when the firm is able to maximize its ability to internalize key aspects of the outsourcing. It also dictates a set of criteria from innovation theory that firms will seek the strongest appropriation models available when outsourcing in order to minimize the loss of innovation sources. Together, these are applied to the case study firms for analysis. The conclusion this paper draws is the need for businesses to understand fully the strategic value of outsourcing, but in the context of the individual firm. Unless the decision is fully vetted and part of a larger strategy for competitive advantage, moving production outside the firm just delays the inevitable. Such a failure is avoidable.
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UA015.012.DO.00131
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Open for research.
  The Local as Client: Educational Decentralization and Partnership in Nicaragua 2006

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: What has characterized the educational landscape of the developing world perhaps more poignantly than any other trend in recent history is a definitive march towards decentralized school management. A succession of events has unmistakably placed the power of decision-making in the hands of local and regional in-country authorities, replacing in irreversible fashion the bureaucratic and bloated management schemes of yesteryear. Developed and developing world governments have learned to incorporate such a trend into daily operations as they realize the veritable power of local actors to reform educational practice. The decentralization movement, spurred on by a variety of motivating factors, holds serious promise for education systems worldwide. The prospect of empowering schools and surrounding communities to serve as decision-makers and formulators of policy is a powerful one indeed. Nicaragua serves as the ideal nation upon which to focus an analysis of the decentralization movement. For decades, the state has struggled through perilous, centralized planning of its education sector. In recent years, though, the nation has witnessed a transformation of sorts with respect to educational management. School leaders and local citizens have been targeted as the heirs of the education policy domain. Initiatives aimed at decentralizing educational authority have introduced the possibility of a political power shift from the center to the periphery. Citizens find themselves in a greater position of authority, as school directors and local politicians are scrutinized by community members. Efficiency and accountability represent the desired hallmarks of modern day pedagogical practice. Implementing such change, though, has not been without its notable challenges. In the developing context, political instability represents an unfortunate reality. Sustainable educational policy becomes difficult to implement, as turnover in governmental administrations prevent long-term strategic approaches from coming to fruition. As well, nations such as Nicaragua struggle to provide the needed resources, financial and otherwise, to meet the demands of a decentralized management scheme. Local leadership capacity must be strengthened if citizen participation is to serve as the paradigm for the future. A gap in the capacity to carry out decentralization reform has arisen across communities. With these pressing issues in mind, an innovative partnership is offered between local communities and the international organization. Although seemingly opposite with respect to political engagement, the two entities together offer much towards resolving the decentralization divide. Three viable avenues are suggested as a means of uniting the local and the global and improve educational practice both in Nicaragua and throughout the developing context. Global networks of viable information sharing ought to be in place. Local educational challenges need to be legitimized on the world stage. Fundamentally, though, local educational agents, their needs, and best practices must serve as the focus of any educational management reform. It is through the power of these communities, and the parallel support of international organizations, that the global decentralization campaign depends.
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UA015.012.DO.00132
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  The Two Intifadas: An Analysis of the Strategies and Tactics of the Israelis and the Palestinians 2006

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: The thesis discusses the strategies and tactics that both sides used during the two intifadas. Its main focus is the difference between the two and the reasons for this difference.
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UA015.012.DO.00133
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Open for research.
  Transnational Networks in International Trade: An Evalution of Ethnicity and Culture in U.S. Trade Flows 2006

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: This paper tests the hypothesis that when two countries participate in the same transnational ethnic or cultural network, the volume of trade between them increases. Using the gravity model of international trade and data on the United States in 2000, we find that while older ancestral groups do not influence bilateral trade flows, a one-percentage increase in the foreign-born population increases bilateral trade by at least 9 percent. We also conclude that the linguistic composition of the country positively influences its trade flows. Finally, we apply these empirical findings to the current debate on U.S. immigration policy.
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UA015.012.DO.00134
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Open for research.
  Free Trade and Weak States: The Case of Dr-Cafta in Nicaragua 2006

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: DR-CAFTA presents wonderful opportunities for the people and states of Central America. Unfortunately, the government of Nicaragua is in very bad shape and is unlikely to implement the complementary policies necessary to support the 'losers' in globalization in the transition. This paper looks at the four branches of government in Nicaragua and compares them to an idealized government.
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UA015.012.DO.00135
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Open for research.
  Crisis Management at the Tip of the Spear 2006

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Organizations have a crisis threshold that is a product of the adaptive capacity in their component organizations. This crisis threshold can be adjusted by implementing changes in organizational structure, organizational culture, and the processes that the organization uses. By implementing changes in these areas within component organizations, the overall adaptive capacity of the organization will be increased and its crisis threshold raised. Analysis and case studies are based on U.S. Marine Corps culture, organization, and processes along with case studies of combat operations in Iraq.
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UA015.012.DO.00136
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  Politics and Modern History of Hazara: Sectarian Politics in Afghanistan 2006

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: This is an excellent description of how sectarian politics in Afghanistan offered foreign powers an opportunity to intervene in Afghanistan's politics. This study is also important in terms of how external forces and internal conflicts combined to have disastrous consequences for the Hazara community in Afghanistan as Humayun Sarabi demonstrates, the use of sectarian division between the small Shii community and the two larger ethnic groups--Tajik and Pashtun. To finally explain what happened, the writer analyzed original sources that demonstrate how the Human Rights violations that took in siege of Kabul and the civil war that followed the defeat of the PDPA and during the rise of Taliban. This important work needs to profit the anthropological insights and the persistence of kinship and ethnic divisions of Afghanistan.
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UA015.012.DO.00137
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Open for research.
  Human Trafficking and the Common European Asylum System: Victim Protection and Assistance in the European Union 2006

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: This paper examines human trafficking within the European Union and questions how to provide international protection to victims of human trafficking in the EU. The focus of this paper is on the situation of victims who face deportation from the European Union: non-EU citizens who are trafficked into the EU. The core of this thesis is the research question: what mechanisms can be developed within, or to complement, the common European asylum system to provide assistance and protection to victims of human trafficking who want assistance but face deportation from the EU? The argument is maintained that victims of human trafficking are in need of international protection and must not be deported nor forced to return to their country of origin. First, the thesis examines the possibility of affording victims of human trafficking in the EU the right to asylum under the common European asylum system. This paper then concludes that asylum is not an appropriate institutional response for victims of human trafficking, and posits that internal coherence to providing assistance and protection to victims of human trafficking within the European Union could be created through the establishment of a common European temporary residence permit system for victims of human trafficking, complementing the common European asylum system.
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UA015.012.DO.00138
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Open for research.
  To Make Unity Attractive: A Framework for State- and Power-Structures and Electoral Systems in the Sudan's Post-Conflict Transition 2006

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: To make unity attractive is the stated task for all political actors as the Sudan finds itself at a crossroads. More than a year after the signing of the so-called Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), about three years ahead of the first post-conflict elections, and with the crucial referendum over the independence of the South in 2011, making unity attractive is a last attempt to avoid the fragmentation of Africa's largest country. While the stated task requires action on many levels, this thesis addresses two macro-level issues that can potentially have a large impact on the attractiveness of unity: the state- and power structures in the future Sudan and, as part of this broad picture, the electoral system by which the representatives are to be elected. First, given that the past 50 years have brought the Sudan to the brink of disintegration, it is argued that the constitutional obligation for a comprehensive constitutional review should be used to radically rethink the state- and power structure in the Sudan, in order to build a new Sudan on fresh foundations. The framework presented in this thesis as an example of such a radical restructuring suggests the creation of large, clearly heterogeneous federal entities with an internal power balance between the communities that are on different sides of the deepest Sudanese divides. This is intended to reduce the interests in some of the most contentious issues at this point -- as for example the exact delineation of the border between the North and the South -- problems which continue to fuel tensions rather than making unity attractive. Such states, vested with significant autonomous powers, will also be well situated to counter the historical dominance of the center, which marginalized many communities and has rendered unity an unattractive option for them. Yet, the unwillingness to engage in such a discussion by leading Sudanese is discussed, and some proposals for more modest adaptations of the current system are proposed. Second, the 2009 Sudanese elections represent a major event in creating and assessing the attractiveness of unity. They therefore need careful preparation, which should include a thorough consideration of different electoral systems that could help to promote peace and unity. As a contribution to this discussion, this thesis suggests an adapted proportional electoral system for the legislative elections, which can provide an incentive for integrative behavior through the distribution of bonus seats to parties with a nationwide outreach. Unfortunately, the interim constitution has pre-determined that the new president shall be elected in a two-round majoritarian system, before an integrative discussion on this topic has been held. In light of this, the adoption of a strong code of conduct among the competing parties for the presidency could be used as a flexible tool to commit the candidates to run on a national platform and on an integrative message. Together, it is argued, the proportional and the majoritarian aspects with an integrative spin in the two elections could help to make unity attractive. Mindful that the decisions on these matters will finally have to be taken by the Sudanese politicians, and that the process of decision-making will crucially impact the legitimacy of the adopted solution, it is hoped that this academic contribution can help foster discussion on these topics in the Sudan.
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UA015.012.DO.00139
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  Success Factors of Agricultural Futures Markets in Developing Countries and Their Implication on Existing and New Local Exchanges in Developing Countries 2006

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Developing countries market participants most often have relied on futures trading at international exchanges in developed countries to hedge out price risks rising in local markets. Nonetheless, in recent years of futures markets development, a few developing countries succeeded in launching a local exchange and contract competing against the highly liquid international exchanges. This paper addresses the success in these developing countries and provides a through analysis of what may have been important in generating such notable outcomes. A number of hypotheses have been tested in a qualitative sense and i) presence of large physical markets, ii) a contract that is substantially different from existing contracts or with a large basis risk, iii) development of financial intermediaries and iv) development of institutional arrangement including financial markets, regulations were largely factors of success followed by presence of committed market actors, low level of industry integration and export orientation of underlying products.
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UA015.012.DO.00140
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  The Changing Face of Microfinance in India: The Costs and Benefits of Transforming from an NGO to a Non-Bank Financial Company 2006

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: It has been approximately 25 years since the birth of Microfinance with the Founding of the Grameen Bank in Bangladesh by Professor Mohammad Yunus. The field has since spread with the adaptation and evolution of Professor Yunus' ideas to various countries and contexts. However, with all the excitement about the prospects of the field to contribute to poverty alleviation and the integration of the world's poor into the rapidly evolving global market system, the Consultative Group to Assist the Poorest (CGAP) estimates that microfinance probably reaches fewer than 5 percent of its potential clients. Although this is a very rough estimate of those not reached by formal financial institutions, it might serve to provide a general idea of what share of the potential clients of microfinance have yet to be reached. India is home to a growing and innovative sector of microfinance. With a large portion of the world's poor, India is likely to have a large potential demand for microfinance. For this reason, It makes sense to consider the changing face of microfinance in India, in order to shed light on comparable changes in the field all over the world. The overarching question this study looks to answer in the interests of greater impact and outreach of microfinance in India is: What are the costs and benefits of a Microfinance NGO of transforming to a Non-Bank Financial Company (NBFC)? More specifically, how does organizational form affect a Microfinance Institution's ability to achieve success by both financial and social standards? By taking a closer look at three cases of transformation to or start up as an NBFC, we can better understand the intricacies, challenges, successes, and opportunities for microfinance delivery of independent MFIs in India.
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UA015.012.DO.00141
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Open for research.
  Hedge Fund Portfolio Construction 2006

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Investing in hedge funds requires a diversified and well-constructed portfolio of different hedge fund strategies to ensure that risks at both the individual fund manager level and the systemic level are minimized. The different hedge fund strategies are exposed to different systemic risks, and returns will therefore change with changes in the market environment. These different risk/return profiles provide almost endless possibilities for creating value through active portfolio allocation, where strategies interplay to generate consistent absolute returns. A prerequisite for a successful allocation is a thorough understanding of the different risk/return drivers in each strategy. Risk in hedge funds comes primarily through exposure to the different underlying security instruments which the funds use to generate returns. A number of hedge fund strategies invest in more than one asset class, thereby diversifying the return generation, but not necessarily reducing the total risk exposure. An explanation for the risk in some of the hedge fund strategies can be found through regression analysis against other market indicators, while some strategies can only partly be explained by regression analysis. This lack of clearly defined market risk does not indicate that the strategy is risk-free, but merely that the associated risks are non-quantifiable, due to the use of non-linear return methods such as derivatives and leverage. The optimal portfolio allocation will always be a trade-off among the risks an investor is willing to incur for an anticipated return level. Risks can be measured both as standard deviation and as Value-at-Risk, but a hedge fund portfolio should be constructed with the mean-variance optimization model, as none of the hedge fund strategies can be rejected for normality if the return distribution is considered according to time relevance. The separation of the hedge fund portfolio into a core and a tactical part would be useful for sophisticated hedge fund investors who have the ability to actively follow market environments, and monitor the risk/return parameters continuously. For the less sophisticated investor, the hedge fund portfolio should be kept at a core level with a long-term investment objective. Due to opaque investment methods, hedge fund investing requires specialized skills, such as an understanding of complex security instruments, extensive industry knowledge, and analytical ability. An institution or high net worth individual may benefit from an intermediary partner e.g. a fund of hedge funds who possesses the necessary qualifications and skills to filter through the many thousands of hedge funds and understands how the different hedge fund strategies can be optimally combined to generate consistent absolute returns.
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UA015.012.DO.00142
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Open for research.
  Coping with Displacement: The Case of Internally Displaced Persons in Jinja, Uganda 2006

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Even though Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) are among the most vulnerable victims of conflict, and constitute arguably the largest at-risk population in the world, the Global IDP Project has noted that research on the numbers and needs of this population is limited. In many war-affected countries, IDPs are reduced to the role of silent victims, as they have little opportunity to simply voice their concerns to the authorities. As such, understanding the strategies IDPs have developed to voice their concerns to authorities and integrate into urban communities will allow for a broader understanding of IDP experiences and coping strategies. Drawing on field research conducted in June and July of 2005 in Uganda, the country with the third largest displaced population, this thesis explores how belonging to a social network, neighborhood association, or group enhances the experiences of Acholi IDPs in Jinja, the second-largest city in Uganda. This research explores the hypothesis that IDPs who work in groups and align with internal and external networks, are better able to cope with displacement than IDPs who work alone to pursue individual livelihoods. Those who work in groups and align themselves with networks find employment and gain protection from threats more easily than those working alone. Networks also give members access to assets, services, livelihoods, shelter, and education and promote positive mental health and well-being. Membership in a network or alignment with an association also promotes peaceful co-existence with the indigenous population. Hence, IDPs who align themselves with networks are more successful at integrating into their urban communities than those who work alone. Using the case study of Jinja, Uganda, this research will contribute to our understanding of how urban IDPs respond to crises. This research explores the difference between how IDPs and indigenous populations in urban areas experience poverty. It explores individual agency in making decisions about whether to flee, where to flee to, and how to recreate important social, economic, and cultural aspects of their lives. This research looks at the patterns of displacement to urban areas and the ways in which IDPs access resources through social networks.
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UA015.012.DO.00143
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Open for research.
  The Potential for Wind-Powered Desalination in Water-Scarce Countries 2006

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: This paper explores the global potential for integrating wind power and desalination technologies to increase water supplies. Desalination processes allow for the conversion of abundant salt water to relatively scarce freshwater and therefore represent great potential for water scarcity alleviation. A major limitation of desalination is its high energy requirements, and therefore it is useful to explore how renewable energy sources (such as wind) can be linked into desalination systems for sustainable freshwater production into the future. Desalination and wind technologies are summarized in this paper, including growth trends, costs, and emerging technological advancements. GIS is then used to generate a map of global wind-powered desalination potential hotspots, to give a rough idea where the integration of these technologies might be the most applicable. The analysis generated a short list of countries that have the greatest potential for leveraging gains from wind-powered desalination plants, including: Barbados, Cape Verde, Egypt, Haiti, Libya, Madagascar, Mauritania, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, South Africa and Yemen. While there are significant limitations to the data used for this paper, it is hoped that the results of this analysis will generate discussions and further research on the implementation of wind-powered desalination in the identified countries, as well as other regions of the globe.
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UA015.012.DO.00144
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Open for research.
  Conflict Sensitive Development--Reality or Wishful Thinking? 2006

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: There has been a growing understanding among development NGOs and practitioners in both conflict resolution and development fields of the need to incorporate interdisciplinary approach to their practices. The rational behind this is to increase the effectiveness and sustainability of development projects and reduce the negative effects of development aid on ongoing conflicts. However, in reality many development agencies working in the context of conflict do not incorporate conflict sensitive planning of their projects. In this thesis I try to understand what makes the seemingly natural and much needed link between the development and conflict resolution fields so difficult to implement on the ground. The thesis is divided into three parts. The first chapter provides a basic theoretical framework of reference for the rest of the chapters. In this chapter, I give a basic (but not a complete) overview of the major historical trends in development and conflict resolution theory and practice, and the few examples of how the two are linked. The second chapter uses Georgia as a case study to understand the gaps according to development practitioners in being able to incorporate conflict sensitive work. The third chapter tries to understand these gaps through structural analysis of the differences between the two fields focusing on ethics and culture, values and needs, institutional incentives, accountability mechanisms, and capacities for organizational learning.
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UA015.012.DO.00145
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Open for research.
  Macroeconomic Policy Framework for Reducing Deforestation: A Sri Lankan Case Study 2006

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Using a case study on Sri Lanka and comparing findings to literature on Bolivia and Cameroon, this thesis explores the linkages between economy-wide policies (both macroeconomic and sectoral policies) and deforestation in order to determine the macroeconomic policy framework conducive to limiting deforestation. For Sri Lanka, the case study explores the impact of agriculture subsidies, trade and government-sponsored irrigation schemes on deforestation arising from chena (slash-and-burn agriculture), rice cultivation, illicit felling, smallholder tea, cardamom cultivation and prawn farming. Agricultural subsidies have had little impact on forest loss because access to subsidies has been restricted or because labor or land constraints have prevented expansion of farms. Trade protection appears to have favored deforestation through increased cultivation of chena crops in particular regions, depending on the availability of alternative lifestyles. Domestic plantation supplies of timber, logging bans and monitoring of transported wood have discouraged illicit felling. Tea export duties have not directly impacted deforestation from tea smallholders. Corruption has played a key role in facilitating the clearing of mangroves for prawn-farming. Explicit government promotion of irrigation schemes has been the main government policy directly linked to deforestation. However, by enabling more intensive land-use, irrigation may have reduced future deforestation from chena in light of increasing population pressures and growing demand for agricultural land. The primary macroeconomic policy driver for deforestation in Bolivia has been government-sponsored settlement schemes for soybean cultivation. Long-term deforestation pressures remain high due to the unsustainability of soybean cultivation and the government's failure to take concrete measures to alleviate rural poverty. A lack of environmental planning and private market restrictions have also led to deforestation loss from logging. In Cameroon, deforestation has been driven by the introduction and sudden removal of coffee and cocoa subsidies, which have led to the expansion of coffee and cocoa plantations or abandonment of plantations in favor of increased slash-and-burn agriculture. Lack of fiscal restraint and insufficient policies promoting economic diversification created conditions that necessitated abrupt removal of agricultural subsidies and liberalization of coffee and cocoa marketing. A comparison of the findings from Sri Lanka, Bolivia and Cameroon demonstrates that a macroeconomic policy framework amenable to forest conservation needs to include explicit incorporation of environmental considerations in government-wide policy-making, be based on the long term, be focused on small-scale development targeted at disadvantaged groups, account for differing temporal and regional considerations, involve diversification, include private market restrictions and be supported by environmentally-friendly economic interventions by the international community.
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UA015.012.DO.00146
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Open for research.
  Myth of Equality 2006

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Equality is a means not an end. It serves many purposes and is often a very efficient one. However, depending on the ends preferred, more efficient means may replace equality as the means to achieve such ends. In so far as different means may achieve preferred outcomes better, such means may replace equality in the context of achieving such preferred outcomes. A priori it could be concluded that a modern day system of innumerable social interactions and consequently innumerable rules, which is outcome oriented, would have a complex web of norms, the interplay of which would determine the extent to which the principle of equality could be employed. An analysis of selected judicial dicta in the realms of international trade law and human rights law in the area of equality or its counterpart non-discrimination, across jurisdictions, both domestic and international, substantiates this claim. The analysis includes a study of WTO, ECJ, US and ECHR decisions. An approach that abandons the ideal of equality and recognizes the aims and effects approach, which in practice is employed, would be less disingenuous and more explanatory of the diverse decisions in this regard.
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UA015.012.DO.00147
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  Agriculture and Conflict: A Conceptual Framework for Development 2006

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: A framework aimed at development practitioners for conceptualizing links and impacts on violent conflict through agricultural development.
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UA015.012.DO.00148
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Open for research.
  Locating Legitimacy in Territorial Space 2004

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: When human governing systems are compared to those of the natural world, the natural world appears very stable by comparison. The rise and fall of civilizations, empires and states is at the same time accompanied by unmovable forests, oceans and rivers in which vast numbers of living things interact and maintain themselves without any guidance or direction from a central authority. When looked at closely, natural systems are in fact very complex entities with many different species interacting that are constantly changing and adapting, but somehow, the system as a whole remains stable. What is it about the dynamics of nature that allows it to look like a static governing system while human dynamics produce unstable governing systems? Is there some natural characteristic that results in natures stable systems that can be replicated to better create more stable human governing systems? This paper proposes the idea that, like natural systems, human governance systems can be defined as Complex Adaptive Systems, and that the key feature distinguishing human rule making from nature is legitimacy. Legitimacy itself will be shown as an emergent property of the human governance system and it is generated through the physical interaction of people in geographic space.
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UA015.012.DO.00149
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Open for research.
  'History Obliges' The Real Motivations Behind German Aid Flows in the Case of Namibia 2004

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree of Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: This study explains the exceptional donor position that Germany assumes in Namibia. Contrary to the predominant discourse on aid allocation literature, this study finds that classic motives such as need, economic potential, strategic interest in military terms, democracy and region do not factor in as strongly in Namibia's case. Germany's aid flows are largely a result of two variables, (1) moral obligation, a largely understudied variable and (2) cultural similarity, a variable not often applied in the German context due to the removed colonial presence. Moral obligation is mainly a product of German-Namibian colonial history -the 'genocide' that the emperor's troops executed in 1904-07, reinforced by the largely contested German aid flows to Namibia during South African occupation. The recognition of colonial wrongdoings by German politicians, coupled with external pressure have turned moral obligation into the most decisive variable in the German-Namibian aid relationship. Whereas internal pressure has been almost non-existent, external pressure has been exerted continuously and successfully by the Namibian government and by the Herero. Worried about its reputation and costly reparations, the German government appears to have used its generous aid flows in an attempt to silence these pressure sources. The second most influential variable, the cultural similarity to the 20,000 Namibia Germans, has political as well as sentimental roots: German politicians have cared and continue to do so for their constituency in Namibia and in no other country, the German language and traditions play such a significant role as in Namibia. Next to these two prevalent variables, a third variable has increasingly gained more momentum. Although not one of the predominant determinants of German aid flows, the socio-political strategic interest of the German government to placate potential tensions arising from the land reform issue has guaranteed that aid continues to flow. This variable is a combination of moral obligation (land reform as colonial legacy) and cultural similarity (concern about the well-being of the Namibia Germans).
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UA015.012.DO.00150
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Open for research.
  'Fine-Tuning the Marine Corps' Counterinsurgency Capabilities 2004

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree of Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. No abstract available.
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UA015.012.DO.00151
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Open for research.
  State Branding in the 21st Century 2004

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree of Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: none
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UA015.012.DO.00152
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Open for research.