Londina Illustrata. Graphic and Historical Memorials of Monasteries, Churches, Chapels, Schools, Charitable Foundations, Palaces, Halls, Courts, Processions, Places of Early Amusement, and Modern Present Theatres, in the Cities and Suburbs of London and Westminster, Volume 2Wilkinson, Robert
Leaden-Hall and Chapel. Taken down in 1812. The Manor, Chapel, and Market, of Leadenhall, Lime Street Ward.
The name of this well-known part of London, is recorded to have been derived from the leaden covering of the roof of a large building erected upon the spot;[a] but which, until , was known only as "a great house on the west side of , having a chapel on the south and a garden on the west, belonging to the Lord Neville," of the ancient and noble family seated in Essex. The garden was subsequently called the Green-Yard of the Leaden-hall.
In the above year the present name appears upon record, as part of the possessions of Sir Hugh Neville, Knight: and in the Lady Alice, his widow, made a feoffment of the estate to Richard Fitz-alan, Earl of Arundel and Surrey, by the name of "the MANOR of Leaden-hall," together with the advowsons of the Church of St. Peter upon , and of other churches. In the year , another Alice, widow of Sir John Neville, Knight, confirmed the property and presentations to Thomas Cogshall, and others; but years afterwards Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, was in possession of the Manor:[b] and in it was again confirmed, with its appurtenances, the advowsons of the Churches of St. Peter, St. Margaret-Pattens, &c. to Richard Whittington, and other citizens of London, by Robert Rikedon of Essex, and Margaret his wife. years afterwards, Whittington and his colleagues conveyed the whole by charter to the Mayor and Commonalty of London.[c] Leadenhall thus came into the possession of the City; but it will evidently appear by the following translated copies of the conveyance-charters and letters patent, that even when Whittington and his fellow-citizens bought the Manor, they were no farther interested in it than as agents for the Mayor and commonalty of London, for the convenience and benefit of all the Corporation.
Pleas of Land holden in the Hustings in London, on Monday next after the feast of Saint Matthew the Apostle, in the year of the Reign of King Henry the , after the Conquest. (. .)
Know all Men present and to come, that we, Robert Rickedon of the County of Essex, and Margaret my Wife, with unanimous assent and consent have demised and infeoffed, and by this our present Charter indented have confirmed, to Richard Whityngton, John Heende, William Staundon, Thomas Knolles, John Shadworth, and William Askham, Citizens of the City of London, all that our Manor and Tenement called Le Ledenhall, in London aforesaid, with all lands and tenements, rents and privileges, gardens and closes, to the manor and tenement aforesaid annexed, together with the Advowsons of the Churches of Saint Peter in , and Saint Margaret Patyns in the City of London aforesaid, and with the Advowsons and Knights'-fees, with all members, appendages, rights, and reversions, with the appurtenances to the manor and tenement aforesaid in any manner belonging or appertaining: which manor and tenement aforesaid, with all lands and tenements, rents and privileges, gardens and closes, to the manor and tenement aforesaid annexed, together with the advowsons of the Churches aforesaid, and with other advowsons and fees, with all members, appendages, rights, and reversions, with the appurtenances to the manor and tenement aforesaid in any manner belonging, we, the aforesaid Robert Rickedon, and Margaret my wife, lately jointly held of the demise and feoffment of John Hethingham and Hamon Elyot, Citizens and Grocers in London, as in the charter of the same John Hethingham and Hamon Elyot, read and inrolled in the Hustings in London, of Pleas of Land holden on Monday next after the Feast of the Conversion of Saint Paul the Apostle, in the year of the reign of King Henry the since the Conquest, is more fully contained:—To have and to hold the manor, tenement, lands, tenements rents, privileges, gardens, closes, advowsons, fees, rights, and reversions, aforesaid; with all members, appendages, and appurtenances, to the aforesaid Richard Whityngton, John Heende, William Staundon, Thomas Knolles, John Shadworth, and William Askham. their heirs and assigns, of the chief lords of that fee, by the services from them due, and of right accustomed, for ever, under the following condition:—Viz. that if the aforesaid Richard Whityngton, John Heende, William Staundon, Thomas Knolles, John Shadworth, and William Askham, or any of them, or any other in their names, shall pay, or cause to be paid, to the said Robert Rickedon and Margaret his wife, their heirs or assigns, sterling, at the time after written, (that is to say, on the Octave of Saint John the Baptist, which shall be next after the date of these presents, : on the Feast of the Nativity of Our Lord then next to come, ; on the Feast of the Nativity of Saint John the Baptist from thence next to come, ; and on the Feast of Saint Michael the Archangel, , sterling) ; — then the present Charter and Feoffment shall remain in its force and virtue. And if the aforesaid Richard Whityngton, John Heende, William Staundon, Thomas Knolles, John Shadworth, and William Askham, in any payment of the payments aforesaid should make default, then it shall and will be lawful for us, the aforesaid Robert Rikedon and Margaret, our heirs and assigns, into the aforesaid manor, tenement, lands, tenements, rents, services, gardens, closes, advowsons, fees, rights, and reversions, aforesaid, with its members, appendages, appurtenances, aforesaid, to re-enter and have again in our former estate; and the said Richard Whityngton, John Heende, William Staundon, Thomas Knolles, John Shadworth, and William Askham, their heirs and assigns, from thence wholly to expel and amove, this present Charter indented in anywise notwithstanding. In Testimony whereof, as well the seals of the aforesaid Robert Rikedon and Margaret, as the seals of the said Richard Whityngton, John Heende, William Staundon, Thomas Knolles, John Shadworth, and William Askham, to these presents interchangeable are appended; Drugo Barentyn, being then Mayor of the City of London, Thomas Duke and William Norton being then Sheriffs of the same City: Henry Pountfreyt being Alderman of that Ward. There being witnesses, Stephen Sewale, John Buke, Peter Mason, John Beneyt, and others. Dated London aforesaid, the day of the month of February, in the year of the reign of King Henry the since the Conquest.
By Letters Patent, dated , in the year of the Reign of King Henry the , the King's Licence was given to the Mayor and Commonalty to take, and to Richard Whittington, John Heende, John Shadworth, and William Askham, to give and assign, the Manor or place called Ledenhall, and the Advowsons of the Churches of St. Peter of , and St. Margaret Patens. To have and to hold the same unto the Mayor and Commonalty and their successors, to the use of the Commonalty for ever. This Deed is enrolled in the Hustings, of which enrollment the following is a copy.
The King to all to whom, &c. greeting. Know ye, that whereas lately, by our Letters Patent of our special favour, and for a certain fine of with our own proper person made, and at the receipt of our Chamber paid, and also in consideration of the great burthens, customs, duties, and expences, which our beloved liegemen and Citizens, the Mayor and Commonalty of our City of London for a long time have sustained, and it may very likely behove them in future to sustain, we have granted and given licence for ourselves and our heirs, as much as in us was, to the aforesaid Mayor and Commonalty, that they be able to purchase the Manor, lands, tenements, rents, and advowsons, with the appurtenances, in our City aforesaid, and in the suburbs of the same, which are holden of us in freeburgage to the value of per annum. To have and to hold to the same Mayor and Commonalty, and their successors, to the use of the Commonalty aforesaid, in aid and support of their customs, duties, and expenses, aforesaid for ever; the statue enacted concerning not putting lands into mortmain, or the said manors, land, tenements, rents and advowsons, holden of us in free-burgage as is aforesaid, notwithstanding; as in our aforesaid letters is more fully contained: we being willing that our aforesaid grant should be free to have its due effect, have granted and given licence for ourselves and our heirs aforesaid, as much as in us is, to our beloved Richard Whityngton, John Heende, John Shadworth, and William Askham, Citizens of the aforesaid City, that they be able to give and assign to the aforesaid Mayoi and Commonalty, the Manor or place called Le Ledenhall, with the appurtenances, in our City, and the Advowsons of the Churches of Saint Peter of , and Saint Margaret Patyns in the same City, which are holden of us in free-burgage, as all the City of London, and which are worth per annum, as by an inquisition before our beloved Thomas Knolles, Mayor of our said City, and our Escheator in the same City, of our command taken and returned into our Chancery, is computed: To have and to hold to the same Mayor and Commonalty, and their successors, to the use of the said Commonalty, in aid and support of the aforesaid burthens, customs, duties, and expenses, to the value of , in part satisfaction of , the Manor, lands, tenements, rents, and advowsons aforesaid for ever. And by the tenor of these presents we have in like manner given to the same Mayor and Commonalty, that they, the Manor or place aforesaid, with the appurtenances and the Advowsons aforesaid, from the aforesaid Richard, John, John, and William, be able to take and to hold to them and their successors aforesaid for ever, as is aforesaid; the statute aforesaid, or the manor or place, and advowsons aforesaid, being holden of us in free-burgage as is promised: notwithstanding, willing that the aforesaid Richard, John, John, and William, or their heirs, or the aforesaid Mayor and Commonalty, or their successors, should not, by reason of the aforesaid statute, or of the premises, by us or our heirs, justiciars, escheators, sheriffs, or other bailiffs, or servants of us, or of ourheirs, whomsoever, befrom thence occasionally burth ned, molested in anywise, or aggrieved; saving, however, to us and to our heirs, our services from thence due and accustomed. In witness whereof, &c. Witness ourselves at , the .
By a Charter of Feoffment dated , in the year of Henry the , Richard Whittington, John Heende, John Shadworth, and William Askham, infeoffed the Mayor and Commonalty of the Manor of Leadenhall, and the Advowsons of the Churches of Saint Peter of , and Saint Margaret Patens. To have and to hold the same to the Mayor and Commonalty, and their successors, to the use of the Commonalty for ever. This Deed also is enrolled in the Hustings, of which enrollment the following is a copy.
Pleas of Land holden in the Hustings in London, on Monday next after the Feast of Saint Barnabas the Apostle, in the year of the Reign of King Henry the , since the Conquest. .
To all to whom this present Charter may come, Richard Whityngton, John Heende, John Shadworth, and William Askham, Citizens of the City of London, health in the Lord everlasting. Whereas our most excellent Prince and Lord Henry the , King of England and France, and Lord of Ireland, of his special favour, by his Letters Patent, granted and gave licence to us that we should be able to give and assign the Manor or Place, called Le Ledenhall, with the appurtenances in the City aforesaid, and the Advowsons of the Churches of St. Peter of , and St. Margaret Patyns in the same City, which are held of the King himself in free burgage, to the Mayor and Commonalty of the City of London aforesaid, and their successors, to the use of the said Commonalty for ever, and to the said Mayor and Commonalty, that they may be able to take of us the Manor or place called Le Ledenhall aforesaid, with the appurtenances aforesaid, and the Advowsons of the Churches aforesaid, and to hold to them and to their successors aforesaid, to the use of the said Commonalty as is aforesaid for ever, the statute enacted concerning not putting lands and tenements into mortmain, or the manors, lands, tenements, rents and advowsons, aforesaid, being holden of the King himself in free-burgage as is aforesaid, notwithstanding;—Know ye, that we the aforesaid Richard Whityngton, John Heende, John Shadworth, and William Askham, by these presents have demised and infeoffed the aforesaid Mayor and Commonalty of the said Manor or place called Le Ledenhall, with the appurtenances in the City aforesaid, and of the Advowsons of the Churches of Saint Peter of , and Saint Margaret Patyns aforesaid. To have and to hold the said Manor or place, with the appurtenances aforesaid, and the Advowsons of the Churches aforesaid, to the same Mayor and Commonalty and their successors: To the use of the Commonalty of the same City, to be holden of the said Lord the King and his heirs for ever. In testimony whereof we have set our seals to this our present Charter, Thomas Knolles then being Mayor of the City of London aforesaid, John Penn and Thomas Pike, then Sheriffs of the same City, with these witnesses, Stephen Sewall, John Attelee, John Buycke. John Somer, John Whitwell, and others. Dated at London, the day of the month of June, in the year of the reign of King Henry the , since the Conquest.
In , Simon Eyre, Citizen and Alderman, appears to have commenced the erection of a public Granary upon this spot; as related by Stow, on the authority of "certain evidences of an alley and tenements pertaining to the horse-mill, adjoining to the said Leaden-hall in Grass Street, given by William Kingstone, Fishmonger, unto the Parish of St. Peter upon ."[a] The building, however, seems to have been decayed, or the whole of the founder's design was incomplete, upwards of years afterwards; since "to make anew a common granary," was of those costly, but highly useful and ornamental, improvements in the City, undertaken by the Corporation in -, under the Mayoralty of John Aderly, or Hatherly. The others were to erect and build various conduits of fresh water, with standards and other devices, and machines and leaden pipes running upwards of miles, both above and under the earth; and also to set up a handsome cross in the West Cheap. Some interesting ancient views, with a copious account of all these edifices, are contained in the Volume of the present work; as well as a copy of the original Latin licence granted by Henry VI. in the year of his reign for the encouragement of these undertakings, empowering the Mayor and Citizens to buy fodders of lead "anywhere within the realm, and to bring it to London without any arrest:" and also to hire as many plumbers, masons, &c, as from time to time they might have occasion for.[b] The year following this patent, the Parson and Parish of the Church of St. Dunstan in the East, in London, assigned to Henry Frowicke, the Mayor, the Aldermen, Commonalty, and their successors, for ever, all their tenements with their appurtenances, sometimes called the Horse-mill, in Grass Street, for the annual rent of , &c. towards the enlarging of the granary at Leaden-hall: seeing, says the deed of conveyance, that the honourable and mighty
|man,—"," Simon Eyre, Citizen of London, with his other works of piety, is effectually determined to erect and build a certain granary, upon the soil of the same City at Leadenhall, at his own charges, for the common utility of the same City.|
The building then completed was of squared stone, and of a quadrangular form, as represented in the annexed views, having a large CHAPEL on the eastern side; over the porch of which the founder caused to be inscribed, from Psalm cxvii. , according to the Latin Vulgate, "DEXTERA DOMINI EXALTAVIT ME:" the right hand of the Lord hath exalted me: a tablet on the north wall within the chapel, exhibited the following inscription also commemorative of him, commencing, " The honourable and famous Merchant, Simon Eyre, Founder of this Work, once Mayor of this city, Citizen and Draper of the same, departed out of this life the , in the year from the Incarnation of Christ, , and the year of the reign of Henry VI.; and was buried in his Parish Church of St. Mary Woolnoth, in ."[a] —His will is filled with charitable bequests; ordering, says Stow, who gives an abstract of it from his own perusal, "somewhat to be distributed to all prisons in London, or within a mile of that City, to relieve them. Moreover he gave () upon a condition, which, not performed were then to be distributed to maids' marriages, and other deeds of charity. He also gave , () to the Company of Drapers, upon condition that they should, within year after his decease, establish perpetually a master, or warden, secular priests, clerks, and choristers, to sing daily divine service , for ever in his Chapel of the Leadenhall: also schoolmasters, with an usher; to wit; master with an usher for grammar, master for writing, and the for singing; with housing there newly built for them for ever: the master to have a salary of and every other priest ; every other clerk , and every other chorister ():—And if the Drapers refuse, this to do within after his decease, then the to remain to the Prior and Convent of Christ's Church in London, with the condition to establish as aforesaid, within years after his decease; and if they refused, then the to be disposed of by his executors as they best could devise in works of charity.—Thus much for his Testament, not performed by establishing of divine service in his Chapel, nor free-schools for scholars; neither how the stock of , or rather , was employed by his executors ever could be learned."
The Chapel in Leadenhall, however, was not left wholly neglected, since in -, the of Edward IV., a Fraternity of the Holy Trinity, consisting of priests, with other brethren and sisters, was founded under the King's licence, in the same building, by William Rouse, John Risby, and Thomas Ashby, Priests. Some of these ecclesiastics performed divine service , to any persons who were willing to attend; and once in the year the whole convent assembled and had solemn service, with procession of all the brethren and sisters. This foundation, therefore, was in the year with great propriety confirmed to the Trinity Priests and their successors, at the will of the Mayor and Commonalty, by an act of the Common-Council. In the volume of official returns of the chantries attached to the Parish-Church of St. Peter upon , drawn up in the reign of Edward VI., it is stated that the lands and tenements belonging to the Brother-hood at Leadenhall, given for the maintenance of obits and the relief of the poor, amounted to yearly.
In the preceding notice of the services performed at Leadenhall Chapel, it has been seen that the establishment of a MARKET on this spot, is but little less ancient than that of the granary and religious fraternity; though it was originally more celebrated for wool, cloth, and iron, than for provisions. The Charter granted to London by Edward IV., , gave ,[b] or weighing of wares, and especially of all wool, to the City, to be holden at Leadenhall, and no where else within miles; soon after which the Corporation made suit to the King for additional letters patent to establish their right over this tronage of wool in the staple held at . Order was therefore to be taken, says Stow, "by discretion of Thomas Cooke, then Mayor, the Counsel of London, Sir Geoffrey Fielding, then Mayor of the Staple at , and of the King's Council,—what should be paid to the Mayor and Alderman of the City, for the laying and housing of the wools there, that so they might be brought forth and weighed." A patent to this effect appears upon the Rolls entitled "The King's grants to the Mayor and Citizens of London, that the Tronage, or Ponderage, of Wools, which was at Wesminster, shall be for the future at the Leadenhall at London." [c]
So early as the year , Leadenhall appears to have been employed as a sort of general storehouse, rather than as a granary; for which purpose it was at length wholly disused. From some unknown casuality a great fire happened there, when much housing was destroyed, together with all the stocks for guns and other provisions belonging to the City; amounting to a very considerable loss, and no less charge in the repair. In the of the annexed Views, that of the Old Skin Market, in which the ancient granary is seen above and at the back
|of the covered sheds,—it may be observed how much that building must have been damaged, by the patched eparation of the wall with brick and different sorts of stone. The upper windows, also, instead of having been restored uniformly with those beneath, with cinquefoil stone arches, consist only of the most common transom casements.|
A curious document is extant of the year , the of Henry VII., consisting of a request from the Commons of the City concerning the usages of Leadenhall, which shews that the market had then declined, and was very imperfectly regulated; and that the building itself was of but little value to the Corporation. The following is copy of this record:
"Please it the Lord Maior, Aldermen, and Common Council, to enact, that all Frenchmen bringing Canvas, Linen Cloth, and other wares, to be sold; and all Foreigns bringing Wolsteds, Saies, Stamins, Kiverings, Nails, Iron-work, or any other wares; and also all manner Foreigns bringing Lead to the City to be sold;—shall bring all such their wares aforesaid to the open Market of the Leadenhall, there, and no where else, to be shewed, sold, and uttered, like as of old time it hath been used; upon pain of Forfeiture of all the said wares, shewed or sold in any other place than aforesaid: The shew of the said wares to be made days in a week, that is to say, Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday. It is also thought reasonable that the Common Beam be kept from henceforth in the Leadenhall; and the Farmer to pay therefore reasonable rent to the Chamber: for better it is that the Chamber have advantage thereby than a foreign person; and also the said Leadenhall, which is more chargeable now by half than profitable, shall better bear out the charges thereof. Also the Common Beam for Wool at Leadenhall may pay a yearly rent to the Chamber of London towards the supportation and charges of the same place: for reason it is, that a common office, occupied upon a common ground, bear a charge to the use of the commonalty. Also that Foreigns bringing wools, or any other merchandise or wares to Leadenhall, to be kept there for the sale and market, may pay more largely for keeping of their goods than Freemen."
But though the granary of Leadenhall had been perverted from the founder's original design, it appears to have been more than once examined and restored. In , the year of Henry VIII., when Roger Achily entered the Mayoralty, there were not found, says Stow, " quarters of wheat in all the garners of the City; either within the liberties, or near adjoining: through the which scarcity, when the carts of Strafford came laden with bread to the City, as they had been accustomed, there was such press about them that man was ready to destroy another in striving to be served for their money. But this scarcity lasted not long; for the Maior, in short time, made such provisions of wheat, that the bakers, both of London and of , were weary of taking it up, and were forced to take back more than they wished: and for the rest the Maior laid out the money, and stowed it up in Leadenhall, and other garners of the City. This Maior also kept the City so well, that he would be at the Leadenhall by a clock in the summer mornings; and from thence he went to other markets to the great comfort of the citizens."
In the year of Henry VIII., , the Commons of London presented the following very curious memorial, "To the Right Honourable the Mayor, and his Worshipful Brethren the Aldermen, and the discreet Commissioners in this Common Council assembled,"—concerning a variety of purposes for which Leadenhall might properly be used; and which the Corporation appears to have allowed.
"Meekly beseeching, Sheweth unto your good Lordship and Masterships: Divers and many Citizens of the City, who with your favours, under correction, think that the great place called the Leadenhall, should, nor ought, not to be let to farm to any person or persons,[a] and especially to any fellowship or company incorporate; to have and to hold the same Hall for a term of years, for such inconveniences as thereby may ensue and come, to the hurt of the common-weal of the said City in time to come; as somewhat more largely may appear in the articles hereafter following. If any assembly or hasty gathering of the Commons of the said City, for oppressing or subduing misruled people within the said City, hereafter shall happen to be called or commanded by the Mayor, Aldermen, and other Governors, of the said City for the time being; there is none so convenient and meet a place to assemble them in the said City, as the said Leadenhall, both for largeness of room and for their sure defence in time of their counselling together about the premises.[b] Also in that place have been used the artillery, guns, and other common armours, of the said City, to be safely kept in readiness for the safeguard, wealth and defence, of the said City to be had and occupied at times when need required; as also the store of timber for necessary reparations of the tenements belonging to the Chamber of the said City, there commonly hath been kept.— if any Triumph or Noblesse were to be done or shewed by the Commonalty of the said City, for the honour of our Sovereign Lord the King and the realm, and for the worship of the said City; the said Leadenhall is the most meet and convenient place to prepare and order the said Triumph therein, and from thence to issue forth to the places therefore appointed.— if any Largesse or dole of any money made unto poor people of this City, by or after the death of any worshipful person within the said City, it hath been used to be done and given in the said Leadenhall; for that the said place is most meet therefore.— the honourable Father that was maker of the said Hall, had a special will, intent, and mind, as it is commonly said, that the market men and women that came to the City with victuals and other things, should have their free standing within the said Leadenhall in wet weather, to keep themselves and their wares dry; and thereby to encourage them, and all others, to have the better will and desire, the more plenteously to resort to the said City to victual the same. And if the said Hall should be let to farm, the will of the honourable Father should never be fulfilled nor take effect.— If the said place, which is the chief fortress, and most necessary place within all the City, for the tuition and safeguard of the same, should be let to farm out of the hands of the chief heads of the said City, and especially to any other body politic, it might at length, by likelihood, be occasion of discord and debate between the said bodies politic. Which God defend. For these, and many other great and reasonable causes, which hereafter shall be shewed to this honourable court, your said beseechers think it much necessary that the said Hall be still in the hauds of this City, and to be surely kept by sad and discreet officers; in such wise that it may always be ready to be used and occupied for the common-weal of the said City, when need shall require; and in no wise be let to any body politic."
In the year , continues Stow, "the of Henry VIII., surveyors were appointed to view the garners of the City; namely those at the Bridge-house, and Leadenhall, how they were stored of grain for the service of the City. And here it should be noticed that, of old time, the bakers of bread at near Bow[c] were allowed
|to bring daily, excepting on the Sabbath and principal feasts, divers long carts laden with bread; the same being ounces in the penny wheat loaf heavier than the penny wheat loaf baked in the City: the same to be sold in Cheap (;) or carts standing there, between Gutheran's (now , and Fauster's ( end; cart in , by the Conduit, and other in Grass (Grace) ."|
The sale of provisious within the immediate precincts of Leadenhall, appears to have commenced in , when the of Rye in Sussex sold fresh fish there.[a] At this time the name seems also to have belonged to a market held at the eastern end of , opposite the ancient granary; but the butchers, or those who were not Freemen of the City, had standings without the verge, in the of Ward,—on the north side of the present ,—opposite the citizens' houses, where they sold meat every Wednesday and Saturday; the inhabitants deriving considerable benefit by the ground which they occupied. When this was observed by the Corporation, an ordinance was passed in , that the butchers also should be obliged to attend in Leadenhall Market, where stalls and blocks were erected for their accommodation; their standings being paid for to the Chamber of London. At the same time the Lord Mayor and Aldermen having ascertained the reasonable prices of beef and pork to be per lb., and veal and mutton per lb. in pursuance of an Act of Parliament for their regulation,—it was found thats uch regulation rather increased, than reduced, the price, and the Act was therefore soon after repealed.[b]
It was probably the advancing success of Leadenhall as a general mart, which occasioned such considerable exertions to be made in , to have the proposed national , or Exchange, for Merchants, to be established on the same spot. At this time their meeting-place was in the open air in , which was exposed to many inconveniencies; and though various plans had been proposed for their removal, the effectual attempt was made in , by Sir Richard Gresham, Knight, the King's Merchant, then Sheriff of London. His exertions however, were not successful, although he sufficiently interested Henry VIII. to induce him to send letters to the City years afterwards, directing the building of a Bourse at Leadenhall. Many Common Councils were therefore called for the purpose; but in , during the Mayoralty of John Champneys, "it was fully concluded that the Bourse should remain in as afore, and Leadenhall be no more spoken of concerning this matter."
During the time that the body of Henry VIII. lay in state in his Chapel at , for about days, to , Leadenhall was of the places where his funeral dole was distributed to the poor of the City, by the hands of his Almoner, Nicholas Heath, Bishop of Worcester, and others, his ministers and assistants. It consisted, says Stow, who probably witnessed it, of "great plenty of money, and was given both in open doles, and by way of proclamation."[c]
About this time was the period of the youth of Stow, when he relates that the use to which Leadenhall was then applied was as follows: "In a part of the north quadrant, on the east side of the north gate, were the common beams for weighing of wool and other wares; as had been accustomed: on the west side of the market were the scales to weigh meal. The other sides were reserved, for the most part, to the making and resting of the pageants shewed at Midsummer in the watch. The remnant of the sides and quadrants were employed for the stowage of woolsacks, but not closed up: the lofts above were used partly by the painters in working for the decking of pageants and other devices, for beautifying of the watch and watchmen. The residue of the lofts were letten out to merchants, and the wool-winders and packers, therein to wind and pack their wools."
The ancient use of Leadenhall as a storehouse for arms, appears to have been continued or resumed during the Civil Wars; probably being made such when the City was fortified, in -. In the tumult which began in on Sunday, , a party of the insurgents attacked the Lord Mayor's house, forced the guard, and brought thence a piece of ordnance, with which they captured the magazine at Leadenhall. All that day they were gathering forces through the City by beat of drum, and shouts for God and King Charles; but early the next morning General Fairfax entered without opposition at Aldersgate, charged the main body at Leadenhall, received the fire of their cannon, and finally dispersed them.
The following curious account of the subsequent use of this place as a market the Fire of London, is taken from of the Harleian MSS., apparently the recollections of a foreigner then living in England, and written about the beginning of the eighteenth century; with the intention of shewing the variety and abundance of its supplies, as well as its importance long previous.[d] —"Then in Leaden-Hall you may see y quantety of wooll, which is ther vented euery weeke, brought in after it hath been sorted by y
|Stapplers; besides euery Tusday[a] and Fridaye you haue y tanners, exposing ther tanned leather of all sortes for salle —And likewise y butchers, for y sale of their raw hydes, stines, and peltes, euery Friday: and thence it is that y shoowmaker furnesheth him selfe with leather, leastes, and helles of wood, for his vse. And vp staires you haue vast quantities of nalles of all sortes and vses, brought from y countery, as Bromigen, and other iron worke: whereto the ironmonger resorteth to furnish his shop.—And in y same Leaden Hall you have a market well furnished with all sortes of prouision, as Beefe, Veale, Mutton, Lam, Bacon, Foule of all sortes, Butter, Chese, Fish of all sortes, Hearbage in an abundance, for y furnishing of this grate citey with all thenges nedeful for y sustenance of mankinde: and was well worth the cite of an inquisitive man; as may be well observed when y grave and cunning Gundemore, y Spanish Imbassador, was here in y time of King James the , there were few wekes passed over his head wherein he did not set a day aparte for y veuing of our markets, and other sites, which he thought worth his observation: and it was his opinion that we here in London spent more meate in a weke, then was expended in all Spaine in a yeare."|
Such appears to have been the state in which Leadenhall continued until the Great Fire of London in , which, in this part of the City, terminated near the present spot; the contemporary surveys of the destruction representing the line of its ravages on the south and west sides of the principal building, the size and solidity of which were considered to have arrested the progress of the flames. Even of this edifice, however, little more than the stone work was left standing, all the houses around it, and in the yards belonging to it, being entirely destroyed: though it appears that the space within was soon and easily cleared, since about a proclamation was issued for markets to be held at Leadenhall, the Tower, Mile-end Green, &c. An apartment within the building, designated "the great room," perhaps the ancient Chapel, was also taken by the Parish of St. Peter upon , to be fitted up for public worship, whilst that Church lay in ruins after the same fire, at the rent of per annum.[b]
In subsequently restoring Leadenhall as a market-place, the quantity of ground employed for that purpose was considerably increased, there being then added to it all the courts and yards belonging to the building, with some other adjoining portions bought by the City: so that the country butchers, &c. were now actually included within its limits, and no longer left standing in the highway between the corners of , and , to the great inconvenience of passengers. At the time that markets were so held, there belonged to them certain officers whose duty it was to clean the streets where they stood, remove the soil left behind, and furnish those who attended them with boards and other accommodations. These officers were called Sergeant- Yeoman, Yeoman of the Channel, Yeoman of Newgate Market, Foreign-taker, &c., and they received certain allowances from the dealers for their labours; but when the City Markets were let to farm after the Great Fire, the farmers themselves made all provisions and received all dues, and the officers retained only their names.[c] The rates, tolls, and duties, to be so taken were fixed by an ordinance of Common Council, , called Hooker's Act, because it passed in the Mayoralty of Sir William Hooker;[d] and in it was farther regulated and explained by another table of charges, which was intended to be the standard for Mr. Toby Humfrey, who took a lease of the City Markets in . By this table "every stall or standing of feet long and feet broad, for the sale of flesh-meat or fish, under the public shelter of Leadenhall, was not to exceed per week:" and every standing of feet long and feet broad, in the same was not to exceed per week. In all the other public markets similar standings were charged but per week. The lessees, however, contrived to raise very large additional exactions in all the markets; and in Thomas Burdett, and Thomas Kilner, Gentlemen, farmers of Leadenhall, the Stocks, Honey-lane, and Newgate, Markets, were accused of extortion by memorial of the dealers addressed to the Common Council. A committee of enquiry, consisting of Aldermen and Commoners, was immediately appointed, and on , they reported that the regular rates received by Burdett and Kilner, from the market places amounted to . , for provisions bought and sold in the streets . , and for fines and admissions from the tenants, . The committee considered that the farmers had forfeited their lease, and on the table of authorised rates was again published, but many of the abuses still continued.[e] Burdett and Kilner, however, were cast for extortion in the Court of King's Bench, the award of which, dated , was that they should give up all claims to unpaid fines, &c. and pay . damages and costs.[f] —In its improved state Leadenhall Market became of the largest, best supplied, and most general in the kingdom; and adds the Rev. John Strype, in , when he published his excellent edition of Stow's ,—"if I should say of Europe, I should not give it too great a praise."—The whole extent of ground which it then occupied, consisted of spacious squares, all enclosed with buildings; having a principal entrance in , under the broad-arched gateway of the old building, and a through Queen's College Passage, more to the east. Another arm of the same turning opened into the upper end of , and smaller passages led into the market below; whilst in there was entrance through the Spread Eagle Inn Yard, and others.
At this time the front of the ancient edifice itself stood at the south-west end of , and side stretched down behind the houses on the north-east of . The north front presented a large stone building of stories, separated by buttresses into divisions, each containing small
|square windows, over the other, the lower divided by a mullion with cinquefoil arches. At each of the corners of the hall, was an octangular turret containing the staircases, lighted by small arched windows, and covered with a pinnacle, which rose above the flat leaded battlements and opened upon them; and over the centre of the front roof was suspended a bell beneath a wooden canopy, of a shape similar to those at the corners, though somewhat larger. The basement story at period exhibited a line of broad arched windows, with an arched doorway at each end, and a gateway of the same form in the centre, with a narrow foot passage on the western side.[a] This part, however, was subsequently concealed, like the interior cloisters, with several small shops and sheds; the tiled roofs of which reached almost to the bases of the lower windows. The apartments of this building were long, narrow, and dark, having very low ceilings, with the windows close to them, and were occupied for a variety of purposes: as the western side for the reception of goods bolonging to the East India Company, the eastern as the Colchester Baize Hall, and the north end as a warehouse for the sealing of leather. This part of Leadenhall was taken down about , and a line of shops and houses erected on the site.|
The of the interior squares was immediately behind the north-east corner of ; and from its peculiar appropriation, was at period called the "Beef Market." This was properly , as it lay between the sides of the Hall itself, and was entered from the ancient gateway in . It comprised a space of feet in length from north to south, by feet in breadth from east to west, containing about an stalls for butchers; many of them measuring , , or , feet, by , , or ; fitted up with racks, hooks, blocks, and all other conveniences, and sheltered by roofs or the warehouses above. In the same court on Tuesday was held the Leather Market, which was also greatly resorted to by tanners; on Thursday the Colchester waggons came to it with baize, and fellmongers with wool; on Friday it was used for the sale of raw hides, or occasionally of tanned leather to curriers, and on Saturday for selling of beef and other provisions. The site of this court is still occupied by part of the Skin and Leather Market; and of sides a square of warehouses. The rest of Leadenhall was taken down in ; considerable improvements were made there in ; and in the whole of the Leather Market was rebuilt.
The court mentioned by Strype was situated to the east and south-east of the former, and called " Yard Market;" because it was anciently a green plat of ground. It then became the City's storehouse for building materials; and the southern part was at length converted into "the Flesh Market," for veal, mutton, lamb, &c. The court in which it was held contained feet in length from east to west, and feet in breadth from north to south; and it included standings for butchers, roofed over, and of the same size as those in the Beef Market. In the middle of this court, in Strype's time, was a row of shops for fishmongers, with kitchens or rooms over them, extending from north to south; and at the south-west side stood a fair market-house raised upon columns, having vaults beneath, and rooms above, surmounted by a clock and bell-tower. The tenements about the court were then inhabited chiefly by cooks, victuallers, &c. and the streets leading into it by other dealers in provisions. This part of Leadenhall Market was rebuilt in , with a new opening into ; when the old Green Market was left vacant, and the stalls for meat and fish removed more to the south. The site of all these is now occupied by the Wholesale Butcher Market.
The court of Leadenhall was formerly called "the Herb Market," because, adds Strype, only "herbs, roots, fruits, &c. are there sold." It was then about feet square, the west, east, and northern, sides having covered walks, with columns, enclosing standings for gardeners, with cellars beneath; and another range of covered stalls for the sellers of tripe, &c. The south side was occupied by victuallers, butchers, poulterers, &c. The whole of this capacious square is now covered with a high slated roof with skylights, and filled with counters, and forms the Poultry Market.
The whole of Leadenhall Market, with the exception of the part last mentioned, is situate in the Parish of St. Peter upon , the ancient boundary being fixed at a passage into , formerly called " Yard."[b] Under the year , the vestry-books contain an entry that " beinge Wednesday, the Churchwarden, parishioners, and Mr. Jarman, the Citie Carpenter, Clement Bacon, Clerk, and Walter Yonge, Sexton, all went into Yard in Leaden Hall, to view the bounds of the Parish of St. Peter upon . At which they found an ancient peece of brass, whereon was engraved the date of the yeere , fastened on the side of the doore-post, at which door they enter into through a little Alley. Mr. Bedford, the Clerk of St. Dionis Backchurch, beeinge present, saw the peece of brass nailed there." The boundary-plate is now fixed against the south wall of the offices belonging to the , in the turning into Leadenhall out of , which enters nearly opposite to the north-east corner of the Wholesale Butcher Market; with a similar mark for the Parish of St. Dionis Backchurch fixed beside it. At the eastern end of the same passage is a boundary plate for the Parish of St. Andrew . Such are the principal features of the ancient and modern Market of Leadenhall.
The Engravings which are attached to these notices, exhibit the last remains and dilapidated state of the original Hall and Chapel at the time of their final removal. The is a North-East view of the Chapel, and North end of the Outside of the Hall, as seen from the entrance in ; and through the arch on the right are seen part of the interior cloisters which surrounded the court containing the Leather Market.
The South-East view of the same Chapel, and of the Exterior of the Hall, shews their appearance
|from the old Green Market, subsequently called the Pea Market, and the present Skin Market; near where the and stages now stand. Above the Hall are seen the steeple and turret of the Churches of St. Peter and St. Michael, . The passage on the right looks into a part of the Skin Market immediately behind ; and the gateway on the left into the quadrangle of the Leather Market.|
In the engraving is given a view of the Interior of Leadenhall Chapel looking East; when it was used as a warehouse for skins and tanned hides; a short time previous to its final demolition in . This Chapel projected eastward from the exterior of the eastern cloisters of Leaden Hall, from which it was entered by a large arched doorway, having the arms of the founder over the centre;[a] and on each side of the interior arch was a perforated gothic screen, of exquisite workmanship. The building was oblong, and was divided on the exterior sides into parts, by buttresses reaching nearly to the roof, and separating as many large windows of the depressed pointed arch form, each parted into lights, by stone mullions with cinquefoil arches; the window at the eastern end being considerably larger than the others, and containing lights. On the outside the Chapel was almost completely enclosed by a case of wooden sheds, which reached nearly to the bases of the windows. It was covered with rafters and tiling of the coarsest modern workmanship, instead of the ancient roof, which had been pointed, and was supported within by carved brackets of chesnut wood, resting on corbels let into the walls against the buttresses: but of those brackets, only the scrolls and fragment remained when the building was destroyed. Within the Chapel, at the south-west corner, was a small oaken door curiously studded and pannelled, opening into a square apartment, which had probably been the sacristy; against the walls of which Mr. John Thomas Smith discovered some slight remains of painted figures.[b] of these exhibited the cheek, ear, and side of a head, with long yellow hair, flowing over blue and red drapery; the whole very much resembling the paintings discovered in Chapel, , executed in the reign of Edward III. Those at Leadenhall, however, were neither embossed nor gilded; but were outlined and shaded with red ochre.
Plate IV. exhibits a view of the Skin Market, taken from the old quadrant or cloisters of Leadenhall, and looking Eastward through the arch in the centre. These cloisters consisted of a series of broad pointed arches separated by the buttresses of the building, which were in number on the east and west, and on the south. Some of the arches were closed up with brick walls, others had doors or windows formed in them, and the mouldings of all were injured or destroyed; so that they exhibited an air of ruin, repaired in the coarsest and most imperfect manner. They were also still farther darkened and concealed by the tiled sheds and pillars which reached almost to the lower line of windows; the rusted iron bars and shattered casements of which added to the gloomy aspect of the Hall itself, and gave to it in its latter time the appearance of a prison.
[a] The name of Ledenhall applied to a building, is not confined to London: since in the Inquisitiones Post Mortem, 12th Richard II., 1388-89. No. 16; and 17th of the same King, 1393-94, No. 13, "Ledynhalle," is stated to be a house in the town of St. Botolph, in the County of Lincoln, belonging to the Barony of Tatshalle. There is also mention of "the Leaded House in Northampton," in the Great Roll of the 1st John, 1199-1200, 2 b. A house called "the Leaden Porch," stood likewise anciently in Lime Street, near the Leadenhall.
[b] In describing the above mentioned great house and green yard in Lime Street, Stow adds, that in the 9th year of Richard II., 1385-86, "it pertained to Sir Simon Burley, and Sir John Burley, his brother. And of late (namely about 1598), the said house was taken down, and the fore front thereof new builded of timber by Hugh Offley, Alderman." He was Sheriff of London in 1588.
[c] The royal confirmation of this Act appears on the Patent Rolls 12th Henry IV., 1410-11, Membr. 12. entitled, "For the Mayor and Citizens of London, concerning the Manor of Leadenhall in London, with the Advowsons of the Churches of the Blessed Peter of Cornhill, and St. Margaret Patins."
 Charter of Richard Whityngton, John Hinde, and others, by Robert Rickedon, of the County of Essex, and Margaret his Wife, of the Tenement called Le Ledenhall in London.
 29th May, A.D. 1411.
 Of the Licence to purchase in part of satisfaction.
 June 1st. A.D. 1411.
 Charter of the Mayor and Commonalty of the said City of London, by Richard Whityngton, John Heende, and others, of the Manor called Le Ledenhall, in London.
[a] In a volume of official returns of the chantries attached to the Church of St. Peter upon Cornhill, drawn up in the reign of Edward VI. it is recorded that William Kingston gave to find one priest, a lamp, and an obit, all his lands in the Parish, £ 44. 7s. 4d.
[b] Patent Rolls 21st Henry VI. Part Membr. 14.
[a] Sir Simon Eyre was Sheriff of London in 1434, and Lord Mayor in 1445, the 24th year of Henry VI. He was the son of John Eyre, of Brandon, in the County of Suffolk; and is traditionally said to have risen to wealth and eminence from a very inferior situation in life, which may also be inferred from his inscription mentioned above. He originally belonged to the Company of Upholders, "and then," says Stow, "by changing his copy, a Draper;" this was probably at the time he was elected Mayor, when he would be required to become a member of one of the twelve principal Companies of London: a practice which was first discontinued by Alderman Wilkes, on his election in 1774. The original trade of Eyre was that of a Cordwainer, though he probably at length became a dealer in leather; for it is related that his first step towards the attainment of his property, was receiving into his house as a lodger a Flemish Trader, who had arrived in the Thames with a freight of tanned leather, at the time there was a great demand for it, and only a short supply of it in England. When he learned what "his guest had to dispose of, he made so successful a bargain for the whole freight, well knowing where to vend it, as laid the foundation of the fortune he left behind him."—Another version of the same story, printed in the Universab Magazine for 1782, Vol. lxxi. page 348, states that a vessel from Tripoli laden with leather having been wrecked on the coast of Cornwall, Eyre procured as much money as he could raise from his friends, and then travelled on foot to Penzance, where he bought the remainder of the freight, which he disposed of to considerable advantage. He is also said to have been the first who introduced the use of morocco leather into England.—Sir Simon Eyre likewise gave to the City the Cardinal's Hat Tavern, in Lombard Street, with a tenement on the eastern side, and a mansion behind; together with an alley leading from Lombard Street to Cornhill, with the appurtenances, all which were newly built; towards a Brotherhood of Our Lady in the Church of St. Mary Woolnoth. He left issue a son Thomas, who was also succeeded by a son bearing the same name.
[b] The word Tronage signifies the customary toll or duty for weighing of wool, &c., as Trona means the beam at which it is weighed, and Tronator the officer who attends it. The second of these terms is used in the 2nd Stat. Westminster, 1285, chap. 25, for a scale beam, and that of Tronage has existed from the time of Edward II. The original word is supposed to be the Icelandic Triona, a beak, crane, or scale-beam, whence the Scottish term Tron is also derived.
[c] Patent Rolls, 3rd Edward IV., 1463.64, Part 2, Membr. 17
[a] July 2nd, 1750, Leadenhall Market was let to farm to Mr. Papworth, a Grocer of Coleman Street, for 1000l. per Annum, and 1000l. fine.
[b] This passage had probably a reference to the tumult in London on the famous evil May-day, 1517, when the insurgents attacked the house of a foreigner named Mewtas, at the Green Gate, on the east of Leadenhall, in Lime Street. In the subsequent executions, May 5th, one of the moveable gibbets was set up at Leadenhall.
[c] The custom of bringing bread from Stratford to London appears to have been of considerable antiquity. In 1310-11, the 4th year of Edward II., in the Mayoralty of Richard Reffeham, a baker named John of Stratford was drawn on a hurdle through the streets of the city with a fool's hood on his head, and loaves of light bread suspended round his neck, for making his bread less than the Assize directed. The ancient poem of Pierce Plowman's Vision also refers to the supply of London from Essex in a famine in the 44th year of Edward III., under the Maroyalty of John Chichester. It is not long passed, Ther was a careful commune whan no Cart came to town With Baked Bread fro' Stratford: tho 'gan beggers wepe, And workmen wer agast. A little this will be thought long In date of our dryght, in a drye Apriell, a thousand, and three hundred, twice thirty, and ten." Edit. Lond. 1550. 4to. Passus 13, fol. ixviii rev. So late as 1528-29, the 20th year of Henry VIII., Sir James Spencer being Lord Mayor, six bakers of Stratford were amerced in the Guildhall of London for making loaves under the Assize; but Stow records that those bakers discontinued serving the City about thirty years previous to the publication of the first edition of his Survey of London, which would bring the time to 1568.
[a] Rippiers are persons who bring fish from the sea-coast to the interior of the country. The original word is Riparii, and is derived from Ripa, a river, or river-banks.
[b] The Act referred to was that passed 25th Henry VIII., 1532, chap. iii. fixing the prices as above stated, and ordering the "Haver-du-pois" weight to be used by all butchers: which weight was enforced by another Act, 26th Henry VIII. 1533, chap. i. In his 27th year, 1535, chap. xix. these Acts were suspended for two years; and in his 33rd year, 1541, chap. xi. they were repealed on the petition of the Masters, Wardens, and Fellowship, of the Butchers of London. Previous to the establishment of the above prices, a fat ox was sold in London for 26s. 8d. at the most; a fat wether or calf, for 3s. 4d.; a fat lamb for 12d. ; fat mutton, for 8d. the quarter; a hundred weight of beef, for 4s. 8d. at the dearest time, and pieces of beef weighing from 2 1/2lbs. to 3lbs. and upwards, ld. each, or thirteen or fourteen such pieces for 12d.; at every butcher's stall in the City. After the price was fixed, however, the graziers gained, and the butchers lost: since the former knew, or were supposed to know, the weight of their cattle, and made the whole charge amount to the standard, which at length procured the above-mentioned petition and repeal. About the time now referred to, the number of butchers in London and the suburbs, did not exceed 80, each of whom killed 9 oxen weekly; but when Anthony Munday, continued Stow's Survey in 1633, the butchers were estimated at 120, each killing six oxen per week.
[c] The alms ordered by the King's Will, were 1000 marks, (666l. 13s. 4d.) to be given "to the most poore and nedy people that may be found; common beggars as moch as may be avoyded:—part in the same place, and thereaboutes, where it shall pleas Almighty God to call us to his mercy; part by the way; and part in the same place of our buriall."—Rymer's Fædera, 2nd Edition, Vol. xv. page 111. As Henry died at Westminster, the poor of London were included in his funeral dole, in conformity with the second provision mentioned in his testament.
[d] Harleian MSS. No. 5900, described in the Catalogue as "a book in folio, being a catalogue of books relating to the City of London, with many other illustrations of its history and antiquities." The article above cited will be found near the close of the volume, entitled "Seuerall thinges omitted relating to ye elustration of ye famous Citey of London:—as of ther Marketts and fayres."
[a] The Leather Market in Leadenhall was ordered by Act of Parliament still to be kept on Tuesday, notwithstanding any custom, &c., to the contrary, 13th and 14th Charles II., 1662, chap. vii. sect. 9.
[b] MS. extracts from the Vestry-books of St. Peter's Cornhill, by the late Mr. Robert Wilkinson, now in the City Library at Guildhall.—This entry is dated Nov. 4th, 1669. The minutes of the Vestry held March 5th, 1670, are dated, "at the Chappell in Leadenhall."
[c] Strype's Stow's Survey of London. Vol. II. book v. chap. 29. page 398.
[d] Ibid. chap 22. page 311.
[e] Ibid. chap. 29. pages 399, 400.
[f] Ibid. chap. 22. page 310.
[a] A small etching of this part of the Hall, taken in 1782, will be found in Carter's Views of Ancient Buildings in England. Lond. 1785-93, 24to. Vol. v. plate xcviii.
[b] The Parish Clerks' Survey of London, 1732, 12mo. page 127.
[a] These arms are generally blazoned Gules, bazantée, two flanches sable, each charged with a lion rampant guardant, argent.
[b] Topographical Antiquities of London. Lond. 1815, 4to. page 18, Plates 8, 9, where will be found two very excellent and interesting engravings of Leadenhall, and the Interior of the Chapel looking West.
Title page of Vol. 2 reads: Theatrum illustrata. Graphic and historic memorials of ancient playhouses, modern theatres and other places of public amusement in the cities and suburbs of London & Westminster with scenic and incidental illustrations from the time of Shakspear to the present period.