Londina Illustrata. Graphic and Historical Memorials of Monasteries, Churches, Chapels, Schools, Charitable Foundations, Palaces, Halls, Courts, Processions, Places of Early Amusement, and Modern Present Theatres, in the Cities and Suburbs of London and Westminster, Volume 2Wilkinson, Robert
St. Saviour's Free Grammar-School, Southwark.
This building is situated on the south side of churchyard, and is a very handsome structure, well adapted for the purposes of its intention; it consists of a spacious school-room, in which boys receive their education in Grammatical learning. The exterior is a plain brick fabric, consisting of casement windows on each side of a large door way, before which is an iron railing. This story is surmounted by another, consisting of lofty casement windows, furnishing in the whole a neat appearance.
During the period that monastic foundations flourished in this kingdom, it was customary for schools to be encouraged by the principals of those foundations, for bringing up youth fit to exercise the various offices of the church; and we read that as early as the time of Richard de Belmeis, bishop of London in the reign of King Henry I. a school for the education of youth in classical learning was founded by charter in a part of . Attached also to the abbey-church of St. Peter, , was a school of the same kind; and undoubtedly all the monasteries had similar places for instruction.
When, however, the dissolution of monasteries, in the reign of Henry VIII. took place, these places for instruction shared equal mischiefs with the abbies to which they belonged; and the dangers operating from such a dispersion of youth and distressed persons, who had had their whole support from monasteries, were so much to be feared, that government considered it highly necessary to form establishments of the like natnre; hence arose those hospitals under the patronage of the city of London, during the reign of Edward VI.; for school, founded by Dean Colet, was then the only grammar-school in which were taught the true rudiments of classical learning in that city.
When Queen Elizabeth came to the crown, she, as well as her enlightened brother Edward, considered the importance of diffusing learning among her subjects; to forward which she not only re-founded the grammarschool at , but encouraged her subjects to acts of equal benevolence.
The priory church of St. Mary Overy, , having been purchased by the inhabitants as a parish church, the desire of instilling useful knowledge among youth induced Thomas Cure, the Queen's saddler, and several other benevolent persons, to found the grammar-school we are now describing, for the instruction of boys and youth of the same parish; and for this purpose obtained letters patent from Queen Elizabeth in the year of her reign, by which they were formed into a corporation to enact statutes, to purchase and dispose of lands, to appoint masters and scholars to the school, in any way they thought most proper for the benefit of the establishment; and the school has flourished to the present period.
The charter granted by Queen Elizabeth for the foundation of Free Grammar-school, is translated as follows:
"Elizabeth, by the grace of God, of England, France and Ireland, Queen, Defender of the Faith, &c. To all to whom these presents shall come, greeting.
"Whereas our beloved subjects Wm. Emerson, John Sayer, Richard Ryall, Thomas Cure, John Oliff, Thomas Pulter, Thomas Biff, William Browker, Christopher Campbell, and William Gefferson, and other discreet and most creditable inhabitants of the parish of , within our borough of in our county of Surrey, out of their pious affection and good disposition, for the education, institution, and instruction of boys and youth of the same parish, at their own costs, labours, and burdens, which are not a little expensive, in laudable form and order, within the aforesaid borough and parish, have lately designed and erected a Grammarschool, in which the male children and youth as well of the poor as the rich, inhabiting within the said parish, may be freely and successfully instructed and educated in grammar, for the common utility of all the inhabitants of the aforesaid parish; as we have been informed by persons of credit:
"And whereas our said subjects, inhabitants of the parish aforesaid, so by them designed and erected, should have a continual succession, and that we would grant and extend our royal bounty and munificence for that purpose; we not only, consideriug the premises, but likewise the good, pious and laudable intention of our aforesaid subjects in the premises, and earnestly desiring, as far as in our power, to increase all and singular of those things which may by any means conduce to the good education and instruction of children and youth, of our special grace, and of our certain knowledge and mere voluntary motion, we will, grant, and ordain for ourselves, our heirs and successors, that the aforesaid school so designed and erected by the inhabitants of the parish of St. Saviour, as set forth, within the parish of St. Saviour, in , &c. may and shall be Grammar-school, for the education, institution and instruction of the children and youths of the parishioners and inhabitants therein, in grammar, for ever; and that that school shall be called, the Free Grammar-school of the parishioners of the parish of St. Saviour, in , in the county of Surrey; and by these presents we erect, create, ordain and declare, found and establish, that the said school shall for ever be continued under master or teacher, and under under master or usher.
"And for the better effecting our intention aforesaid, and that the lands, tenements, rents, revenues, and other emoluments to be granted, assigned, and appointed for the support and maintenance of the school aforesaid, may be better managed for the continuation of the same, that for the future there may and shall be for ever, within the parish of St. Saviour aforesaid, of the most discreet and creditable inhabitants of the said
|parish for the time being, who shall be, and shall be called the Governors (managers or trustees) of the possessions, revenues, and goods of the said Grammar-school, commonly called, or to be called, the Free Grammarschool of the parishioners of the parish of St. Saviour, in , in the county of Surrey.|
"And therefore know ye, that we have assigned, elected, nominated, constituted, and declared, by these presents, that our aforesaid beloved Thomas Cure, Richard Ryall, John Oliff, Thomas Pulter, Thomas Biff, and William Browker, inhabitants of the said parish, shall be and are the and present modern governors of the possessions, revenues, and goods of the said Free Grammar-school of the parishioners of the parish of St. Saviour, in , in the county of Surrey; for the well and faithful exercising and occupying of the said office during their lives, from the date of these presents; and that the said governors, in reality, fact, and name, moreover may and shall be body corporate and politic by themselves for ever incorporated and erected under the name of the Governors of the possessions, revenues, and estates of the Free Grammar-school of the parishioners of the parish of St. Saviour, in , in the county of Surrey; and we by these presents incorporate the said Thomas Cure, Richard Ryall, John Oliff, Thomas Pulter, Thomas Biff, and William Browker, governors of the possessions, revenues, and estates of the Free Grammar-school of the parish of St. Saviour, in , in the county of Surrey; and we really and fully create, erect, ordain, make, and constitute by these presents, a body corporate and politic, under the same name for ever.
"And moreover we will, and by these presents, for ourselves, our heirs and successors, that the said governors of the possessions, revenues, and estates of the said Free Grammar-school of the parishioners of the parish of St. Saviour, in , in the county of Surrey, may have a perpetual succession, and under the same, may and shall be persons fit and legally qualified to have, receive, and purchase manors, lands, tenements, fields, meadows, pastures, rectories, tithes, rents, reversions, services, revenues and hereditaments whatsoever, as well of ourselves as our successors, as of any other, without any other persons whatsoever.
"And we ordain and decree by these presents for ourselves, our heirs and successors, that whensoever it shall happen that or more of the said governors for the time being shall happen to die, or to dwell somewhere else out of the parish of St. Saviour, in , aforesaid, and depart with his family, that then and as often as this shall happen, it shall and may be lawful for the rest of the said governors surviving and living there, with their families, and other discreet and creditable inhabitants of the aforesaid parish of St. Saviour, in , to be elected and nominated by the said governors, or a major part of them, to nominate and elect another fit person or persons of the inhabitants of the parish of St. Saviour aforesaid, into the place or places of the person or persons so dying, or of the person or persons so departing with their family or families as aforesaid, to succeed in the said office of governor or governors; and this as often as such case shall happen.
"And moreover we will, and by these presents grant for ourselves, our heirs and successors, to the said governors, and their successors, that for the future they shall have a common seal for their businesses aforesaid, and others in these our letters patent expressed and specified, or any parcel touching or concerning which this is decreed.—And that the said governors may and shall be empowered, under the name of the Governors of the possessions, revenues and goods of the Free Grammar-school of the parishioners of the parish of St. Saviour, in , in the couuty of Surrey, to plead, implead, defend, and be defended, to answer and cause to be answered, in all and singular causes, complaints, actions real, personal, and mixt, of whatsoever kind or nature they shall be, in whatsoever places, parts, and in our courts or those of our heirs and successors, or any others whatsoever, before whatsoever justices and judges ecclesiastical and civil, within our kingdom of England and elsewhere: and to do, act, and receive all and singular of them and others as in like manner as the rest of our liege subjects, duly qualified by law, within our said kingdom of England, do and can do, in the courts, places, and parts aforesaid, and before the justices and judges aforesaid.
"And moreover, out of our more ample favour, we have given and granted, and by these presents we give and grant, for ourselves, our heirs and successors, to the said present governors of the school aforesaid, and to their successors, that they and their successors, with the advice of the Bishop of Winchester for the time being, and, in the absence of the said Bishop for the time being, with the advice of some other creditable and learned person, shall have full power and authority of nominating and appointing a master, and under-master and usher of the school aforesaid, as often as the place of master or under-master of the said school shall become vacant.
"And that the said governors, with the advice of the Bishop of Winchester aforesaid, for the time being, from time to time shall make, and be authorized and empowered to make fit and wholesome statutes and orders in writing, concerning and touching the ordering, governing, and direction of the master and under-master, and of the scholars of the school aforesaid, for the time being, and of appointing the stipend and salary of the said master and under-master, and other things touching and concerning the said school, and the ordering, governing, preservation, and disposition of the rents and revenues for the support of the said school; which said statutes and orders so to be made, we will and grant and by these presents ordain, to be observed inviolably, from time to time for ever;—providing that the statutes and orders so to be made, are not contrary to the statutes of our kingdom of England.
"And moreover we will, and by these presents we grant, for ourselves, our heirs and successors, that no person except the sons and youths of the parishioners or inhabitants of the parish aforesaid and other persons of the said parish, be educated or instructed in grammar, unless the said person be admitted by the governors of the school aforesaid, for the time being.—And furthermore, out of our more abundant favour, we have given and granted, and by these presents we give and grant, for ourselves, our heirs and successors, to the aforesaid present governors of the possessions, revenues, and goods of the Free Grammar-school of the
|parishioners of the parish of St. Saviour, in , in the county of Surrey, and to their successors, special license, and free and lawful faculty and power, to have, receive, and purchase, or acquire to them and their successors for ever, for the support and maintenance of the school aforesaid, as well from ourselves, our heirs and successors, as from any other person or persons whatsoever, manors, messuages, lands, tenements, rectories, tithes, and other hereditaments whatsoever, within our kingdom of England, or elsewhere within our dominion; providing they be not held of ourselves, our heirs and successors, immediately in capite socage, and do not exceed the clear yearly value of , not within the statute of mortmain, or any other statute, act, order, or provision or any other thing, cause or matter whatsoever, had done, published, ordained, or provided, to the contrary notwithstanding;—and we will and by these presents ordain, that all the produce, rents, and revenues of the aforesaid lands, tenements, and possessions for the future, to be given and assigned to the support of the aforesaid school, from time to time be converted to the support of the master and under-master of the school aforesaid, for the time being, and for the support and maintenance of the house and building of the school, and of the lands, tenements, and possessions aforesaid, and not otherwise, nor to any other uses or intentions.—And we will, and by these presents we grant to the aforesaid governors, that they may and shall have these our letters patent, under our great seal of England in due manner done and sealed without fine or fee either great or small, in any manner to be rendered, paid, or made in our Hanaper (Court of Chancery) or otherwhere, as well to ourselves, as to our heirs and successors, providing that the express mention of the yearly value or certainty of the premises, or any of them, or of other gifts or grants made by us, or by any of our progenitors or predecessors to the aforesaid governors, before these times, does not appear to be made in these presents, or by any statute, act, order, provision, proclamation, or restriction, before these times made, published, ordained, or provided, or any thing, cause or matter whatsoever, to the contrary notwithstanding.|
"In witness whereof we have made these our letters patent.—Witness myself, at , the in the year of our reign.
"By a brief from the Privy Seal of the date aforesaid, with the authority of Parliament.
The statutes and orders for the government of this school are very excellent for that purpose; and were drawn up by the founders, and improved by their immediate successors, with the approbation of Dr. Robert Horne, in , and Dr. Thomas Bilson, in , both bishops of Winchester. We shall select from those in , the regulations as far as relates to the admission of scholars.
"The scholars shall be of the children and youth of the parish of St. Saviour, there born or dwelling; but if the governors see reason, they may also take in those of other parishes and places, so that the whole number exceed not , lest the school-master and usher, oppressed with multitude, shall not be able to set forward their scholars with credit and profit; provided that no parishioner's son nor youth be refused.
"The scholar shall be a boy of that age and towardness, that he be able to read English well, and to write a legible hand, and already entered, or fit to be entered, into the Accidence or Grammar in Latin at the least.
"He shall be brought to the school, with his parents, master, or governor, and by of the governors of the same school, to be entered and admitted; for the parent, master or governor of the child shall come to the governor of the school, appointed for admission, or in his absence to of the other governors, signifying their desire to have a child taught in the same school, and request his furtherance for the admission.
"When the child by the parent, master, or governor is brought to the school, the school-master, or in his necessary absence, the usher, shall read unto such parent, master, or governor, these orders, viz.
'If you will have your child a scholar here, you must submit your child to be ordered in all things according to the statutes of this school, the discretion of the master, and the direction of the governors.
'You shall, upon warning given by the master or usher, to the child, furnish him with all things fit for his learning, as a little Bible or Psalm Book, and other books, paper, pens, ink, satchel, candles in winter, wholesome and handsome clothing beseeming your estate. You shall take care of his body, to be clear and healthful, as well for the comfort of himself, as other convenient considerations to be observed in the school.
'You shall provide that he may keep his ordinary hours and times in coming to school, and shall not take him thence any such time as he may miss lectures, doing of his task enjoined, or repetitions, without good cause of sickness, or any other occasion, to be made known to the master, for fear his not profiting be unjustly imputed to the school and teachers, which indeed is the only fault of such parents; and also lest the boy, accustomed to be absent, without his master's knowledge of the cause why, may use to be a truant, and so lose his time, to the discomfort of his parents and teacher, and undoing of the child.
'You shall also take special care of your child when, by the orders of the school, he is to be absent at dinner-time, supper-time, and after all holydays and play-days, whereof you have knowledge, that your child be not at liberty to frequent naughty company, which may infect his conversation with any ill quality or hurt to his body or health; but shall see him civilly aud religiously spend his time; for, by this kind of license, the child, well instructed at school, will not only lose his master's virtuous directions, but learn to take no care, nor make conscience of any nurture.
'You shall not cease to call upon him to use the time of his absence from the school, in repetition and further confirming that which he hath learned, as also of preparing himself against his next coming to school. This great discretion and severity at home, will make him love the school, desire to give his parents satisfaction of his profiting, and perfect that good learning and manners which his master at school shall teach him; fo
|the master may do much, but good and discreet government at home makes all sure and doth the greatest good; for the master, in his absence, cannot follow them, so that ill government at home may do more hurt than the master can do good at school.|
'You shall not suffer your child to bring any money of his own to the school, but leave it at home, that he may not be tempted to buy and sell at school, or others tempted to defraud him of it.
'You shall pay all such duties to the school-master or usher, as by the orders of the school is required at your hands, viz. and sixpence to the master at their entrance, and every quarter towards brooms and rods, and to the usher fourpence every quarter, and the week after Michaelmas, of good candles, to burn the winter following at their studies.
'If you refuse these good orders, or that your child grow unruly or stubborn, or a picker, stealer, or usual swearer or blasphemer, or use any revellings, or threatening speeches towards the school-master and usher, and do not presently reconcile himself with submission, upon knowledge thereof you shall be content your child shall be for ever banished by the governors and schoolmaster, and peaceably take him away, and yourself shall bear the blame of his not profiting, but the credit of the school shall be maintained as good and laudable.'
"If the parent or governor promise thus much, then let his child be admitted by the governors and received by the school-master in this form: the child with his own hand shall write in a book for that purpose, his name, parents, country born, age, and book which he learneth, with the day and year of his admission, and subscribe it with his name as thus:
'I John Thompson, the , , or , &c. son of Richard Thompson, of the parish of St. Saviour in , in the county of Surrey, chandler, of the age of years and months, reading and learning in the Accidence, and entering into Propria quæ Maribus, and also Tully his Epistle, among those gathered by Sternius, and Corderius' Dialogues, &c. was admitted into the Grammar-school of St. Saviour in , the , in the year of our Lord .
"This done, and the accustomed fees paid for entrance, the master shall place him in his form that shall be best fit for his learning."
There are exhibitions in the universities for scholars of Grammar-school; particularly for scholars, by the gift of John Bingham, Esq. formerly a governor.
The boys pass an examination by the chief master, or of the upper masters of the principal grammar schools in the metropolis; the gentlemen appointed for the year , is the Rev. Thomas Cherry, B. D. High Master of the Merchant Taylors' School.
The governors of the school are, Messrs. William Weston, Peter Broadley, Henry Golding, Peter Wybrants Broadley, Henry Perkins, and Arthur Pott.
Present masters, the Rev. William Lawfield Fancourt, A. M. Upper Master; the Rev. John Carter, A. M. Master.
Title page of Vol. 2 reads: Theatrum illustrata. Graphic and historic memorials of ancient playhouses, modern theatres and other places of public amusement in the cities and suburbs of London & Westminster with scenic and incidental illustrations from the time of Shakspear to the present period.