Londina Illustrata. Graphic and Historical Memorials of Monasteries, Churches, Chapels, Schools, Charitable Foundations, Palaces, Halls, Courts, Processions, Places of Early Amusement, and Modern Present Theatres, in the Cities and Suburbs of London and Westminster, Volume 2Wilkinson, Robert
The Queen's Treasury, Scotland Yard.
The plot of ground termed , was given by Edgar, King of England (who reigned from to ) to Keneth, or Kynald, King of Scotland, from whom he had received homage for that kingdom; and he enjoined the said Keneth, once every year to repair unto him in England, for the making of laws, which in those days was done by the noblemen and peers. To which end Edgar gave that King this piece of ground, lying beside the new palace of ; upon which Keneth built a house for his residence when he came up. This house was enjoyed by him and his successors until the reign of Henry II, in whose time, upon the rebellion of William then King of Scots, it was resumed into the hands of the King of England. After that, the house went to decay, but the ground where it stood, ever after retained the name of Scotland, which is preserved to this time, in that of ; though now () nearly covered with magnificent modern buildings.
Margaret, Queen of Scotland, eldest sister of Henry VIII, on the death of her husband James IV, slain at Flodden Field in , returned into England, and took up her residence at this place; by which it seems to have been considered as belonging to the royal line of Scotland exclusively, and kept distinct from any other place for their particular use and accommodation.
possessed the privileges and immunities of a royal palace, no person could be arrested for debt within its precinct and jurisdiction; the liberties of which extended from the bank of the Thames at the bottom of , Strand, to the corner of , . According to the plan of Palace, taken by John Fisher, in , and engraved by Virtue, in , it appears that it extended along the river, and in front along the present and Street, to the turning into Spring Garden beyond the Admiralty, leading into St. James' Park.
fourths of the inhabitants of , and about , within the verge of the court, were composed of persons in a state of insolvency, who sought a refuge here under the protection of the Board of Green Cloth, to protect them against arrest, and other legal proceedings of their creditors.
In , several places in and about the city of London, which in the times of popery had been allowed as sanctuaries to criminals and debtors, had ever since the Reformation pretended to a privilege of protecting the latter; no officers daring without a hazard of their lives, to arrest the lawless debtors that took refuge in them. of these, Whitefriars, which lay in the very heart of the metropolis, was become a notorious receptacle of broken and desperate men, where to the dishonour of Government, and to the great prejudice of the community, they defended themselves against all justice and public authority.[*] This intolerable mischief the parliament redressed by an act, "For the more effectual relief of creditors in cases of escapes, and for preventing abuses in prisons and pretended privileged places[*] ." By this statute the following places of pretended privilege were suppressed, viz., that in the ; those in and near , as , Whitefriars, Ram Alley, and ; in , , and Baldwyn's Gardens in ; in , the Savoy; in , , Deadman's Place, the Clink, and the Mint: yet this last named place, the Mint, was afterwards suffered to spring up again in a more outrageous manner than ever before; and was not finally suppressed until the reign of George I.[*]
continued to be a sanctuary to debtors, under the sanction of the Board of Green Cloth, until a short time previous to the riots in the year .
Henrietta Maria, queen of Charles I, upon the restoration of her son, Charles II, to the crown of England, came to London, and having settled her revenues here, returned into France with her youngest daughter, Henrietta Anne, whom she bestowed in marriage to Philip, duke of Orleans, only brother of Lewis XIV. In , she came again into England, and settled her court at , where she resided till , and then crossed the sea to her native country, which after years more became the place of her death. [*]
The Queen's Treasury was situate in the middle of , close on the bank of the river; the passage represented in the west view of the building, over which hangs a lamp, led to the walled terrace, exhibited in front of the east view, which in fine weather formed an agreeable and pleasant promenade to those inhabitants who were indulged in the liberty of access, affording a commanding prospect of the river, as high as , and downward to the Tower, including views of and numerous other churches and public buildings.
The vignette to the left, which represents a part of destroyed by fire in the year , is the entrance of the passage to the privy stairs, where Charles I usually took water; that of the corresponding vignette is of an ancient window of the palace, evidently of the time of Henry VIII, and similar with some of those still remaining in St. James' Palace, erected in the reign of that king.
The part of the building which formed the Queen's Treasury, as taken from the river Thames, and represented in the upper view, consists of the arched door and square window on the basement story, with the windows above, on each floor. The adjoining house, now the Almonry Office, was formerly the Treasury of the late Princess Dowager of Wales, and was occupied by the treasurer's clerk until the year , when it was granted to the late Queen Charlotte, for the office of her secretary and comptroller, and was occupied by the secretary and comptroller's clerk, until the end of the year .—The west front represented in the lower view, with the soldiers relieving guard, is that of the houses prior to the removal of the brick wall, which divided the building; the door by the sentry box is the entrance to the Almonry Office; but no military duty is there at present performed.
The institution of this place, as the Queen's Treasury, was for the use of Queen Caroline, consort to George II. and continued in the occupation of gentlemen belonging to the office, till the arrival of the late Queen Charlotte, when it was granted to her Majesty for her treasury, and continued as such until her demise.
The house that was the Queen's Treasury, is now occupied by Mr. Dalgleish, and that of the Almonry Office, by Mr. Handby. The present appearance of these houses forms a striking contrast to the magnificent edifices recently erected in their vicinity.
IN various quarters of England, particularly in the southern, and consequently the warmer districts, as in Essex, Surrey, Deson, &c. are found places commonly denominated Nor are those places, by their local position, so peculiarly exposed to the inclemency of the weather, as to be distinguished by that denomination from all other places in their vicinity. In the heart of the City of London itself, on the sheltered northern banks of the Thames, is also a spot now and for centuries known by a similar appellation; and formerly celebrated as the residence of some of the most eminent personages of the kingdom.
just mentioned, abutting on the river Thames (near the Steel Yard, the ancient residence of the merchants of Almaine or the Hanse Towns), is mentioned as originally the hall or inn (Herebrough) of the Cologne merchants, or "Men of Colen," as they were termed in old writings, from which called Colen or Coln Harbrough, and from whence the corruptions of Cole and were probably derived, and not, as Maitland supposes, from its bleak cold situation.
Malcolm, in his Londinium Redivivum, in unison with a writer in the Gentleman's Magazine, vol. lxiii. p. , also supposes to be a corruption of a German word, signifying "an inn," and that the neighbourhood of the Steel Yard makes it probable.
A late intelligent writer in the Morning Herald of , also confirms this opinion.
It was deserted by its original proprietors the merchants of Cologne, before the reign of Edward the .
The earliest notice we have of this place on record is, that in the year of Edward II. anno , demised or let unto , draper, all that his capital messuage called in the parish of , and all the purtenances within the gate, with the key which Robert Hartford, citizen, son to William Hartford, had and ought to have; and the aforesaid Robert paid for it the rent of the year. This Robert Hartford being owner thereof, as also of other lands in Surrey, deceasing without issue male, left daughters his coheirs, to wit, , married to Sir , and married to Sir (knights), between whom the said house and lands were divided. After the which, , son to the said Sir , and Sir , did sell their moieties of unto Sir , son of , the of Edward III, anno . This Sir dwelling in this house, and being times Mayor of London, the said house took the name of
Sir removing to an adjacent residence within the parish of St. Lawrence Poultney, or Pountney, he, in the of Edward III, anno , by his charter, gave and confirmed to , Earl of Hereford and Essex, his whole tenement called , with all the appurtenances sometime pertaining to , on the way called , &c. for rose at to him and his heirs, for all services, if the same were demanded. Sir deceased , and left issue by Margaret his wife, , who died without issue, and Margaret his mother was married to Sir , Knt. &c.
gave messuages pertaining to this in the Ropery, towards the enlarging of the church and churchyard of called the , in the of anno. .
In the year , the of , Earl of Huntingdon, was lodged there; and , his brother, was by him there magnificently entertained. It was then counted a right fair and stately house. But in the year following, , Earl of Cambridge, another of the royal brothers, had it, and was there lodged in the year . Notwithstanding these changes, it still retained the name of
In , Henry IV granted this house to his son, Prince of Wales, by the title of (vocatum le ) for the term of his life, and in the same year (to stock his cellars) gave him an order on the Collector of the Customs for casks and pipe of red wine of , and that without payment of any duty.
In the year of Henry VI, anno , it belonged to H. , Duke of , and he was lodged there in the year . In . Richard III, by his letters patent, granted and gave to , alias Garter principal King of Arms of , and the rest of the King's Heralds and Pursevants of Arms, all that messuage with the appurtenances, called , in the parish of in , and their successors for ever, dated at , the d of , , without fine or fee. Their stay here was short. After Richard's fall at Bosworth, this grant of was annulled, and the Heralds obtained with difficulty, permission from the successor to sojourn for a time in the religious house of St. Mary of Rounceval at , where they remained till Edward VI granted the site to a family of Carwarden. Soon after the Heralds' removal from thence, Philip and Mary, by a charter, dated the in the and of their reign, granted to them Derby House in the parish of St. Benet, , where they still remain. After the removal of the Heralds' company from , it became the temporary residence of the celebrated Margaret, Countess of Richmond, mother of Henry VII, who, on occasion of the marriage of Prince Arthur with Catharine of Arragon, entertained here the Lord Mayor and his brethren, with a variety of sports and devices; after which "they were ensyrved after the right goodly maner bothe of their vitalls and delicates, and with divers wines abundant and plenteously."
In the reign of Henry VIII, the Bishop of Durham's house near being taken into the King's hands, , Bishop of , was lodged in .
Since the which time it belonged for a long time to the Earls of , and changed its name to Shrewsbury House.
The last deceased Earl took it partly down, and in place thereof builded a great number of small tenements, let out for great rents to people of all sorts.
This great house Bishop enjoyed even to the last year of King Edward VI, that is to the year ; when the Bishop being under a cloud and deposed from his bishoprick, they took from him this house also, which the King granted to the Earl of , with the appurtenances to the said messuage belonging, together with houses or tenements, in the parish of St. in the , and divers other lands in the County of York, to him and his heirs, to the yearly value of The date of the patent was the of , the King dying but or days after. For the Duke of , who now did all at Court, practised to gain as many of the nobility as he could to his purpose, and so this gratification was made to the Earl of Shrewsbury, as were divers others of the nobility in other respects gratified.
What title the Earls of had in former times to is not known, but it appears by letters (dated from thence), that that house was inhabited by them and their servants long before, namely, not far from the beginning of the reign of Henry VIII. George the Earl of Shrewsbury was in great favour and highly confided in by Queen Elizabeth, who, in the year of her reign, intrusted to his charge the person of Mary Queen of Scots, whom he kept in safe custody from till . Camden, speaking of this nobleman says, "In those ticklish times he made a shift to assert his honour, and made good his trust for years together, against all the machinations and slanders of the court party, and the ill conduct of his wife, to such a degree, that he left behind him the double character of a wise and faithful statesman and a brave and worthy commander. Indeed, the Earl himself was aware of the nest of enemies he had to contend with; and to inform posterity in what manner he had conducted himself through an arduous and trying duty to his sovereign and country, he caused to be erected (in his lifetime) a noble monument at Sheffield, where he was afterwards buried, on which is a Latin inscription, which sets forth, 'that he was descended from an unblemished and noble stock before the Norman conquest; that as he excelled in mind, so was he skilled in affairs of war. In Scotland, when, on those troubles that happened there, he was sent thither with forces, he came away with the character of a brave and gallant soldier, as afterwards he did when he came from On the arrival of Mary Queen of in , she was put under his care anno , and so continued till . His behaviour to her was generous and honourable, sparing no cost for her entertainment, neither can words express the care and concern he had for her. Nor can envy itself say otherwise, than that he was a faithful, provident, and prudent person, which shewed that his integrity was not to be suspected in the least, although evil-disposed persons gave out that he used too much familiarity with his royal prisoner. Thus, though noble by descent, he was more noble and illustrious in his actions; famous at home and abroad, loyal to his prince and true to his country, and resigned his soul in a good old age.'"
The strict care and charge Lord Shrewsbury had over the person of his royal prisoner Mary, prevented his residing at, and, indeed, often visiting his mansion in His life appears to have been made up with continual fears and jealousy of losing his unfortunate prisoner. In a letter to Lord Burleigh, dated at Sheffield Castell, , the Earl says, "I thought to remove this Quene to my loge: now finding the place where she is safetur than I loked for, and consydering if any practeses shul be used betwext this and Halowtyde is the fytteste tyme to putt it in use, therefore I mynde not to remove hur at all, unles it be for V or VI dayes to klense hur chambar, beinge kept very unklenly. She is desyrus of new men and send thes abroad, whyche if by the imbassydor's menes may be obtayned at the Quene's Ma hands wyll bring new devyses. Now she is metly quyett savenge she myslykes she can not goo a hunting into the felds upon horsebake, whych I trust the Quene's Ma wyll not assent unto, unles she myndes to sett hur at lybarte & so havenge no matter als of importans, I ende w my most harty comedac'ons to yo good Lordship."
The Earl of Shrewsbury was released from his charge of the unfortunate Mary in , who continued in other keepers' custody until her execution, in Fotheringay Castle, -. Nor did her former keeper long survive her, he himself dying the .
Nothing farther is recorded of , or its inmates, until the year ; when we are informed, on the authority of Mr. Lodge, Norroy King of Arms, it was pulled down by Gilbert Earl of Shrewsbury, son and successor of George the Earl. The oldest representations of it, which are just before this date, shew it to have been a building in the Tudor style of architecture; but from remains exhibited at its west side, it is probable that the whole river front was once castellated, and of stone, and that it was altered and modernized as it passed through the hands of different successors. How prominent it stood on the bank of the Thames appears from Hollar's View of London taken in , from the opposite side of the river, and published in the early part of our volume of this work. The entrance from led into a spacious court-yard enclosed by buildings, through the magnificent gate-house, which was standing in Stowe's time, when the steeple and part of the choir of Allhallows the Less stood on it.
Adjoining to the mansion of were formerly churches, both named All Saints, or Allhallows, distinguished as the Great and the Less, both being consumed in the dreadful conflagration of . The great church was rebuilt by Sir Christopher Wren, but the less was never restored, and the parishes were united. The only remains lately visible of the latter church, which Newcourt mentions to have been built by Sir John Poultney, were
|some fragments of walls bearing evidence of the action of the fire. The site was turned into a burying-ground. The steeple and choir of the church stood on arches forming the entrance to the mansion of The impropriate tithes of Allhallows the Less becoming the property of Dr. Edward Waddington, Rector of Allhallows the Great and Less, and afterwards Lord Bishop of Chichester, he by his will, in , gave the same to the Bishop of London and his successors, in trust for the rectors of Allhallows the Great, united since the fire of London with Allhallows the Less, they paying thereout annually, on every Christmas day, to the poor of the said united parishes, share and share alike.|
The church of Allhallows the Great was founded by the noble family of , and from them the patronage came to the , Earls of , by the marriage of , Earl of , to his wife, daughter of Thomas Le Despenser, Earl of (beheaded by the rabble at Bristol, Henry IV, anno ); who by the death of her brother , and elder sister , without issue, became heir of all his lands; which Thomas was son and heir to , Lord of , patron of this church anno . From the Earl of Warwick it passed to the crown, and Henry VIII exchanged the church with Archbishop Cranmer, to whose successors it has ever since belonged, being now of the independent churches of the see of Canterbury in London, denominated peculiars appertaining thereto.
It is highly probable that , whilst it consisted of the aforesaid magnificent mansion, with the ground and appurtenances attached thereto, as also subsequently when taken down by the Earl of Shrewsbury, and formed into a number of small tenements, possessed (until the year ) divers privileges and exemptions from the jurisdiction of the City of London; for we find that King James the , by his charter to the Mayor, Commonalty, and Citizens of London, in that year confirmed all their ancient rights, liberties, and immunities, and added thereto the precincts of Duke's Place, St. Bartholomew the Great and Less, Black and White Friars, and the charter expressing, that the circuit, bounds, limits, franchises, and jurisdiction of the city shall extend to the said several places, being therein mentioned as the Inn, or Liberty of Cold Herbage, otherwise Cold Harburgh, and Cooled Harborough Lane, within the liberty of London aforesaid; and the inhabitants therein to be under the rule, government, jurisdiction, oversight, search, correction, punishments, precepts, and arrests of the Mayor, Commonalty, and Citizens of London and their successors.
On the , a dreadful fire broke out in the malt warehouse, in , belonging to Sir William Calvert and Co. adjoining their brewhouse, and consumed quarters of malt, a large quantity of hops, and very much damaged their brewhouse,
The buildings on each side of , and which a few years since were standing and occupied (and amongst which was a large sugarhouse belonging to Messrs. Henlock and Dewes), are all now taken down, and an extensive addition on the site thereof to the brewery of Messrs. Calvert and Co. (to whom great part of the ground now belongs) is understood to be in contemplation. At the time of the fire of London, the chief part of the ground belonged to the family of De Visscher, and afterwards to the Right Honourable Lords Barrington.
The view of , as represented in the Plate, is from an original by Hollar, taken in the year ; that part of the building in which the archway and steps leading from the water are represented, in all probability formed a portion of the ancient mansion that escaped demolition at the time it was doomed to destruction by Earl Gilbert, the adjoining small houses forming a part of the tenements erected on the other part of the site of this once extensive building, and which, no doubt, the eligibility of the spot for mercantile speculations, enabled him to let out at large rents. The church tower at the back represents of the churches of All Saints or Allhallows, most likely that of the Less, as most contiguous to the mansion of towards the enlarging of which churchyard Philip St. Clear gave his messuages in the Ropery, so called because ropes in old time were made and sold in the .
After the fire, the Waterman's Company built their hall upon the quay at the south-west corner of , which, amongst other streets and lanes, was declared by Act of Common Council. -, to be a street or lane of note. The Hall was a handsome brick building, and was in use so late as the year as the Hall of the Waterman's Company, having in front to the river a large and convenient flight of stone stairs, open at all times to watermen and the public. These stairs were latterly very much neglected as to repair, and a few years since were entirely removed and the wharf closed up. They for a long period since the fire of London formed a very convenient access to the river in addition to Allhallows and Old Swan stairs, and had uninterrupted use by the public for many years, without any gate, inclosure, or obstruction whatever.
The Hall, Wharf, and Stairs, as they appeared in , are very conspicuously shewn in an excellently engraved drawing of the same published in that year, and engraved by S. and N. Buck, being a complete view of the buildings on the London and side of the river from the Tower to Mill Bank. The Hall of the Waterman's Company is now situated at , near .
The very extensive brewery and dwelling-house of Messrs. Calvert and Co. represented in the plate under the ancient view of , are erected on part of the site of that extensive and once magnificent building, and on that of the subsequent erection of Waterman's Hall, and occasioned great complaints to be made by the inhabitants adjacent, on account of what in their opinion had been gradual encroachments on the public highway along the wharfs, and trespasses on their general rights founded on the King's Proclamation in , and Act of Parliament of Charles II, for rebuilding the city of London after the dreadful fire in , in which it was declared, that there should be a fair key or wharf on all the river side, from to ; that no house should be erected within so many feet of the river as should be after declared, nor should there be in those buildings next the river, any houses to be inhabited by brewers, dyers, or sugar-bakers; which trades, by their continual smoke, contributed very much to the unhealthiness of the adjacent places; but that the Lord Mayor and Aldermen were to propose such a place or places as might be fit for those trades, and that compensation would be granted to the proprietors of such houses or lands as were taken for the public benefit.
By an additional Act in the year of the same King, anno , section , it is enacted, that for the better benefit and accommodation of trade, and for other great conveniences, there shall be left a , of the breadth of feet of assize, from the north side of the river of Thames, to be converted to and that in order thereunto all buildings, sheds, pales, walls, inclosures, and other obstructions and impediments whatsoever then standing or being within feet northward of the said river of Thames, between the places aforesaid (cranes, stairs, and docks only excepted), should, within months then next ensuing, be taken down and removed, and the said ground cleared and levelled.
King Charles II, by his Letters Patent, dated in the year of his reign, approved of the module, form, or draught of the intended key and publique and open wharf (of which a plan is annexed to the Letters Patent) and granted to the Mayor, Commonalty, and Citizens of London and their successors, all that his ground and soyle whatsoever, which was, should, or might be taken in from and out of his river of Thames, to the intent to make the line between and the Temple uniform and regular according to the said module, form and draught.
The inhabitants of the ward of Dowgate set forth their complaint in a petition to the Honourable the Commissioners of Sewers of the city of London, shewing, "That a considerable part of what has heretofore been used by the public as a common highway along the banks of the river Thames in Dowgate ward, has recently been enclosed with a wood paling, by the owners of the adjoining property, Messrs. Calvert and Co. and others, leaving to the public a narrow enclosed foot path; whereas during the memory of the oldest inhabitants, and supported by the inquest presentments of a more remote period, nearly the whole space now enclosed has always been used and considered as a public highway for the purpose of perambulation and fresh air, as well as for the convenience of the neighbours in other respects, the right of the possessors of the adjacent property to land over the surface of the ground not being questioned." This was presented and read, , when the Court of Sewers confirmed a report of their Select Committee, stating, that it was desirable the encroachments should be removed; but on the , after much opposition by the inhabitants in and near Dowgate ward, an Act was passed both Houses to repeal so much of the Act of the of His Majesty King Charles the , as restrains the proprietors of wharfs between and the Temple, from erecting any buildings or enclosures thereon. The Act, however, includes the following important clause:
"That nothing in this Act contained shall extend, or be construed to extend, in any manner to take away, abrogate, injure, or affect any right or claim to or in respect of any public way, street, wharf, or stairs, or any other right, claim, or interest belonging to, or claimed by the Corporation of the city of London, or the proprietors of the waterworks, or any other person or persons whatsoever, other than and except any claim which might or may be made or arise from, under, or by virtue of the said recited Act." (d Cha. II. c. .)
So much of the quay of feet in width, which was situated from the Steel Yard to , was long denominated "the New Quay," and is delineated in the maps to Maitland's and other Histories of London. This "New Quay" was the last remnant of any consequence of that noble design formed by Sir Christopher Wren, Mr. Evelyn, and others (assisted by the before-mentioned enactments of the Legislature), and intended to render the north bank of the river as far as the fire of London had extended, truly useful and ornamental, and upon which Sir Christopher Wren made a special report to the King in Council, , but which, from the negligence of those who ought to have preserved so great an object of public benefit, is now nearly annihilated. It is only necessary to add, that in the late struggle to maintain the public rights, it was resolved and declared at a numerous meeting of the inhabitants of Dowgate and the adjoining wards, held on the , that their object was only to preserve the few remaining open spaces along the bank of the river, and not to interfere with any buildings which had theretofore been erected, although in contravention of the said acts of and d Charles II.
The banks of the Thames from to the , presented a continued line of palaces and mansions of kings, princes, and persons of the nobility, clergy, &c. beautified and adorned with well laid out gardens to the water's edge; among the principal of which may be enumerated , the residence of VIII; the house of , now the , of our Inns of Court; afterwards , and with , the splendid and superb town residence of the ambitious Cardinal Wolsey!
The handsome Gate shewn in the accompanying print of the Brewery, and standing at the end of in , adjoining the churchyard of Allhallows the Less, was removed in the year , at the expense of Messrs. Calvert and Co. from , and erected in its present situation, with the consent of the parish, the Wardmote Inquest, and the Commissioners of Sewers, upon condition of their setting back a part of their premises in , adjoining the east end of the churchyard, and keeping open the said gate (and another which they likewise had the permission of erecting at the south end of ), for the convenience of the public in passing and repassing from sun rising to sun setting, and the churchwardens having a key of each of the said gates for the public use at all times.—Since the engraving of the annexed Plate, the wooden fence narrowing the way at the waterside, and noticed in the above petition to the Commissioners of Sewers has been erected.
[*] Tindal, 349.
[*] Stat. 8 and 9 Wm. III. c. 27.
[*] Anderson, vol. ii. p. 220.
[*] Sandford's Genealogical History, Edit. 1707, p. 595.
Title page of Vol. 2 reads: Theatrum illustrata. Graphic and historic memorials of ancient playhouses, modern theatres and other places of public amusement in the cities and suburbs of London & Westminster with scenic and incidental illustrations from the time of Shakspear to the present period.