Londina Illustrata. Graphic and Historical Memorials of Monasteries, Churches, Chapels, Schools, Charitable Foundations, Palaces, Halls, Courts, Processions, Places of Early Amusement, and Modern Present Theatres, in the Cities and Suburbs of London and Westminster, Volume 2

Wilkinson, Robert
1819-1825

The Custom House.

The Custom House.

South View of the Custom House, London, in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth.

South View of the Ruins of the Custom House, London.

The Custom House was originally built in the ninth year of Richard II. in the mayoralty of Sir Nicholas Brembre, by John Churchman, then Sheriff, who is reported to have done many other good works towards the accommodation of the City of London. The building, from its ancient appearance in the reign of Elizabeth, seems never to have undergone the least alteration, and probably continued its original outward form until its destruction in the general conflagration, 1666.

In the year 1572, the 14th of Queen Elizabeth, a list was brought in to the Lord Treasurer of the Queen's yearly Customs, which stood thus: £. s. d. Anno Primo--- 73,846 12 10 Secundo--- 84,905 5 6 Tertio--- 75,938 1 6 Quarto--- 71,365 15 1 Quinto--- 57,436 4 10 Anno Sexto--- 45,783 18 11 Septimo--- 105,606 1 2 Octavo--- 69,184 18 6 Nono--- 63,502 7 2 Anno Decimo--- 74,875 19 10 Undecimo-- 65,307 10 8 Duodecimo-- 71,295 0 5 Decimo tertio 69,243 4 5

The Queen lost considerably by concealments of Customs, as appeared by a note brought in about the eighth or ninth year of her reign, by the Customers of the port of London, of all the value of the goods shipped out or bought in by the English and strangers for the Queen's first eight years, taken out of the accounts delivered into the Exchequer; which one Carmarthen, of the Custom House, drew up for the Queen's own use; wherein he set down what was, in those eight years, concealed in Customs inward only, all things allowable deducted, viz. 96,720l. 12s. 7d.; besides the petty Lustoms of strangers inwards, which is not herein reckoned. Whereupon there was a commission for concealment of Customs granted to one Edmond Matthews, but he was menaced with destruction, should he proceed in his investigations.

About the year 1590, Thomas Smith was the Queen's Customer, to whom she let the Customs and Subsidies in the port of London inwards to farm (who had long before been a Collector of them), for which he paid her rent 20,000l. per annum; whereas, as it was discovered, all the incomes of those Customs amounted nearly to 30,309l. 15s. 5d.; so, as it appeared, the Queen lost yearly by that farm 10,309l. 15s. 5d. This, the said Carmarthen cast up; thereby intending to let the Queen understand how much she lost by farming out her Customs, viz above 10,000l. a year.

There was a new officer propounded about the year 1572 to be brought into the Custom House, viz. a Clerk for the Execution of Penal Statutes, one Middlemore, who had moved for this place for himself, and obtained a patent for it, upon pretence, that forfeitures and penalties made by merchants might be the better answered to the Queen. About this the Lord Treasurer consulted the chief officers of the Custom House, who gave in their reasons against it, which were these: First, that there was no place for any more officers or clerks than were already there placed, but rather lack of room for expedition of the merchants and shippers when they came there: that there had been divers like grants made for having of places in the Custom House, to whom denial had been made by the Lord Treasurer to have any place there; and that, for Middlemore's patent, they thought it not profitable for the Queen's service, that any penal laws should be executed in her Custom House; for that it would much hinder her revenue in her Customs and Subsidies, and also grieve the merchants, who did daily diminish in their trades, and employed their moneys upon exchange, whereof Her Majesty had no benefit. Finally, the Custom House had always been a quiet place, appointed only for the receipt of the Queen's revenues and duties, and not for execution of penal statutes which were repugnant one to the other.

Farming out the Customs continued until the period of the civil wars, when Sir Paul Pindar, who had farmed the Customs during greater part of King James the First's reign, continued the same practice under his son and successor Charles I. by whom he lost considerable sums of money advanced and lent to him during his troubles.

The first Custom House, built, as mentioned above, in the reign of Richard II. was destroyed by the great fire in 1666, and of which a view is given from an extremely rare print. It was rebuilt shortly after, and again destroyed by fire in the year 1718; rebuilt a third time, and destroyed by the same devouring element in the year 1814. The particulars of which are as follow:

On the 12th of February, at about six o'clock in the morning, the building was discovered to be on fire. The calamity was supposed to have originated from a fire-flue of one of the offices of business, adjoining a closet on the two-pair of stairs attached to the housekeeper's apartments. There can be little doubt of the fire having been smouldering throughout the greater part of the previous evening. The porter of the house was the first person who discovered it. He was going up stairs, and when on the second floor, heard a crackling of fire, and saw a flame breaking through the ceiling; he instantly rushed into the room, which was that in which Colonel Kelly slept, whom he found standing by the bed-feet, the curtains in a blaze, and the flame pouring from the above-mentioned closet. By this time the whole room was on fire, and a Mr. Drinkald had given the alarm from the quay, towards which the windows of this room looked. The porter hastened to call up the servants and the family; the Colonel ran to a room adjoining his own fronting the street, and was saved by a ladder with great difficulty, but shockingly burnt in the face and hands. The Miss Kellys most narrowly escaped, with only the covering of blankets; and Captain Hinton Kelly made his way through the fire with his sisters in the same unprovided state. Most of the servants had previously fled to the top of the house, from which they were taken down by ladders. A female servant of Miss Kelly jumped out of a two-pair of stairs window: she was much hurt, and carried to St. Thomas's Hospital in a lifeless state. Two orphan girls, in the service of Miss Kelly, perished. They had been awakened by the alarm; and the cook of the establishment, in making her escape, passed the door of the room in which these children slept. She threw it open, and called to them to "follow her instantly, for the house was on fire." They answered her, sitting up in their bed, "We will just put on our gowns and get away;" but the room, which was already filled with smoke, burst into flame, and it is concluded that when they strove to make their way to the staircase, they were overpowered by the rapid progress of the fire. The engines arrived soon after seven o'clock. About eight the flames had obtained so great an ascendancy, that all attempts to save the edifice were abandoned. The exertions of the firemen and others employed were then directed to the warehouses and other buildings on both sides of the street, when a report was circulated that many barrels of gunpowder were deposited in the vaults. This report had nearly a magical effect: all withdrew to a distance, and the flames were left for some time to rage uncontrolled. At half-past nine an explosion took place, and the shock was distinctly felt on the Royal Exchange, and by persons coming to London by the Whitechapel Road. It carried the burnt papers, ship registers, and a variety of matter, as far as Dalston, Shacklewell, Homerton, Hackney, and all the adjoining villages in the direction of the wind. The gunpowder which exploded had been deposited in the armoury of the Custom House Volunteers. The flames soon communicated to the houses in Thames Street, opposite the Custom House, and embraced, in a short time, the warehouses in Globe Yard, and the whole of the tenements extending from Beer Street to Water Lane, from which it required the utmost activity of the inmates to escape, not with their property, but with their lives. Many individuals were severely scorched. At one o'clock the whole of the Custom House and the adjoining warehouses were completely reduced to ashes; ten houses opposite the Custom House were burnt down by two o'clock; among them Holland's Coffee House, the Rose and Crown and Yorkshire Grey public-houses. and the King's Arms public-house damaged. The East India and Custom House corps of volunteers were on the spot soon after the bursting out of the flames, and by unceasing attention prevented much plunder and confusion.

The actual loss to Government by the sudden destruction of the Custom House cannot be calculated; yet there is great consolation in knowing that many of the important papers of office were recovered, and several chests of valuables, with the principal records, saved. The insurance on the Custom House amounted to 100,000l. Though public business must have materially suffered by the conflagration, the Commissioners and their officers took the most active measures to facilitate its progress. The spacious and elegant "Commercial Sale Rooms," in Mincing Lane, were engaged temporarily to carry on the public business.

Several gentlemen had left large sums of money in their desks, ready to make payments on the following day. One individual lost, it is said, upwards of six thousand pounds in Bank notes, which were irrecoverable, as the memorandum of the numbers was in the desk with the notes, and met the same fate.—A very fine collection of pictures was also lost, which the Commissioners had permitted a gentleman to leave in deposit till it would be convenient for him to pay the duties, amounting to 1500l. An old clerk, with great perseverance, assisted by some workmen, got through the ruins to an iron chest, upon the spot where he had usually officiated, and recovered 400 guineas.

The present magnificent building is every way superior to the last, both with respect to the conveniency of its numerous offices and its dimensions; the facility with which access is given by widening the street, through means of the embankment made from the Thames; the former street rendering it extremely dangerous to passengers, who scarcely had room sufficient to pass without occasionally being compelled to walk in the middle of the road.

The new Custom House is erected on the site of a number of warehouses on the free quays, and a few dwellinghouses, extending from the Gun Tavern, westward, to Sam's Coffee House, opposite Water Lane, eastward, both inclusive, viz.

Smart's and Dice Quay.—Smart's and part of Dice Quay is in the parish of St. Mary at Hill and in the ward of Billingsgate; the whole of the remainder is in the parish of St. Dunstan in the East, in the ward of Tower, viz. Young's Quay, Ralph's Quay, Wiggin's Quay, Sabb's Quay, Bear Quay, and Porter's Quay.

The dwelling-houses are, the Gun Tavern, and the Dice and Key, the Tackle Porters, the Ipswich Arms, and the Coopers' Arms, public houses; Mr. Charles Martin, wholesale cheesemonger; Mr. Kenyon, sack merchant; and Sam's Coffee House; and a few inferior dwellings in Dice Quay Gateway and Temple Stairs Passage.

The public stairs removed, are, Temple Stairs, between Dice and Young's Quay; Bear Quay Stairs, between Wiggin's and Sabb's Quay; Custom House Stairs, at the east end of Porters' Quay. The extreme length of the New Custom House----- 488 feet 10 inches. Depth--------------- 107 — 1 1/2 The length of the Long Room is--------- 190 — 0 Height--------------- 60 — 0 Estimate and contract for the Building, furniture included £ 255,000 Ditto, for the Embankment-------- 38,000

The public entrance to the Custom House, in Thames Street, is both grand and commodious; the avenues and offices are convenient and airy; the Long Room, which is perhaps for dispatch of business the best adapted of any thing of the kind in Europe, contains two handsome stoves, and three circular writing-desks for public use. There are two arched communications from Thames Street to the river side, through the body of the building, which are closed at five o'clock every evening, by very handsome ornamented iron gates. At each of the extreme ends of the structure are public entrances, never closed against foot passengers, but secured by large iron gates, against the admission of carriages of every description at unseasonable times. Both the wharf and street are well watched, and the boxes have each a glazed window to protect the watchmen from any inclemency of weather when on duty.

The front view from the Thames exhibits, without question, a prospect of the most chaste and classic architecture of modern times. The frieze which embellishes the upper part of the edifice consists in characteristic representations of every nation, state, and country in the known world. This frieze is in two compartments: in the centre of the first, His present Majesty, George III. appears, receiving the credentials of foreign ambassadors from their respective sovereigns. In the centre of the second, Britannia, seated in an escalop shell, is receiving tributary offerings from the different nations inhabiting the globe.

The wharf forms a beautiful marine parade, at each end of which are handsome and convenient stairs, for the purpose of taking water and landing goods. The end of the Custom House next Billingsgate, forms a vast improvement in the access to that celebrated market, which now consists of an enlarged area or square, at one corner of which is erected Billingsgate watch-house, built 1818, Sir William Leighton, Knt, alderman of the ward; John Ord, Esq., deputy.

The Royal Arms are placed in the centre of the Custom House, next the Thames, over the King's warehouse, and receive double effect from the supporting emblems of England's glory, the figures of NEPTUNE and BRITANNIA.

The Architect of this magnificent building is David Laing, Esq., and the designer of the frieze, with the figures of Neptune and Britannia, Mr. Bubb.

 

 

The was originally built in the year of Richard II. in the mayoralty of Sir Nicholas Brembre, by John Churchman, then Sheriff, who is reported to have done many other good works towards the accommodation of the City of London. The building, from its ancient appearance in the reign of Elizabeth, seems never to have undergone the least alteration, and probably continued its original outward form until its destruction in the general conflagration, .

In the year , the of Queen Elizabeth, a list was brought in to the Lord Treasurer of the Queen's yearly Customs, which stood thus:

     £. s. d. 
 Anno 
 Primo--- 73,846 12 10 
 Secundo--- 84,905 5 6 
 Tertio--- 75,938 1 6 
 Quarto--- 71,365 15 1 
 Quinto--- 57,436 4 10 
 Anno 
 Sexto--- 45,783 18 11 
 Septimo--- 105,606 1 2 
 Octavo--- 69,184 18 6 
 Nono--- 63,502 7 2 
 Anno 
 Decimo--- 74,875 19 10 
 Undecimo-- 65,307 10 8 
 Duodecimo-- 71,295 0 5 
 Decimo tertio 69,243 4 5 

The Queen lost considerably by concealments of Customs, as appeared by a note brought in about the or year of her reign, by the Customers of the port of London, of all the value of the goods shipped out or bought in by the English and strangers for the Queen's years, taken out of the accounts delivered into ; which Carmarthen, of the , drew up for the Queen's own use; wherein he set down what was, in those years, concealed in Customs inward only, all things allowable deducted, viz. ; besides the petty Lustoms of strangers inwards, which is not herein reckoned. Whereupon there was a commission for concealment of Customs granted to , but he was menaced with destruction, should he proceed in his investigations.

About the year , Thomas Smith was the Queen's Customer, to whom she let the Customs and Subsidies in the port of London inwards to farm (who had long before been a Collector of them), for which he paid her rent whereas, as it was discovered, all the incomes of those Customs amounted nearly to ; so, as it appeared, the Queen lost yearly by that farm This, the said Carmarthen cast up; thereby intending to let the Queen understand how much she lost by farming out her Customs, above a year.

There was a new officer propounded about the year to be brought into the , viz. a Clerk for the Execution of Penal Statutes, Middlemore, who had moved for this place for himself, and obtained a patent for it, upon pretence, that forfeitures and penalties made by merchants might be the better answered to the Queen. About this the Lord Treasurer consulted the chief officers of the , who gave in their reasons against it, which were these: , that there was no place for any more officers or clerks than were already there placed, but rather lack of room for expedition of the merchants and shippers when they came there: that there had been divers like grants made for having of places in the , to whom denial had been made by the Lord Treasurer to have any place there; and that, for patent, they thought it not profitable for the Queen's service, that any penal laws should be executed in her for that it would much hinder her revenue in her Customs and Subsidies, and also grieve the merchants, who did daily diminish in their trades, and employed their moneys upon exchange, whereof Her Majesty had no benefit. Finally, the had always been a quiet place, appointed only for the receipt of the Queen's revenues and duties, and not for execution of penal statutes which were repugnant to the other.

Farming out the Customs continued until the period of the civil wars, when Sir Paul Pindar, who had farmed the Customs during greater part of King James the 's reign, continued the same practice under his son and successor Charles I. by whom he lost considerable sums of money advanced and lent to him during his troubles.

The , built, as mentioned above, in the reign of Richard II. was destroyed by the great fire in , and of which a view is given from an extremely rare print. It was rebuilt shortly after, and again destroyed by fire in the year ; rebuilt a time, and destroyed by the same devouring element in the year . The particulars of which are as follow:

On the , at about o'clock in the morning, the building was discovered to be on fire. The calamity was supposed to have originated from a fire-flue of of the offices of business, adjoining a closet on the -pair of stairs attached to the housekeeper's apartments. There can be little doubt of the fire having been smouldering throughout the greater part of the previous evening. The porter of the house was the person who discovered it. He was going up stairs, and when on the floor, heard a crackling of fire, and saw a flame breaking through the ceiling; he instantly rushed into the room, which was that in which Colonel Kelly slept, whom he found standing by the bed-feet, the curtains in a blaze, and the flame pouring from the above-mentioned closet. By this time the whole room was on fire, and a Mr. Drinkald had given the alarm from the quay, towards which the windows of this room looked. The porter hastened to call up the servants and the family; the Colonel ran to a room adjoining his own fronting the street, and was saved by a ladder with great difficulty, but shockingly burnt in the face and hands. The Miss Kellys most narrowly escaped, with only the covering of blankets; and Captain Hinton Kelly made his way through the fire with his sisters in the same unprovided state. Most of the servants had previously fled to the top of the house, from which they were taken down by ladders. A female servant of Miss Kelly jumped out of a -pair of stairs window: she was much hurt, and carried to in a lifeless state. orphan girls, in the service of Miss Kelly, perished. They had been awakened by the alarm; and the cook of the establishment, in making her escape, passed the door of the room in which these children slept. She threw it open, and called to them to "follow her instantly, for the house was on fire." They answered her, sitting up in their bed, "We will just put on our gowns and get away;" but the room, which was already filled with smoke, burst into flame, and it is concluded that when they strove to make their way to the staircase, they were overpowered by the rapid progress of the fire. The engines arrived soon after o'clock. About the flames had obtained so great an ascendancy, that all attempts to save the edifice were abandoned. The exertions of the firemen and others employed were then directed to the

18

warehouses and other buildings on both sides of the street, when a report was circulated that many barrels of gunpowder were deposited in the vaults. This report had nearly a magical effect: all withdrew to a distance, and the flames were left for some time to rage uncontrolled. At half-past an explosion took place, and the shock was distinctly felt on the , and by persons coming to London by the . It carried the burnt papers, ship registers, and a variety of matter, as far as Dalston, Shacklewell, Homerton, Hackney, and all the adjoining villages in the direction of the wind. The gunpowder which exploded had been deposited in the armoury of the Volunteers. The flames soon communicated to the houses in , opposite the , and embraced, in a short time, the warehouses in , and the whole of the tenements extending from Beer Street to , from which it required the utmost activity of the inmates to escape, not with their property, but with their lives. Many individuals were severely scorched. At o'clock the whole of the and the adjoining warehouses were completely reduced to ashes; houses opposite the were burnt down by o'clock; among them Holland's Coffee House, the Rose and Crown and Yorkshire Grey public-houses. and the King's Arms public-house damaged. The East India and corps of volunteers were on the spot soon after the bursting out of the flames, and by unceasing attention prevented much plunder and confusion.

The actual loss to Government by the sudden destruction of the cannot be calculated; yet there is great consolation in knowing that many of the important papers of office were recovered, and several chests of valuables, with the principal records, saved. The insurance on the amounted to Though public business must have materially suffered by the conflagration, the Commissioners and their officers took the most active measures to facilitate its progress. The spacious and elegant "Commercial Sale Rooms," in , were engaged temporarily to carry on the public business.

Several gentlemen had left large sums of money in their desks, ready to make payments on the following day. individual lost, it is said, upwards of in Bank notes, which were irrecoverable, as the memorandum of the numbers was in the desk with the notes, and met the same fate.—A very fine collection of pictures was also lost, which the Commissioners had permitted a gentleman to leave in deposit till it would be convenient for him to pay the duties, amounting to An old clerk, with great perseverance, assisted by some workmen, got through the ruins to an iron chest, upon the spot where he had usually officiated, and recovered guineas.

The present magnificent building is every way superior to the last, both with respect to the conveniency of its numerous offices and its dimensions; the facility with which access is given by widening the street, through means of the embankment made from the Thames; the former street rendering it extremely dangerous to passengers, who scarcely had room sufficient to pass without occasionally being compelled to walk in the middle of the road.

The new is erected on the site of a number of warehouses on the free quays, and a few dwellinghouses, extending from the , westward, to Sam's Coffee House, opposite , eastward, both inclusive, viz.

Smart's and Dice Quay.—Smart's and part of Dice Quay is in the parish of and in the ward of ; the whole of the remainder is in the parish of St. Dunstan in the East, in the ward of Tower, viz. Young's Quay, Ralph's Quay, Wiggin's Quay, Sabb's Quay, Bear Quay, and Porter's Quay.

The dwelling-houses are, the , and the Dice and Key, the Tackle Porters, the Ipswich Arms, and the Coopers' Arms, public houses; Mr. Charles Martin, wholesale cheesemonger; Mr. Kenyon, sack merchant; and Sam's Coffee House; and a few inferior dwellings in Dice Quay Gateway and Passage.

The public stairs removed, are, , between Dice and Young's Quay; Bear Quay Stairs, between Wiggin's and Sabb's Quay; , at the east end of Porters' Quay.

 The extreme length of the New Custom House----- 488 feet 10 inches. 
 Depth--------------- 107 — 1 1/2 
 The length of the Long Room is--------- 190 — 0 
 Height--------------- 60 — 0 
 Estimate and contract for the Building, furniture included £ 255,000 
 Ditto, for the Embankment-------- 38,000 

The public entrance to the , in , is both grand and commodious; the avenues and offices are convenient and airy; the Long Room, which is perhaps for dispatch of business the best adapted of any thing of the kind in Europe, contains handsome stoves, and circular writing-desks for public use. There are arched communications from to the river side, through the body of the building, which are closed at o'clock every evening, by very handsome ornamented iron gates. At each of the extreme ends of the structure are public entrances, never closed against foot passengers, but secured by large iron gates, against the admission of carriages of every description at unseasonable times. Both the wharf and street are well watched, and the boxes have each a glazed window to protect the watchmen from any inclemency of weather when on duty.

The front view from the Thames exhibits, without question, a prospect of the most chaste and classic architecture of modern times. The frieze which embellishes the upper part of the edifice consists in characteristic representations of every nation, state, and country in the known world. This frieze is in compartments: in the centre of the , His present Majesty, George III. appears, receiving the credentials of foreign ambassadors from their respective sovereigns. In the centre of the , Britannia, seated in an escalop shell, is receiving tributary offerings from the different nations inhabiting the globe.

The wharf forms a beautiful marine parade, at each end of which are handsome and convenient stairs, for the purpose of taking water and landing goods. The end of the next , forms a vast improvement in the access to that celebrated market, which now consists of an enlarged area or square, at corner of which is erected watch-house, built , Sir William Leighton, Knt, alderman of the ward; John Ord, Esq., deputy.

The Royal Arms are placed in the centre of the , next the Thames, over the King's warehouse, and receive double effect from the supporting emblems of England's glory, the figures of NEPTUNE and BRITANNIA.

The Architect of this magnificent building is David Laing, Esq., and the designer of the frieze, with the figures of Neptune and Britannia, Mr. Bubb.

19

 
 
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 Title Page
collapseCourts, Halls, and Public Buildings
collapseSchools
collapseAlms-Houses, Hospitals, &c.
collapsePlaces of Amusement
collapseMiscellaneous Objects of Antiquity
collapseAncient and Modern Theatres
collapseTheatres
The Bull and the Bear Baiting,
The Red Bull Playhouse, Clerkenwell.
Fortune Theatre
Lincoln's Inn Fields Theatre
D'Avenant's Theatre Otherwise the Duke's Theatre, Little Lincoln's Inn Fields
Theatre Royal, Drury Lane
Destruction of Drury Lane Theatre by Fire
Opening of Drury Lane New Theatre
Theatre Royal, Covent Garden
The New Theatre Royal, Covent Garden.
Theatre Royal, Haymarket
New Theatre Royal, Haymarket
The King's Theatre, or the Italian Opera, Haymarket
Theatre in Goodman's Fields. The whole of Goodman's Fields was formerly a farm belonging to the Abbey of Nuns, of the Order of St. Clare, called the Minories or Minoresses, from certain poor ladies of that order; and so late as the time of Stow, when he wrote his Survey in 1598, was let out in gardens, and for grazing horses. One Trolop, and afterwards Goodman, were the farmers there. But Goodman's son being heir by his father's purchase, let the grounds in parcels, and lived like a gentleman on its produce. He lies buried in St. Botolph's church, Aldgate.
The Royalty Theatre, Wellclose Square
The Tennis Court Theatre, Bear Yard, Little Lincoln's Inn Fields
Olympic Theatre, Newcastle Street, Strand
Sadler's Wells.
The Pantheon Theatre, Oxford Street
Strand Theatre, the Sans Pareil
Astley's Amphitheatre, Westminster Road
The Regency Theatre. Tottenham Street Tottenham Court Road
The Cobourg Theatre
Royal Circus or Surrey Theatre
Lyceum Theatre, or English Opera, Strand.
Theatre in Tankard Street, Ipswich
Checks and Tickets of Admission to the public Theatres and other Places of Amusement.

Title page of Vol. 2 reads: Theatrum illustrata. Graphic and historic memorials of ancient playhouses, modern theatres and other places of public amusement in the cities and suburbs of London & Westminster with scenic and incidental illustrations from the time of Shakspear to the present period.

This object is in collection:
Edwin C. Bolles papers
Subjects
London (England)--Antiquities
London (England)--Description and Travel
Wilkinson, Robert, d. ca. 1825
Bolles, Edwin Courtlandt
Permanent URL
http://hdl.handle.net/10427/53839
ID: tufts:MS004.002.057.001.00001
To Cite: DCA Citation Guide
Usage: Detailed Rights