History of England, Part III, William and Mary to 1887

Tout, T. F. --Powell, F. York
1898

CHAPTER II: The New Colonial Empire, 1763-1887

CHAPTER II: The New Colonial Empire, 1763-1887

1. Contrast between 1763 and 1783. Fall of the old Colonial Empire. The old Colonial Empire of England reached its greatest prosperity with the Peace of Paris in 1763. England was now supreme over North America, and had won so many West Indian islands that the French possessions sank into insignificance. In South America its dependency Portugal ruled over the Brazils. In the East the French had been driven out and the Dutch traded on sufferance. In East and West alike the Spaniards trembled lest they should be overthrown by the pushing heretics from the North. But few Englishmen, and no English statesman save Chatham, realised the new responsibilities that the increased growth and prosperity of the Colonies brought upon the mother-country. Though the Colonies were as free as they could be politically, the old notion that colonies existed only for the good of England, as farms to be worked for its benefit, found an expression in the trading system which checked the development of the young communities. Their increasing wealth and strength only led to a desire to interfere still more, since so much more was now to be got from interference. Thus the Home Government grew stricter, while the Colonies became resentful, angry, hostile. England's old rivals eagerly profited by the discord between Old and New England. The result was the American War, the Independence of the Thirteen Colonies, the splitting of the British race in twain, and the surrender of some of Pitt's new conquests by the disastrous Treaty of Versailles. Never was there a greater contrast than between 1763 and 1783. The old colonies fell away; and the system of monopoly and protection on which the old Empire was based received its deathblow. The old channels of trade were rudely diverted, and the old ideas of colonial government roughly overthrown. The Whig reformers even got rid of the Colonial Secretaryship as a useless and superfluous office.

2. Fragments of the old Empire remained British. In North America the former French colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Cape Breton, and Prince Edward's Island, and the valuable fishing - stations of bleak, barren Newfoundland still clave to English rule. The English Colonies after 1783.A large immigration of faithful and persecuted loyalists from the United States replaced the outcast Acadians in Nova Scotia, and began to form a thoroughly English Upper Canada on the northern shores of Lake Ontario. Canada and its neighbour Colonies, 1774-1833.In 1774 Lord North had wisely passed the Quebec Act, which left the French Canadians their law, church, aristocracy, and government. The new Canadians of English race soon began to grumble at the despotic rule of the Crown and the prevalence of French ways and Popery. In 1791 Pitt met them half way by the Constitution Act, which divided the land into two parts, the Ottawa river separating English Upper Canada from French Lower Canada. By giving each Province a Representative Assembly, elected by the people, Pitt sowed the first seeds of Canadian liberty. But the Governor and the Executive Council were independent of parliamentary votes, and looked only to the Home Ministry and the Crown for guidance. Fierce hostility grew up between the two races, and the French colonists' love of old ways was bitterly resented by the pushing English minority now found even in the Lower Province. Upper Canada now made great strides forward, and her lumber trade in yellow pine, stimulated by the Protective laws with which England helped forward the infant resources of her colonies, soon cut out the forests of Norway in the English timber market. During the reign of George III. legislative assemblies of the Canadian fashion were gradually granted to all the other North American colonies, except Newfoundland, whose scanty population of wandering fishermen was not intrusted with elective rights until 1833, when a settled folk had grown up round the coast. But as yet British North America was but beginning its new way of life. Its great importance was altogether in the future. The English population was still small, and the French, though clever trappers and hunters, and thrifty, peaceful farmers, had none of the nervous go-ahead ways which hurry on the material progress of a new country.

After 1783 the West Indian Colonies were universally looked upon as the greatest glory of the British Empire. Besides our original settlements, Barbados (1625), Nevis [1783-1793.] (1628), the Bahamas (1629), and Montserrat (1632), there was the mighty island of Jamaica, which, with the Virgin Islands, Anguilla and Antigua, remained as results of the new wave of colonial enterprise which Cromwell had begun and Charles II. carried on. The West Indies, 1783-93.St. Kitts, partly English since 1625, became wholly English in 1702. Grenada and the Grenadines were yielded up by France in 1763. The mahogany cutters of Honduras now had a recognised right to their position. Of the four islands, Dominica, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, and Tobago, which, disputed till 1748, were declared neutral by the Treaty of Aachen, England now only held two of the three ceded in 1763, Dominica and St. Vincent, for Tobago remained in French hands, as the only lasting fruit of De Grasse's brilliant career of conquest. Jamaica, the largest, and Barbados, the richest and most densely populated, were each governed separately. The rest, excluding the unimportant and distant Bahamas, were for most purposes divided into two groups, the Leeward Islands, looking north-east, and including all as far south as Dominica, and the Windward Islands, beyond them, looking south-east. All were now very prosperous. The planter aristocracy was so wealthy that many English capitalists invested in West Indian estates, and, even as absentees, won a good return for their money, and kept up constant dealings between colony and mother-country. The restrictions of the Navigation Act were no burden to a class that sought no maritime commerce, and got its flour, pork, and lumber, without much trouble, from North America. English ships conveyed to Liverpool, Bristol, and Glasgow the sugar, rum, and treacle of the islanders, where they found a ready market. The system of kidnapping poor helpless folk, and the plan of sending out as white slaves convicts, debtors, and paupers, were now at an end, and the planters, who disliked the settlement of poor whites, fell back more and more on the labour of their negro slaves, who, after 1713, could be bought cheaply from the monopolist English merchants. The better planters treated their human property kindly enough, as good masters treat their horses, but they put down all attempts at revolt with unspeakable brutality, and denied the negro all taste of civilisation or Christianity, lest he became discontented with his hopeless and aimless life of toil. The planters had in their own hands the government of the colonies, through local assemblies, and except that they paid a heavy tribute, which they could afford, they were as free from English control as Virginia had been. But there was still danger from France, and the ever-present fear of a black revolt in a region where burning suns and yellow fever, even more than planter policy, discouraged European settlements. There was therefore no danger of a cry for separation, even if after 1783 England had not been more careful not to give offence, and more watchful of the beginnings of insubordination. But the wonderful prosperity of the West Indies was based on slavery and monopoly, and new and strange teachings were already heard in the distance, threatening an end to both.

Between 1787 and 1791 Granville Sharp and the Abolitionists started in Western Africa, where the English African Company had held a few trading stations since the days of Elizabeth, the colony of Sierra Leone for free negroes. The Indian Company's victualling station of St. Helena, a remote island in the Southern Atlantic, and the Bermudas (1612), now more important than ever as a naval position, completed, with the Gibraltar Rock (1704), the foreign possessions of England. They were hardly more colonies than India itself.

3. The Travellers.Gallant explorers and travellers were now wandering through the unknown parts of the earth, and preparing the way for British enterprise and settlement. The history of eighteenth century travel supplies the heroic element that European history then so signally lacked. Anson's famous voyage between 1740 and 1744 had done something to open out the dimly-known lands of the Pacific. Captain Cook now stood forth as the Columbus of a new continent and a new island-studded ocean.

Cook's Voyages, 1768-79.James Cook (1728-1779) was the son of a Cleveland labourer. Joining the royal navy, he worked his way up from before the mast, and commanded a sloop at Wolfe's siege of Quebec. In 1768 he went on his first voyage to the Pacific to observe the transit of Venus. He took the good chance offered him of getting clear knowledge of the misty island of New Holland, dimly revealed by early Dutch navigators, and Captain William Dampier (1652-1715). Cook coasted all along Eastern Australia, which he called New South Wales, because he thought the hills of the coast looked like the Glamorganshire hills that he saw when sailing up the Bristol Channel. He also practically discovered New Zealand. He came back in 1771. His second expedition (1772-1775) was sent out to find the supposed [1772-1871.] Southern Continent, to which the name Australia then applied, and which was thought to extend northwards from the Pole. His Antarctic voyage proved that this Australia was non-existent or uninhabitable, and led to a vast extension of men's knowledge of the South Pacific. His third voyage (1776-1779) was an attempt to approach the North-West Passage from the Pacific side. Again he failed in an impossible quest, but he now laid down clearly the island groups of the North Pacific, and discovered the Sandwich Islands, where he was murdered by the natives. Patience, boldness, accuracy and foresight, care for his seamen, strict honour and high-minded conduct ennoble the whole of his great career.

Australian Travel.Cook opened up a new era of discovery and travel, in which Englishmen took a very prominent part. Flinders, Bass, and Murray carried on his work of surveying Australia, a name now transferred from the shadowy Southern Continent of theorists to the real island continent of New Holland. The survey of the coasts was completed by the Beagle (1837-43), in the famous exploring voyage which taught Charles Darwin to look upon nature in a new light. In a later generation Sturt, Stuart, Burke, Wills, and Gregory opened up the interior.

African Discovery.Other discoverers now began to travel in the dark regions of Central Africa, led by James Bruce, the Abyssinian explorer (1770-1774) and Mungo Park (1795-1797), who found out the Niger, and perished in a second expedition in 1805. Missionaries, traders, men of science, and adventurers have been all working ever since to get a clear knowledge of the unknown continent. For thirty years David Livingstone, an undaunted and shrewd Scottish missionary, laboured systematically at the exploration of the south, and prepared the way for successors as devoted as himself. In 1857 the new quest for the sources of the Nile was opened by Burton (who has since earned fame as a scholar, linguist, and poet) and Speke. Their labours, together with those of Grant, Baker, Stanley, and others, have now almost made clear this ancient mystery.

Polar Voyages. In 1773 Phipps began the modern series of expeditions to the frozen Arctic regions, and in 1806 Scoresby, the scientific and energetic mate of a Hull whaler, got within 500 miles of the North Pole. After a long series of failures Captain Parry started in 1827 with the Hecla, and worked his way further than had been gone before on the North-West Passage, now clearly seen to be useless for trade and navigation. In 1845 Sir John Franklin sailed with the Erebus and Terror on the fatal Arctic voyage from which he never returned. A series of expeditions in search of him was at last crowned with a melancholy success by McClintock setting his fate beyond a doubt. In the still more inhospitable regions of the South Pole, the chief explorer was Ross, who in three voyages between 1841 and 1843 did most of what has been done to explore what still remains the least known region of the globe. But Arctic exploration has destroyed the hopes of the trader, and has but little satisfied the man of science.

Missionary and Scientific travel.The great wave of missionary enterprise which set in with the Evangelical movement, besides its own proper results, did much to extend our knowledge and stimulate patient heroism. The brave deeds of travellers for the Gospel's sake are well brought out in the death of John Williams, martyred in 1839, at Erromanga, the slaying of Bishop Patteson, in 1871, by Melanesian islanders, in revenge for the atrocities of the kidnappers, in the whole career of Livingstone, and in the pains and troubles of the Central African Mission which has followed in his footsteps. The fortunes of travel for science' sake can best be followed in the labours of Sir Joseph Banks, the botanist, and the companion of Cook, Darwin's epoch-making voyage in the Beagle, Bates's work on the Amazon, Wallace's explorations in Malaya, and the more recent expedition of the Challenger. The labours of a century of earnest and self-sacrificing explorers were the best basis for the new Colonial Empire that sprang from the work of the luckiest and most gifted of them, besides increasing knowledge, spreading civilisation, and opening up new avenues of trade.

4. Beginnings of Australian Settlement, 1788.When America was lost to England, a few farsighted men turned to Australia, now better known through Cook's favourable reports. "I am going to offer an object to the consideration of our Government," wrote one of these, "which may in time atone for the loss of our American Colonies. With good management and a few settlers, in twenty or thirty years they might cause a revolution in the system of European commerce, and secure England a monopoly of some part of it, and a very large share of the whole." His plan was to settle New South Wales, hoping to find there an asylum for the American loyalists as well as for the teeming and poverty-stricken population of England itself. A special inducement was [1788-1834.] that the new colony would be a good place for shipping off the convicts previously sent to America, and now shut up uselessly in hulks, and even sent to perish miserably in the unwholesome regions of Western Africa. Sir Joseph Banks strongly recommended Botany Bay, an inlet of New South Wales, so named by him and Cook from the richness of its plants and flowers. Lord Sydney, the Home Secretary, took the matter up, and Pitt interested himself warmly in it. Public opinion was a little stirred, and a doggerel rhyme in a newspaper of the day has a curious prophetic ring about it:- "Let no one think much of a trifling expense, Who knows what may happen a hundred years hence ? The loss of America who can repay ? New Colonies seek then at Botany Bay.

In 1787 Captain Phillip was sent out with several shiploads of convicts to prepare the way for the new colony. On 26th January 1788 he landed at PortJackson, a noble series of harbours to the north of Botany Bay, which on experience he found to be less suitable for his settlement. On the shores of Port Jackson soon rose a little village of convicts' huts named Sydney, after the minister that furthered the venture. But for many years New South Wales languished. None but convicts were sent there, and the infant colony suffered severely from famine, and got a very bad name from the wild disorders of its vicious and ignorant population. The outbreak of the great wars against France soon turned English energies into other channels. Yet a beginning had been made of another New England in the Antipodes.

5. Colonial Expansion during the French Wars, 1793-1815.The two great wars against Revolutionary and Napoleonic France brought back to England a colonial supremacy wider than ever dreamed of by Chatham. The French West Indies fell twice into British hands, and Tobago was definitely restored to England in 1802. The Danish, Swedish, and Dutch islands were held from 1801 to 1802, and from 1807 to 1814. Trinidad was wrested from Spain and confirmed to England by the Treaty of Amiens. Demerara, Essequibo, and Berbice were taken from the Dutch in 1804, and never restored, becoming henceforward known as British Guiana. Cape Colony was finally occupied in 1806, and ceded in 1814. Mauritius became English in 1810, though Bourbon, taken at the same time, was restored at the peace. The Dutch coast settlements in Ceylon were ceded in 1802, and the whole island became British by the defeat of the native king of Candy in 1815. France was not left with a single colony, except those which the magnanimity of England restored in 1814. The Dutch then got back the Spice Islands and Java, but they paid a heavy price for their association with France in the loss of part of Guiana, the Cape, and Ceylon.

6. Decay of the West Indies, 1815-49.The new colonies were not all clear gain. Except the Cape, which was as yet of little importance, they were all of the hot tropical sort, where the English would only live as a leisurely property -holding class, and they increased the difficulties which the slave question now brought forward. The republican energy and enthusiasm of France had spread to her colonies, and the "coloured" men of mixed descent had become hot disciples of Rousseau, and strong upholders of a fraternity that knew no distinction of race and colour. Hayti, the greatest of the French West Indies, had been too large for English conquest, and, throwing off the planter yoke, became a black republic, which has ever since presented a hideous travesty of French civilisation. The Maroons of Jamaica rose in fierce outbreaks in sympathy with the Haytians. The frightened planters became more brutal and severe to their wretched slaves. Their main supply of cheap labour was cut off when the slave-trade was made felony. The return of peace found that Europe had learnt to make sugar from beetroot and coffee from chicory, so that the demand for West Indian produce began to fall off. A fresh blow to the planters came when the Reformed Parliament abolished negro slavery in 1834. Twenty millions of compensation seemed generous to English eyes, but it was very little to the ruined planters, whose free labourers now refused to work more than they chose, and "squatted" on small patches of garden ground, where the bounty of sun and soil gave them enough for their simple wants, preferring to live an idle, happy, helpless animal existence to working hard for comforts and rewards they were quite contented to do without. Only in Barbados, where the dense population prevented squatting, and made the negroes work or starve, did any prosperity continue. Jamaica lost ground terribly, for her large unoccupied tracts gave plenty of room for her negroes to settle down in happy sloth. Guiana and Trinidad kept up some show of success by importing coolies from [1849. the hills of India to do the work the blacks refused. But political difficulties now broke out with the blacks, who by force of numbers began to carry everything before them, so that many of the colonies in despair surrendered their constitutions, and put themselves under the despotic rule of the Crown, as the best thing under the circumstances. The more vigorous of the white population drifted away. The negroes still remained troublesome, and in 1865 a black revolt in Jamaica was only repressed by the stern and successful, but perhaps too indiscriminate, severity of Governor Eyre. But before this a blow heavier even than the emancipation of the negro had fallen upon the West Indies. For a time the system of differential duties, which let in our colonial products at cheaper custom rates than those from foreign countries, kept up a faint gleam of prosperity. But free trade in sugar came in with free trade in corn (1846), and cut off the last hope. Slave-grown sugar from foreign parts crowded out the free sugar of the British Indies, until the bounty system of Europe drove out both alike, in favour of the beet sugar of France and Germany. The result has been the economic ruin of the West Indies. Yet even in their decay they remain magnificent monuments of their former greatness. Their fall marks another step in the decay of the old Colonial theories which finally disappeared with the repeal of the Navigation Acts in 1849. Propped up by monopoly and slave labour, they could not hold their own in the harder struggle that set in with free competition in trade and industry. Yet we may well regret their fall, and welcome the faint gleams of returning prosperity which show that their decline will at least go no further.

7. The new Colonial Policy.As the tropical sugar colonies fell back, the colonies in temperate climates, with a population largely or alto gether European, came into greater importance. This made it easier for the new colonial policy to be adopted, which marks the beginning of the present reign. The growth of population, the irregularity of employment, and the lowness of wages, which led to the social and political disturbances of the first forty years of the century, turned thoughtful men to the question of emi gration. It was seen that something more ought to be done than " shovel out" convicts to New South Wales, and paupers to Canada. Steps were taken to encourage active and helpful citizens to seek a hew home and fortune in the vast tracts of unoccupied territory over which the British flag now waved. Grants of free lands were now offered to 1840.] any respectable settler; but the plan was not found to work, for the uncleared plots of virgin forest or bush were of very little use to the poor and ignorant colonist, who was led by the system to dwell in soul-destroying isolation from his neighbours, far away from all markets, and all means of improvement. Wakefield's System of Colonisation, 1829.In 1829, the brilliant, graphic, far-seeing Edward Gibbon Wakefield wrote, in the prison into which his daring and lawless deeds had cast him, a striking epoch-making pamphlet against the prevailing methods. Wakefield taught that a colony should, so far as might be, reproduce the state of society in the mother-country. Land should not be given away in huge lots, but sold in small parcels, and the proceeds turned to improving the means of communication, providing the accessories and aids to cultivation and improvement, and promoting fresh immigration Towns should be set up to provide markets, and stimulate trade. The result was that a Colonisation Society was started in 1830, and a new era in Australian progress sets in with the establishment of fresh colonies professedly based on Wakefield's system.

The Colonies grew larger and stronger as the stream of emigration flowed with ever-increasing rapidity from the mother-country One result sprang immediately from this. Large masses of Englishmen, freer and more unconventional in their ways than those left at home, would never be satisfied with anything but the fullest rights of self-government. There was now no wish to withstand such demands at home, for public opinion was very careless about colonial questions altogether, and more thoughtful men generally believed that when colonies got strong enough, they would naturally fall away from the mother-country, like America, and took no pains to prevent such a result. The doctrine first taught in Revolutionary France that colonies were parts of the mother- country found no echo in the England of this period. It was an age of economists and laissez-faire, deaf to all higher notions of an Imperial England. But it did the right thing in gracefully yielding the colonial demands, though it thought that in doing so it was simply ripening them for independence. The first step was to grant a local Legislative Council, such as Canada got in 1791. In Australia, the way to this was through nominee Councils, such as that established in 1828 in New South Wales. In 1840 two-thirds of the Council of that colony were chosen by popular election. For a time the government remained [1812-1867.] independent of the Assembly. But then came the final step of granting responsible government-by making the executive depend on the legislative. This process was completed in Australia in 1856. The result was virtual independence, for the only link now was the Governor, who, appointed by the Crown, reigned, but did not govern. A vague appellate right of the English Privy Council was the only other thing that connected the Colonies and mother-country, save common citizenship, common traditions, and common love for English ways. The freedom which the American plantations had enjoyed since the seventeenth century was thus extended to the new colonies. But the commercial dependence which had tightly bound the old colonies, and which America had felt too grievous to be borne, was now entirely removed, as the new free-trade system was incompatible with all commercial monopoly. In a later generation, the Colonies, in many cases, set up protective laws of their own, which have powerfully helped on their infant industries, often to the loss of those of England. English troops were at last removed, and the work of self-defence was intrusted to the colonists themselves. The mother-country carried out a more constructive task in urging on the confederation of neighbouring colonies with each other. But of late years the idea has been slowly gaining ground of joining Colonies and mother- country together in a wider scheme of Imperial Federation.

The modern Colonial Empire falls into three great groups -North America, Australia, and South Africa. We can best follow their history by taking each group in turn, and seeing how it has fared since the introduction of the new colonial system.

8. North American Colonies.During the first third of the nineteenth century affairs got worse and worse in Canada. The popular Legislative Councils constantly quarrelled with the Governments responsible to England, and the increase of the English element embittered the feud of the two Provinces and the two races. The American War between 1812 and 1815 brought the Provinces together for a time, to repel gallantly and successfully the invaders from the United States. But after the Peace of Ghent things went back to the old ways, and the French Canadians, led by Papineau, stopped the supplies and drew up a list of ninety-two grievances. The Rebellion of 1837, and Lord Durham.In 1837 discontent grew into revolt, which even extended to the Upper Province, which had grievances of its own, and contained a party that sought annexation to the American Union. But the risings were quashed, the country was put under martial law, and Lord Durham, the strong-willed, vigorous Radical, was sent out in 1838 to organise a new government.Canadian Unity and Independence, 1840. By his advice the two Canadas were joined together in 1840, with a Parliament of two Chambers, the Upper House consisting of life members, and the Lower House chosen in equal proportions from the two Provinces. This meant the subordination of the French majority to the English minority, but as a counter-concession the Executive Ministry was made directly responsible to the Canadian Parliament. As time went on the English got more numerous; though the French still clung strongly to their national laws and customs, and the system of union proved a dead failure, yet the grant of virtual independence led to a further development of the Canadas. A fresh step was taken during the governorship of Lord Elgin (1847-1854), who joined with the Canadian Liberals in getting rid of the Crown and Church lands to the peasantry, abolishing the feudal rights of the French seigneurs, improving the navigation of the St. Lawrence, opening up roads, railways, telegraphs, and canals, and concluding a Commercial Treaty with the United States. An attempt was made by the Canadian Conservatives to get the Indemnity Act passed in favour of the rebels of 1837 rescinded by the Home Government, but Parliament refused to interfere. It was the last time any attempt was made to check the independence of Canada.

The Canadian Conservatives now accepted the democratic system, against which they had contended for so long, and were joined by the more moderate Liberals, while the Clear-grits or extreme Radicals clamoured for annexation to the States. But the greatest difficulty still remained with the French, and deadlocks and disputes sapped the energies of the colony for nearly thirty years. At last in 1861 the Civil War in the United States burst out, and made every Canadian feel keenly the divided and defenceless state of British North America. The commercial treaty with the United States lapsed, and the Fenian invasions of 1866 revealed a new danger. The result was that the plans for joining together the scattered colonies in a common dominion, which had, hitherto, been started with little enthusiasm, came within the region of practical politics. In 1867 negotiations were completed, Sir John Macdonald, the Conservative leader, representing Canada, while Lord Carnarvon acted as Colonial Secretary.

[1813-1859.]

The Dominion of Canada, 1867.The Dominion of Canada was now formed under a Governor-General appointed by the Crown, and with a constitution similar in essentials to that of England, with the large modifications made necessary by the acceptance of Federalism. The government was to be carried on by a Cabinet responsible to a Parliament of two houses, of which the House of Commons was elected by a liberal suffrage, and the Senate consisted of members chosen for life. The Federal principle, as in the United States, allowed a full measure of Home Rule to the Provinces of the Dominion, which each had their separate local Parliament and Executive. The union of the two Canadas was given up as hopeless, and French Canada, as the new Province of Quebec, and English Canada as the Province of Ontario, progressed much quicker after their ill-matched elements were kept apart. Nova Scotia and New Brunswick at once joined the Union. In 1870, Manitoba, the rough western region which the growth of the corn trade was soon making important, became a new Province, the defeat of the revolt of the French half-breeds under Louis Riel by Wolseley having practically settled its future as English and not French. In 1871 British Columbia, the region between the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific (including Vancouver's Island), which had become important since gold discoveries in 1858, also fell in on the condition of a railway being built to join them with the eastern colonies. In 1872 Prince Edward's Island was included, so that Newfoundland alone stood outside the Dominion. Sir John Macdonald became Conservative Premier of the Dominion, and though defeated in 1873 by Mackenzie, got back into office in 1878, and brought in higher customs duties to protect Canada against the United States and Europe. In 1885 the Canadian Pacific Railway was opened between Canada and British Columbia, so that an unbroken railway route was established between Halifax and the Pacific coast. In the same year Riel's second rising was put down, and its leader executed. The Dominion, despite great difficulties, proved a magnificent success. In 1887 it contained nearly five million inhabitants.

9. Australian Colonies.The Australian Colonies nave shown a still more remarkable development. The early struggles of the convict settlement of New South Wales were over when in 1813 the energy and resourcefulness of Governor Macquarie led to the discovery of the fertile pastures beyond the Blue Mountains. Captain MacArthur got together the first flock of sheep from the Cape. Sheep. farming now became a great industry, and the wool and tallow fetched a ready market even though the carcases of the sheep were as yet of little value as food. New South Wales after 1813.Free labour now came in, and sheep- owners 'squatted' on vast sheep-runs, and soon became wealthy. Under Governors Brisbane and Darling, the growth of Wakefield's ideas led to a restriction being put on the grants of free land, and the direct encouragement of free emigration. New colonies now grew up. Queensland, 1859.The town of Brisbane, named after the Governor, was started as a penal colony in 1826, and after 1842 became the nucleus of a free settlement in the hot but genial regions to the north, where a new settlement of sugar, wine, tobacco, and cotton growers grew up, with the aid of Kanaka (South Sea Island) labour. In 1859 this became the separate colony of Queensland.

Western Australia, 1829.In 1829 a settlement was formed on the Swan River in Western Australia, which, after a languishing exist ence, during which convict labour (transportation hither went on till 1868) alone saved it from extinction, became strong enough to receive a constitution, and has recently grown enormously by reason of the discovery of rich gold-fields.

Victoria, 1803-51.In 1803 a convict station was formed at Port Phillip on the southern coast, but next year it crossed over to Van Diemen's Land. In 1835, however, another settlement was made which gradually became the centre of another great colony. In 1837 the town of Melbourne was founded and named after the then Prime Minister, while the land itself gradually dropped its old name of Australia Felix, and became in 1851 the independent colony of Victoria.

Tasmania, 1804-56.To the south of Victoria the large island of Van Diemen's Land, afterwards called Tasmania, became in 1804 a convict settlement. In 1816 free settlers began to come in. In 1856 it became a separate colony with a popular government, having a climate very much like that of England, though less attractive in other ways than some of its neighbours.

South Australia, 1836-40.Wakefield's theories now found a practical application in South Australia, where in 1836 the South Australian Company that he had founded started a new free settlement, with Adelaide, named from the Queen of William IV., as its capital. But [1837-1885.] it languished for a long time, and after a period of speculation the colony went bankrupt in 1840, partly because the Wakefield system was pushed forward in too narrow a way, though it soon recovered itself, and with its copper-mines and fine corn-lands is now increasingly prosperous.

New Zealand, 1839-75.In 1837 the New Zealand Association was started on Wakefield's plan, and New Zealand was settled in 1839 as a dependency of New South Wales. In 1841 the three islands became an independent colony with Auckland as their capital. But they had a great difficulty, especially in North Island, with the fierce, strong, and intelligent natives called Maoris, who were made of much sterner stuff than the weakly and archaic aboriginals of Australia. Wakefield's fertile brain here hit on the notion of sending out separate colonies, each professing the same religious belief. In 1848 he settled Scotch Presbyterians in Otago, and in 1850 Church of England colonists in Canterbury, while English Nonconformists were gathered together at New Plymouth. The result was that nine separate colonies gradually grew up in New Zealand, whose scattered and divided governments soon proved most burdensome and unsatisfactory, though there was a separate central government as well. At last in 1875, after a hot struggle, the provinces were abolished, and New Zealand became a single colony, which has since grown rapidly, though some times, like other young peoples, trusting so completely to its future development as to plan vast and costly works, and saddling itself with a large debt, which, with its present resources, is a somewhat heavy burden.

Independence granted to Australia, 1850-56. The growth of free settlement made it impossible to keep up the military government of the days of the convict establishments. The free inhabitants loudly demanded self-government, and some even sought to give the emancipists, or convicts on leave, the rights of citizenship. But the cry was now against transportation altogether, and after 1840 no more criminals were "shovelled" into New South Wales, though transportation thither was not formally abolished till 1853. Constitutional rule now bit by bit replaced martial law. A Council was set up by Lord Stanley, the Colonial Secretary, when Darling was Governor, in 1842. In 1850 the Australian Government Act was passed empowering the Home ministers to give Councils to the other colonies, and allowing the Councils, with the assent of the Crown, to alter their own constitution. To these bodies the government lands were altogether transferred, and they soon began to use their powers by making their constitution more democratic. This had hardly been done when the discovery of gold in Victoria (1851) brought about a new era of wild excitement and speculation, and the enormous growth of every Australian colony. Between 1850 and 1856 the population of Victoria went up from 80,000 to 400,000. A pushing vigorous society thus grew up, which in 1855 received a complete measure of responsible government such as had earlier been given to Canada. There now grew up in each colony a fierce democratic feeling which has strongly coloured their whole subsequent progress. Henceforth their expansion became quite independent of the mother-country. The colonies soon found plenty of troubles of their own. There arose a great struggle between protectionists and free traders (1863), and a more bitter strife between the rich Squatters who had become a sort of territorial aristocracy, and those who sought to keep landed property in many hands, and encourage corn-growing rather than sheep-farming. Sydney and Melbourne became great cities with large manufactures and a great artisan population. But though the legal tie between free Australia and England remains but nominal, and their interests seem as often to clash as to unite, the sentiment of English nationality still binds together colony and mother- country, and has brought about a promising and substantial proof of sympathy in the despatch of Australian forces to the Red Sea to help in the relief of Gordon and the preservation of the Soudan. Since 1885 a Federal Council for Australia has been set up by the States themselves; but New Zealand and New South Wales hold aloof, and the Council is as yet simply for discussion and consultation, though it, or some similar body, may become the germ of a confederation.

10. The Settlements in the Pacific and Indian Oceans.The conquest of India, and the settlement of Australia and New Zealand, were rounded off by fresh establishments in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. beginning of them is the cession of Ceylon (1802), and the conquest of Mauritius (1810). In 1819 Singapore was established as the centre of the English trade in lands once entirely in the hands of the Dutch. After 1837 Aden became a great station on the Suez route to India, and received a new importance with the opening of the Suez Canal. Hong-Kong, taken in 1841 from China, became a naval station and a thriving free port. Sir James Brooke's private venture at Sarawak in Borneo was another great impetus to English development in the [1820-1877.] Indian Archipelago. In 1874 the occupation of Fiji started a new colony in Oceania. Still more recently establishments have begun in the vast island of New Guinea. But these settlements are analogous to Indian conquests or Dutch trading-stations rather than to the direct expansion of England into new regions. Yet they mark no unimportant movement. Shut off from other colonies, the trading nations of Europe have begun to seek in the Pacific the settlements that have become impossible for them elsewhere. It does not become England to stand aside in a new colonial movement.

11. South Africa.South Africa stands midway between Australia and the West Indian type of colony, while in some ways suggesting analogies with Canada. It is a genuine colony, whither Dutchmen in the eighteenth century and Englishmen in the nineteenth have fared in large numbers to seek their fortunes. But the native races have always been, and will certainly remain, the great majority of the population. Its history therefore is complicated by the strife of African and European as well as the national hostility of Dutch and English. Partly in consequence of these difficulties, its progress has been much slower than that of Canada or Australia.

Cape ColonyWhen the Peace of Paris finally handed over the Cape Colony to the English, it was ruled by a hardy and stubborn race of Dutch farmers, mutinous against the exclusive government of the old Dutch days, and cherishing the self-government they had won through rebellion before the English occupied their land. They were all stern Calvinists, seeking in the Old Testament their justification for enslaving the Hottentots and the other native races of South Africa. Like the French in Canada, their old-fashioned ways led them to look with great disgust on the adventurous English settlers, who soon began to arrive, though for a long time in small numbers. They were angry that the English had abolished the slave-trade, and resented with still greater bitterness the abolition of slavery itself. After 1820 the Eastern Province of Cape Colony began to be settled by the English Government, and Port Elizabeth was founded. The progress of the English East soon began to rival that of the Dutch West, and the strife of the two peoples waxed warmer. The Great Trek, 1835.In 1835 the original Dutch of the Eastern Province abandoned their old homes and "trekked" into the wilderness over the Orange River, finally crossing the Drakenberg range and settling down in Natal, proclaiming a Free State or Republic. Natal, 1843-56But the English Government followed them, and in 1843 made Natal a dependency of the Cape, from which position it was raised in 1856 to that of a Crown colony. British Kaffraria, 1833-65.In 1853, after the end of the last of the Kaffir Wars, a large tract of Kaffirland was annexed as British Kaffraria, and in 1865 joined to the Cape Colony. Some of the Boers or Dutch farmers remained behind the Drakenberg in the region of the Orange River, where others of the freer and more restless sort soon joined them. But they occupied such vast territories with such scanty numbers that they could not defend themselves from the Griquas, a race of half-castes on whom they made war. Orange River Free State, 1835-48, and 1854-87.England stepped in and annexed the Orange River Free State (1848), though in 1854 she let it adrift again, and the Dutch Republic has ever since remained independent. But in 1852 the Boers, who had after 1843 settled north of the Vaal, were recognised as independent. The Transvaal, 1852-77.Their State, called, after 1858, the South African Republic, or the Transvaal, built up a sort of military organisation to keep down the natives, with whom it fought so often that all South Africa was disturbed, until in 1877 the British Government annexed the South African Republic. A little earlier the discovery of diamonds in the Orange Republic had led to more settlers than the Boers could keep in order, so that in 1870 the English took possession of the diamond-fields of Griqualand West, which in 1877 were joined to Cape Colony.

During these years that the constant struggles of the Boers and the English kept alive race hatreds Cape Colony had been getting on very slowly. In 1835 military rule was abandoned, and a Council of Nominees set up ; but Dutch and English joined in the cry for representative institutions, and in 1854 the first Cape Parliament was opened. In 1874 responsible government was established, as in Canada and Australia, and the Home Government, inspired by Lord Carnarvon, sought to bring about a South African Federation like the Dominion of Canada, passing in 1877 an Act for the purpose.

South African troubles, 1877-81.Troubles now broke out in South Africa, which soon put an end to schemes of Federation. The Transvaal Boers fiercely resented the suppression of their Free State, and handed over to England a fine crop of difficulties with the natives. The worst of [1879-1887.] these were with the Zulus, a Bantu tribe from the north, who had built up a remarkable military organisation under their leader Chaka. Zulu war, 1879.England now drifted into war with his descendant, King Cetchwayo; Lord Chelmsford invaded Zululand in 1879, but the want of the commonest precautions on his part led to the terrible disaster of Isandlana, and nothing but the gallant defence of Rorke's Drift by Chard and Bromhead saved Natal from invasion. Subsequent successes overthrew Cetchwayo's power, and Sir Garnet Wolseley, sent out to make a settlement, broke down the old military system, and cut up Zululand into thirteen petty districts. But this plan did not last long. Transvaal Revolt, 1880-82.Next year (1880) the Transvaal Boers broke into revolt, and in 1881 they thoroughly defeated the English under Sir George Colley at Lang's Neck and Majuba Hill. Seeing that conciliation was hopeless, and confederation out of the question, the Gladstone Government gave back their freedom to the Boers, retaining the suzerainty of England. This brought to a close events little creditable to English soldiers or English statesmen. The rejection of confederation in Cape Colony itself concluded a well-meant but hopeless scheme. What the less settled parts of South Africa want is more railways and free communication; the infiltration of English colonists, now rapidly coming in to work the gold and diamond mines, will at last settle the Dutch question, as it did the French difficulty in Canada.

12. The Colonies in 1887.The British dominions now extend over eight million square miles of the earth's surface. Besides myriads of native races, there are ten million colonists of European descent, the mass of them enjoying complete self-government, and being bound to the mother-country only by what we call "sentimental" ties. Yet the great growth of Canada, of Australia, and of South Africa must be in the future. In any case that future must belong to the English race. But it is a question slowly forcing itself on thoughtful minds-whether, if the extension of the English race is thus assured, the English State should not be extended too. The success of the Federal system in the United States, and the more modest success of Canadian Federation, has shown how a vast population dispersed over immense distances can be kept together in a real unity, in spite of tremendous difficulties. No greater object can employ British statesmen than the effort to bring the scattered populations of old and new England into a world-wide empire by means of the same Federal principle. The difficulties are great, and every party must make sacrifices, but the rewards are great also. The present nominal union of feelings and affection may suffice until some sudden trouble snaps the slight cord and brings about complete separation. The other alternative is some scheme of Imperial Federation, which would bring about a greater State than the world has seen since the Roman Empire, and be the greatest assertion of the principle of Nationality that could be secured. Nothing in modern times is more pregnant with fateful consequences than the new migration westward and southward into a Greater Britain.

1. [1] The old Colonial Empire of England reached its greatest prosperity with the Peace of Paris in . England was now supreme over North America, and had won so many West Indian islands that the French possessions sank into insignificance. In South America its dependency Portugal ruled over the Brazils. In the East the French had been driven out and the Dutch traded on sufferance. In East and West alike the Spaniards trembled lest they should be overthrown by the pushing heretics from the North. But few Englishmen, and no English statesman save Chatham, realised the new responsibilities that the increased growth and prosperity of the Colonies brought upon the mother-country. Though the Colonies were as free as they could be politically, the old notion that colonies existed only for the good of England, as farms to be worked for its benefit, found an expression in the trading system which checked the development of the young communities. Their increasing wealth and strength only led to a desire to interfere still more, since so much more was now to be got from interference. Thus the Home Government grew stricter, while the Colonies became resentful, angry, hostile. England's old rivals eagerly profited by the discord between Old and New England. The result was the American War, the Independence of the Thirteen Colonies, the splitting of the British race in twain, and the surrender of some of 's new conquests by the disastrous Treaty of Versailles. Never was there a greater contrast than between and . The old colonies fell away; and the system of monopoly and protection on which the old Empire was based received its deathblow. The old channels of trade were rudely diverted, and the old ideas of colonial government roughly overthrown. The Whig reformers even got rid of the Colonial Secretaryship as a useless and superfluous office.

2. Fragments of the old Empire remained British. In

289

North America the former French colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Cape Breton, and Prince Edward's Island, and the valuable fishing - stations of bleak, barren Newfoundland still clave to English rule. [2] A large immigration of faithful and persecuted loyalists from the United States replaced the outcast Acadians in Nova Scotia, and began to form a thoroughly English Upper Canada on the northern shores of Lake Ontario. [3] In Lord North had wisely passed the Quebec Act, which left the French Canadians their law, church, aristocracy, and government. The new Canadians of English race soon began to grumble at the despotic rule of the Crown and the prevalence of French ways and Popery. In met them half way by the Constitution Act, which divided the land into two parts, the Ottawa river separating English Upper Canada from French Lower Canada. By giving each Province a Representative Assembly, elected by the people, sowed the first seeds of Canadian liberty. But the Governor and the Executive Council were independent of parliamentary votes, and looked only to the Home Ministry and the Crown for guidance. Fierce hostility grew up between the two races, and the French colonists' love of old ways was bitterly resented by the pushing English minority now found even in the Lower Province. Upper Canada now made great strides forward, and her lumber trade in yellow pine, stimulated by the Protective laws with which England helped forward the infant resources of her colonies, soon cut out the forests of Norway in the English timber market. During the reign of legislative assemblies of the Canadian fashion were gradually granted to all the other North American colonies, except Newfoundland, whose scanty population of wandering fishermen was not intrusted with elective rights until , when a settled folk had grown up round the coast. But as yet British North America was but beginning its new way of life. Its great importance was altogether in the future. The English population was still small, and the French, though clever trappers and hunters, and thrifty, peaceful farmers, had none of the nervous go-ahead ways which hurry on the material progress of a new country.

After the West Indian Colonies were universally looked upon as the greatest glory of the British Empire. Besides our original settlements, (), Nevis

290

[1] 
(), the Bahamas (), and Montserrat (), there was the mighty island of Jamaica, which, with the Virgin Islands, Anguilla and Antigua, remained as results of the new wave of colonial enterprise which Cromwell had begun and carried on. [4] St. Kitts, partly English since , became wholly English in . Grenada and the Grenadines were yielded up by France in . The mahogany cutters of Honduras now had a recognised right to their position. Of the four islands, Dominica, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, and Tobago, which, disputed till , were declared neutral by the Treaty of Aachen, England now only held two of the three ceded in , Dominica and St. Vincent, for Tobago remained in French hands, as the only lasting fruit of De Grasse's brilliant career of conquest. Jamaica, the largest, and , the richest and most densely populated, were each governed separately. The rest, excluding the unimportant and distant Bahamas, were for most purposes divided into two groups, the Leeward Islands, looking north-east, and including all as far south as Dominica, and the Windward Islands, beyond them, looking south-east. All were now very prosperous. The planter aristocracy was so wealthy that many English capitalists invested in West Indian estates, and, even as absentees, won a good return for their money, and kept up constant dealings between colony and mother-country. The restrictions of the Navigation Act were no burden to a class that sought no maritime commerce, and got its flour, pork, and lumber, without much trouble, from North America. English ships conveyed to , Bristol, and Glasgow the sugar, rum, and treacle of the islanders, where they found a ready market. The system of kidnapping poor helpless folk, and the plan of sending out as white slaves convicts, debtors, and paupers, were now at an end, and the planters, who disliked the settlement of poor whites, fell back more and more on the labour of their negro slaves, who, after , could be bought cheaply from the monopolist English merchants. The better planters treated their human property kindly enough, as good masters treat their horses, but they put down all attempts at revolt with unspeakable brutality, and denied the negro all taste of civilisation or Christianity, lest he became discontented with his hopeless and aimless life of toil. The planters had in their own hands the government of the colonies, through local assemblies, and except that they paid a heavy tribute,

291

which they could afford, they were as free from English control as Virginia had been. But there was still danger from France, and the ever-present fear of a black revolt in a region where burning suns and yellow fever, even more than planter policy, discouraged European settlements. There was therefore no danger of a cry for separation, even if after England had not been more careful not to give offence, and more watchful of the beginnings of insubordination. But the wonderful prosperity of the West Indies was based on slavery and monopoly, and new and strange teachings were already heard in the distance, threatening an end to both.

Between Granville and the Abolitionists started in Western Africa, where the English African Company had held a few trading stations since the days of Elizabeth, the colony of Sierra Leone for free negroes. The Indian Company's victualling station of St. Helena, a remote island in the Southern Atlantic, and the Bermudas (), now more important than ever as a naval position, completed, with the Gibraltar Rock (), the foreign possessions of England. They were hardly more colonies than itself.

3. [5] Gallant explorers and travellers were now wandering through the unknown parts of the earth, and preparing the way for British enterprise and settlement. The history of eighteenth century travel supplies the heroic element that European history then so signally lacked. 's famous voyage between had done something to open out the dimly-known lands of the Pacific. Captain now stood forth as the Columbus of a new continent and a new island-studded ocean.

[6] James () was the son of a Cleveland labourer. Joining the royal navy, he worked his way up from before the mast, and commanded a sloop at Wolfe's siege of Quebec. In he went on his first voyage to the Pacific to observe the transit of Venus. He took the good chance offered him of getting clear knowledge of the misty island of New Holland, dimly revealed by early Dutch navigators, and Captain William Dampier (-). coasted all along Eastern , which he called , because he thought the hills of the coast looked like the Glamorganshire hills that he saw when sailing up the Bristol Channel. He also practically discovered New Zealand. He came back in . His second expedition (-) was sent out to find the supposed

292

[1] 
Southern Continent, to which the name then applied, and which was thought to extend northwards from the Pole. His Antarctic voyage proved that this was non-existent or uninhabitable, and led to a vast extension of men's knowledge of the South Pacific. His third voyage () was an attempt to approach the North-West Passage from the Pacific side. Again he failed in an impossible quest, but he now laid down clearly the island groups of the North Pacific, and discovered the Sandwich Islands, where he was murdered by the natives. Patience, boldness, accuracy and foresight, care for his seamen, strict honour and high-minded conduct ennoble the whole of his great career.

[7]  opened up a new era of discovery and travel, in which Englishmen took a very prominent part. Flinders, Bass, and Murray carried on his work of surveying , a name now transferred from the shadowy Southern Continent of theorists to the real island continent of New Holland. The survey of the coasts was completed by the Beagle (), in the famous exploring voyage which taught Charles to look upon nature in a new light. In a later generation Sturt, Stuart, Burke, Wills, and Gregory opened up the interior.

[8] Other discoverers now began to travel in the dark regions of Central Africa, led by James Bruce, the Abyssinian explorer () and Mungo Park (), who found out the Niger, and perished in a second expedition in . Missionaries, traders, men of science, and adventurers have been all working ever since to get a clear knowledge of the unknown continent. For thirty years David Livingstone, an undaunted and shrewd Scottish missionary, laboured systematically at the exploration of the south, and prepared the way for successors as devoted as himself. In the new quest for the sources of the Nile was opened by (who has since earned fame as a scholar, linguist, and poet) and Speke. Their labours, together with those of Grant, , , and others, have now almost made clear this ancient mystery.

[9] In Phipps began the modern series of expeditions to the frozen Arctic regions, and in Scoresby, the scientific and energetic mate of a Hull whaler, got within 500 miles of the North Pole. After a long series of failures Captain Parry started in with the Hecla, and worked his way further than had been gone before on the North-West Passage, now clearly seen to be

293

useless for trade and navigation. In Sir John Franklin sailed with the Erebus and Terror on the fatal Arctic voyage from which he never returned. A series of expeditions in search of him was at last crowned with a melancholy success by McClintock setting his fate beyond a doubt. In the still more inhospitable regions of the South Pole, the chief explorer was Ross, who in three voyages between did most of what has been done to explore what still remains the least known region of the globe. But Arctic exploration has destroyed the hopes of the trader, and has but little satisfied the man of science.

[10] The great wave of missionary enterprise which set in with the Evangelical movement, besides its own proper results, did much to extend our knowledge and stimulate patient heroism. The brave deeds of travellers for the Gospel's sake are well brought out in the death of John Williams, martyred in , at Erromanga, the slaying of Bishop Patteson, in , by Melanesian islanders, in revenge for the atrocities of the kidnappers, in the whole career of Livingstone, and in the pains and troubles of the Central African Mission which has followed in his footsteps. The fortunes of travel for science' sake can best be followed in the labours of Sir , the botanist, and the companion of , 's epoch-making voyage in the Beagle, Bates's work on the Amazon, 's explorations in Malaya, and the more recent expedition of the Challenger. The labours of a century of earnest and self-sacrificing explorers were the best basis for the new Colonial Empire that sprang from the work of the luckiest and most gifted of them, besides increasing knowledge, spreading civilisation, and opening up new avenues of trade.

4. [11] When America was lost to England, a few farsighted men turned to , now better known through 's favourable reports.

"I am going to offer an object to the consideration of our Government,"

wrote one of these,

"which may in time atone for the loss of our American Colonies. With good management and a few settlers, in twenty or thirty years they might cause a revolution in the system of European commerce, and secure England a monopoly of some part of it, and a very large share of the whole."

His plan was to settle New South Wales, hoping to find there an asylum for the American loyalists as well as for the teeming and poverty-stricken population of England itself. A special inducement was

294

[1] 
that the new colony would be a good place for shipping off the convicts previously sent to America, and now shut up uselessly in hulks, and even sent to perish miserably in the unwholesome regions of Western Africa. Sir Joseph strongly recommended Botany Bay, an inlet of New South Wales, so named by him and from the richness of its plants and flowers. Lord Sydney, the Home Secretary, took the matter up, and interested himself warmly in it. Public opinion was a little stirred, and a doggerel rhyme in a newspaper of the day has a curious prophetic ring about it:-

"Let no one think much of a trifling expense,

Who knows what may happen a hundred years hence ?

The loss of America who can repay ?

New Colonies seek then at Botany Bay.

In Captain Phillip was sent out with several shiploads of convicts to prepare the way for the new colony. On 26th January he landed at PortJackson, a noble series of harbours to the north of Botany Bay, which on experience he found to be less suitable for his settlement. On the shores of Port Jackson soon rose a little village of convicts' huts named Sydney, after the minister that furthered the venture. But for many years languished. None but convicts were sent there, and the infant colony suffered severely from famine, and got a very bad name from the wild disorders of its vicious and ignorant population. The outbreak of the great wars against France soon turned English energies into other channels. Yet a beginning had been made of another New England in the Antipodes.

5. [12] The two great wars against Revolutionary and Napoleonic France brought back to England a colonial supremacy wider than ever dreamed of by Chatham. The French West Indies fell twice into British hands, and Tobago was definitely restored to England in . The Danish, Swedish, and Dutch islands were held from to , and from to . Trinidad was wrested from Spain and confirmed to England by the Treaty of Amiens. Demerara, Essequibo, and Berbice were taken from the Dutch in , and never restored, becoming henceforward known as British Guiana. Cape Colony was finally occupied in , and ceded in . Mauritius became English in , though Bourbon, taken at the same time, was restored

295

at the peace. The Dutch coast settlements in Ceylon were ceded in , and the whole island became British by the defeat of the native king of Candy in . France was not left with a single colony, except those which the magnanimity of England restored in . The Dutch then got back the Spice Islands and Java, but they paid a heavy price for their association with France in the loss of part of Guiana, the Cape, and Ceylon.

6. [13] The new colonies were not all clear gain. Except the Cape, which was as yet of little importance, they were all of the hot tropical sort, where the English would only live as a leisurely property -holding class, and they increased the difficulties which the slave question now brought forward. The republican energy and enthusiasm of France had spread to her colonies, and the

"coloured"

men of mixed descent had become hot disciples of , and strong upholders of a fraternity that knew no distinction of race and colour. Hayti, the greatest of the French West Indies, had been too large for English conquest, and, throwing off the planter yoke, became a black republic, which has ever since presented a hideous travesty of French civilisation. The Maroons of Jamaica rose in fierce outbreaks in sympathy with the Haytians. The frightened planters became more brutal and severe to their wretched slaves. Their main supply of cheap labour was cut off when the slave-trade was made felony. The return of peace found that Europe had learnt to make sugar from beetroot and coffee from chicory, so that the demand for West Indian produce began to fall off. A fresh blow to the planters came when the Reformed Parliament abolished negro slavery in . Twenty millions of compensation seemed generous to English eyes, but it was very little to the ruined planters, whose free labourers now refused to work more than they chose, and

"squatted"

on small patches of garden ground, where the bounty of sun and soil gave them enough for their simple wants, preferring to live an idle, happy, helpless animal existence to working hard for comforts and rewards they were quite contented to do without. Only in , where the dense population prevented squatting, and made the negroes work or starve, did any prosperity continue. Jamaica lost ground terribly, for her large unoccupied tracts gave plenty of room for her negroes to settle down in happy sloth. Guiana and Trinidad kept up some show of success by importing coolies from

296

[1] 
the hills of to do the work the blacks refused. But political difficulties now broke out with the blacks, who by force of numbers began to carry everything before them, so that many of the colonies in despair surrendered their constitutions, and put themselves under the despotic rule of the Crown, as the best thing under the circumstances. The more vigorous of the white population drifted away. The negroes still remained troublesome, and in a black revolt in Jamaica was only repressed by the stern and successful, but perhaps too indiscriminate, severity of Governor Eyre. But before this a blow heavier even than the emancipation of the negro had fallen upon the West Indies. For a time the system of differential duties, which let in our colonial products at cheaper custom rates than those from foreign countries, kept up a faint gleam of prosperity. But free trade in sugar came in with free trade in corn (), and cut off the last hope. Slave-grown sugar from foreign parts crowded out the free sugar of the British Indies, until the bounty system of Europe drove out both alike, in favour of the beet sugar of France and Germany. The result has been the economic ruin of the West Indies. Yet even in their decay they remain magnificent monuments of their former greatness. Their fall marks another step in the decay of the old Colonial theories which finally disappeared with the repeal of the Navigation Acts in . Propped up by monopoly and slave labour, they could not hold their own in the harder struggle that set in with free competition in trade and industry. Yet we may well regret their fall, and welcome the faint gleams of returning prosperity which show that their decline will at least go no further.

7. [14] As the tropical sugar colonies fell back, the colonies in temperate climates, with a population largely or alto gether European, came into greater importance. This made it easier for the new colonial policy to be adopted, which marks the beginning of the present reign. The growth of population, the irregularity of employment, and the lowness of wages, which led to the social and political disturbances of the first forty years of the century, turned thoughtful men to the question of emi gration. It was seen that something more ought to be done than

" shovel out"

convicts to , and paupers to Canada. Steps were taken to encourage active and helpful citizens to seek a hew home and fortune in the vast tracts of unoccupied territory over which the British flag now waved. Grants of free lands were now offered to

297

[1] 
any respectable settler; but the plan was not found to work, for the uncleared plots of virgin forest or bush were of very little use to the poor and ignorant colonist, who was led by the system to dwell in soul-destroying isolation from his neighbours, far away from all markets, and all means of improvement. [15] In , the brilliant, graphic, far-seeing Edward Gibbon wrote, in the prison into which his daring and lawless deeds had cast him, a striking epoch-making pamphlet against the prevailing methods. taught that a colony should, so far as might be, reproduce the state of society in the mother-country. Land should not be given away in huge lots, but sold in small parcels, and the proceeds turned to improving the means of communication, providing the accessories and aids to cultivation and improvement, and promoting fresh immigration Towns should be set up to provide markets, and stimulate trade. The result was that a Colonisation Society was started in , and a new era in n progress sets in with the establishment of fresh colonies professedly based on 's system.

The Colonies grew larger and stronger as the stream of emigration flowed with ever-increasing rapidity from the mother-country One result sprang immediately from this. Large masses of Englishmen, freer and more unconventional in their ways than those left at home, would never be satisfied with anything but the fullest rights of self-government. There was now no wish to withstand such demands at home, for public opinion was very careless about colonial questions altogether, and more thoughtful men generally believed that when colonies got strong enough, they would naturally fall away from the mother-country, like America, and took no pains to prevent such a result. The doctrine first taught in Revolutionary France that colonies were parts of the mother- country found no echo in the England of this period. It was an age of economists and laissez-faire, deaf to all higher notions of an Imperial England. But it did the right thing in gracefully yielding the colonial demands, though it thought that in doing so it was simply ripening them for independence. The first step was to grant a local Legislative Council, such as Canada got in . In , the way to this was through nominee Councils, such as that established in in . In two-thirds of the Council of that colony were chosen by popular election. For a time the government remained

298

[1] 
independent of the Assembly. But then came the final step of granting responsible government-by making the executive depend on the legislative. This process was completed in in . The result was virtual independence, for the only link now was the Governor, who, appointed by the Crown, reigned, but did not govern. A vague appellate right of the English Privy Council was the only other thing that connected the Colonies and mother-country, save common citizenship, common traditions, and common love for English ways. The freedom which the American plantations had enjoyed since the seventeenth century was thus extended to the new colonies. But the commercial dependence which had tightly bound the old colonies, and which America had felt too grievous to be borne, was now entirely removed, as the new free-trade system was incompatible with all commercial monopoly. In a later generation, the Colonies, in many cases, set up protective laws of their own, which have powerfully helped on their infant industries, often to the loss of those of England. English troops were at last removed, and the work of self-defence was intrusted to the colonists themselves. The mother-country carried out a more constructive task in urging on the confederation of neighbouring colonies with each other. But of late years the idea has been slowly gaining ground of joining Colonies and mother- country together in a wider scheme of Imperial Federation.

The modern Colonial Empire falls into three great groups -North America, , and South Africa. We can best follow their history by taking each group in turn, and seeing how it has fared since the introduction of the new colonial system.

8. [16] During the first third of the nineteenth century affairs got worse and worse in Canada. The popular Legislative Councils constantly quarrelled with the Governments responsible to England, and the increase of the English element embittered the feud of the two Provinces and the two races. The American War between brought the Provinces together for a time, to repel gallantly and successfully the invaders from the United States. But after the Peace of Ghent things went back to the old ways, and the French Canadians, led by Papineau, stopped the supplies and drew up a list of ninety-two grievances. [17] In discontent grew into revolt, which even extended to the Upper Province, which had grievances of its own, and contained a party that sought annexation to the American Union.

299

But the risings were quashed, the country was put under martial law, and Lord Durham, the strong-willed, vigorous Radical, was sent out in to organise a new government.[18]  By his advice the two Canadas were joined together in , with a Parliament of two Chambers, the Upper House consisting of life members, and the Lower House chosen in equal proportions from the two Provinces. This meant the subordination of the French majority to the English minority, but as a counter-concession the Executive Ministry was made directly responsible to the Canadian Parliament. As time went on the English got more numerous; though the French still clung strongly to their national laws and customs, and the system of union proved a dead failure, yet the grant of virtual independence led to a further development of the Canadas. A fresh step was taken during the governorship of Lord Elgin (), who joined with the Canadian Liberals in getting rid of the Crown and Church lands to the peasantry, abolishing the feudal rights of the French seigneurs, improving the navigation of the St. Lawrence, opening up roads, railways, telegraphs, and canals, and concluding a Commercial Treaty with the United States. An attempt was made by the Canadian Conservatives to get the Indemnity Act passed in favour of the rebels of rescinded by the Home Government, but Parliament refused to interfere. It was the last time any attempt was made to check the independence of Canada.

The Canadian Conservatives now accepted the democratic system, against which they had contended for so long, and were joined by the more moderate Liberals, while the Clear-grits or extreme Radicals clamoured for annexation to the States. But the greatest difficulty still remained with the French, and deadlocks and disputes sapped the energies of the colony for nearly thirty years. At last in the Civil War in the United States burst out, and made every Canadian feel keenly the divided and defenceless state of British North America. The commercial treaty with the United States lapsed, and the Fenian invasions of revealed a new danger. The result was that the plans for joining together the scattered colonies in a common dominion, which had, hitherto, been started with little enthusiasm, came within the region of practical politics. In negotiations were completed, Sir John , the Conservative leader, representing Canada, while Lord acted as Colonial Secretary.

[19] The Dominion of Canada was now formed under a Governor-General appointed by the Crown, and with a constitution similar in essentials to that of England, with the large modifications made necessary by the acceptance of Federalism. The government was to be carried on by a Cabinet responsible to a Parliament of two houses, of which the House of Commons was elected by a liberal suffrage, and the Senate consisted of members chosen for life. The Federal principle, as in the United States, allowed a full measure of Home Rule to the Provinces of the Dominion, which each had their separate local Parliament and Executive. The union of the two Canadas was given up as hopeless, and French Canada, as the new Province of Quebec, and English Canada as the Province of Ontario, progressed much quicker after their ill-matched elements were kept apart. Nova Scotia and New Brunswick at once joined the Union. In , Manitoba, the rough western region which the growth of the corn trade was soon making important, became a new Province, the defeat of the revolt of the French half-breeds under Louis by having practically settled its future as English and not French. In British Columbia, the region between the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific (including Vancouver's Island), which had become important since gold discoveries in , also fell in on the condition of a railway being built to join them with the eastern colonies. In Prince Edward's Island was included, so that Newfoundland alone stood outside the Dominion. Sir John became Conservative Premier of the Dominion, and though defeated in by Mackenzie, got back into office in , and brought in higher customs duties to protect Canada against the United States and Europe. In the Canadian Pacific Railway was opened between Canada and British Columbia, so that an unbroken railway route was established between Halifax and the Pacific coast. In the same year 's second rising was put down, and its leader executed. The Dominion, despite great difficulties, proved a magnificent success. In it contained nearly five million inhabitants.

9. [20] The n Colonies nave shown a still more remarkable development. The early struggles of the convict settlement of were over when in the energy and resourcefulness of Governor Macquarie led to the discovery of the fertile pastures beyond the Blue Mountains. Captain MacArthur

301

got together the first flock of sheep from the Cape. Sheep. farming now became a great industry, and the wool and tallow fetched a ready market even though the carcases of the sheep were as yet of little value as food. [21] Free labour now came in, and sheep- owners

'squatted'

on vast sheep-runs, and soon became wealthy. Under Governors Brisbane and Darling, the growth of 's ideas led to a restriction being put on the grants of free land, and the direct encouragement of free emigration. New colonies now grew up. [22] The town of Brisbane, named after the Governor, was started as a penal colony in , and after became the nucleus of a free settlement in the hot but genial regions to the north, where a new settlement of sugar, wine, tobacco, and cotton growers grew up, with the aid of Kanaka (South Sea Island) labour. In this became the separate colony of Queensland.

[23] In a settlement was formed on the Swan River in Western , which, after a languishing exist ence, during which convict labour (transportation hither went on till ) alone saved it from extinction, became strong enough to receive a constitution, and has recently grown enormously by reason of the discovery of rich gold-fields.

[24] In a convict station was formed at Port Phillip on the southern coast, but next year it crossed over to Van Diemen's Land. In , however, another settlement was made which gradually became the centre of another great colony. In the town of Melbourne was founded and named after the then Prime Minister, while the land itself gradually dropped its old name of Felix, and became in the independent colony of .

[25] To the south of the large island of Van Diemen's Land, afterwards called Tasmania, became in a convict settlement. In free settlers began to come in. In it became a separate colony with a popular government, having a climate very much like that of England, though less attractive in other ways than some of its neighbours.

[26] 's theories now found a practical application in South , where in the South n Company that he had founded started a new free settlement, with Adelaide, named from the Queen of William IV., as its capital. But

302

[1] 
it languished for a long time, and after a period of speculation the colony went bankrupt in , partly because the system was pushed forward in too narrow a way, though it soon recovered itself, and with its copper-mines and fine corn-lands is now increasingly prosperous.

[27] In the New Zealand Association was started on 's plan, and New Zealand was settled in as a dependency of . In the three islands became an independent colony with Auckland as their capital. But they had a great difficulty, especially in North Island, with the fierce, strong, and intelligent natives called Maoris, who were made of much sterner stuff than the weakly and archaic aboriginals of . 's fertile brain here hit on the notion of sending out separate colonies, each professing the same religious belief. In he settled Scotch Presbyterians in Otago, and in Church of England colonists in Canterbury, while English Nonconformists were gathered together at New Plymouth. The result was that nine separate colonies gradually grew up in New Zealand, whose scattered and divided governments soon proved most burdensome and unsatisfactory, though there was a separate central government as well. At last in , after a hot struggle, the provinces were abolished, and New Zealand became a single colony, which has since grown rapidly, though some times, like other young peoples, trusting so completely to its future development as to plan vast and costly works, and saddling itself with a large debt, which, with its present resources, is a somewhat heavy burden.

[28] The growth of free settlement made it impossible to keep up the military government of the days of the convict establishments. The free inhabitants loudly demanded self-government, and some even sought to give the emancipists, or convicts on leave, the rights of citizenship. But the cry was now against transportation altogether, and after no more criminals were

"shovelled"

into , though transportation thither was not formally abolished till . Constitutional rule now bit by bit replaced martial law. A Council was set up by Lord , the Colonial Secretary, when Darling was Governor, in . In the n Government Act was passed empowering the Home ministers to give Councils to the other colonies, and allowing the Councils, with the assent of the Crown, to alter their own constitution. To these bodies the government lands

303

were altogether transferred, and they soon began to use their powers by making their constitution more democratic. This had hardly been done when the discovery of gold in () brought about a new era of wild excitement and speculation, and the enormous growth of every n colony. Between the population of went up from 80,000 to 400,000. A pushing vigorous society thus grew up, which in received a complete measure of responsible government such as had earlier been given to Canada. There now grew up in each colony a fierce democratic feeling which has strongly coloured their whole subsequent progress. Henceforth their expansion became quite independent of the mother-country. The colonies soon found plenty of troubles of their own. There arose a great struggle between protectionists and free traders (), and a more bitter strife between the rich Squatters who had become a sort of territorial aristocracy, and those who sought to keep landed property in many hands, and encourage corn-growing rather than sheep-farming. Sydney and Melbourne became great cities with large manufactures and a great artisan population. But though the legal tie between free and England remains but nominal, and their interests seem as often to clash as to unite, the sentiment of English nationality still binds together colony and mother- country, and has brought about a promising and substantial proof of sympathy in the despatch of n forces to the Red Sea to help in the relief of Gordon and the preservation of the Soudan. Since a Federal Council for has been set up by the States themselves; but New Zealand and hold aloof, and the Council is as yet simply for discussion and consultation, though it, or some similar body, may become the germ of a confederation.

10. [29] The conquest of , and the settlement of and New Zealand, were rounded off by fresh establishments in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. beginning of them is the cession of Ceylon (), and the conquest of Mauritius (). In Singapore was established as the centre of the English trade in lands once entirely in the hands of the Dutch. After Aden became a great station on the Suez route to , and received a new importance with the opening of the Suez Canal. Hong-Kong, taken in from China, became a naval station and a thriving free port. Sir 's private venture at Sarawak in Borneo was another great impetus to English development in the

304

[1] 
Indian Archipelago. In the occupation of Fiji started a new colony in Oceania. Still more recently establishments have begun in the vast island of New Guinea. But these settlements are analogous to Indian conquests or Dutch trading-stations rather than to the direct expansion of England into new regions. Yet they mark no unimportant movement. Shut off from other colonies, the trading nations of Europe have begun to seek in the Pacific the settlements that have become impossible for them elsewhere. It does not become England to stand aside in a new colonial movement.

11. [30] South Africa stands midway between and the West Indian type of colony, while in some ways suggesting analogies with Canada. It is a genuine colony, whither Dutchmen in the eighteenth century and Englishmen in the nineteenth have fared in large numbers to seek their fortunes. But the native races have always been, and will certainly remain, the great majority of the population. Its history therefore is complicated by the strife of African and European as well as the national hostility of Dutch and English. Partly in consequence of these difficulties, its progress has been much slower than that of Canada or .

[31] When the Peace of Paris finally handed over the Cape Colony to the English, it was ruled by a hardy and stubborn race of Dutch farmers, mutinous against the exclusive government of the old Dutch days, and cherishing the self-government they had won through rebellion before the English occupied their land. They were all stern Calvinists, seeking in the Old Testament their justification for enslaving the Hottentots and the other native races of South Africa. Like the French in Canada, their old-fashioned ways led them to look with great disgust on the adventurous English settlers, who soon began to arrive, though for a long time in small numbers. They were angry that the English had abolished the slave-trade, and resented with still greater bitterness the abolition of slavery itself. After the Eastern Province of Cape Colony began to be settled by the English Government, and Port Elizabeth was founded. The progress of the English East soon began to rival that of the Dutch West, and the strife of the two peoples waxed warmer. [32] In the original Dutch of the Eastern Province abandoned their old homes and

"trekked"

into the wilderness over the Orange River, finally crossing the

305

Drakenberg range and settling down in Natal, proclaiming a Free State or Republic. [33] But the English Government followed them, and in made Natal a dependency of the Cape, from which position it was raised in to that of a Crown colony. [34] In , after the end of the last of the Kaffir Wars, a large tract of Kaffirland was annexed as British Kaffraria, and in joined to the Cape Colony. Some of the Boers or Dutch farmers remained behind the Drakenberg in the region of the Orange River, where others of the freer and more restless sort soon joined them. But they occupied such vast territories with such scanty numbers that they could not defend themselves from the Griquas, a race of half-castes on whom they made war. [35] England stepped in and annexed the Orange River Free State (), though in she let it adrift again, and the Dutch Republic has ever since remained independent. But in the Boers, who had after settled north of the Vaal, were recognised as independent. [36] Their State, called, after , the South African Republic, or the Transvaal, built up a sort of military organisation to keep down the natives, with whom it fought so often that all South Africa was disturbed, until in the British Government annexed the South African Republic. A little earlier the discovery of diamonds in the Orange Republic had led to more settlers than the Boers could keep in order, so that in the English took possession of the diamond-fields of Griqualand West, which in were joined to Cape Colony.

During these years that the constant struggles of the Boers and the English kept alive race hatreds Cape Colony had been getting on very slowly. In military rule was abandoned, and a Council of Nominees set up ; but Dutch and English joined in the cry for representative institutions, and in the first Cape Parliament was opened. In responsible government was established, as in Canada and , and the Home Government, inspired by Lord , sought to bring about a South African Federation like the Dominion of Canada, passing in an Act for the purpose.

[37] Troubles now broke out in South Africa, which soon put an end to schemes of Federation. The Transvaal Boers fiercely resented the suppression of their Free State, and handed over to England a fine crop of difficulties with the natives. The worst of

306

[1] 
these were with the Zulus, a Bantu tribe from the north, who had built up a remarkable military organisation under their leader Chaka. [38] England now drifted into war with his descendant, King Cetchwayo; Lord Chelmsford invaded Zululand in , but the want of the commonest precautions on his part led to the terrible disaster of Isandlana, and nothing but the gallant defence of Rorke's Drift by Chard and Bromhead saved Natal from invasion. Subsequent successes overthrew Cetchwayo's power, and Sir Garnet , sent out to make a settlement, broke down the old military system, and cut up Zululand into thirteen petty districts. But this plan did not last long. [39] Next year () the Transvaal Boers broke into revolt, and in they thoroughly defeated the English under Sir at Lang's Neck and Majuba Hill. Seeing that conciliation was hopeless, and confederation out of the question, the Government gave back their freedom to the Boers, retaining the suzerainty of England. This brought to a close events little creditable to English soldiers or English statesmen. The rejection of confederation in Cape Colony itself concluded a well-meant but hopeless scheme. What the less settled parts of South Africa want is more railways and free communication; the infiltration of English colonists, now rapidly coming in to work the gold and diamond mines, will at last settle the Dutch question, as it did the French difficulty in Canada.

12. [40] The British dominions now extend over eight million square miles of the earth's surface. Besides myriads of native races, there are ten million colonists of European descent, the mass of them enjoying complete self-government, and being bound to the mother-country only by what we call

"sentimental"

ties. Yet the great growth of Canada, of , and of South Africa must be in the future. In any case that future must belong to the English race. But it is a question slowly forcing itself on thoughtful minds-whether, if the extension of the English race is thus assured, the English State should not be extended too. The success of the Federal system in the United States, and the more modest success of Canadian Federation, has shown how a vast population dispersed over immense distances can be kept together in a real unity, in spite of tremendous difficulties. No greater object can employ British statesmen than the effort to bring the scattered populations of old and new England into a world-wide

307

empire by means of the same Federal principle. The difficulties are great, and every party must make sacrifices, but the rewards are great also. The present nominal union of feelings and affection may suffice until some sudden trouble snaps the slight cord and brings about complete separation. The other alternative is some scheme of Imperial Federation, which would bring about a greater State than the world has seen since the Roman Empire, and be the greatest assertion of the principle of Nationality that could be secured. Nothing in modern times is more pregnant with fateful consequences than the new migration westward and southward into a Greater Britain.

 
 
Footnotes:

[1] Contrast between 1763 and 1783. Fall of the old Colonial Empire.

[2] The English Colonies after 1783.

[3] Canada and its neighbour Colonies, 1774-1833.

[1] [1783-1793.]

[4] The West Indies, 1783-93.

[5] The Travellers.

[6] Cook's Voyages, 1768-79.

[1] [1772-1871.]

[7] Australian Travel.

[8] African Discovery.

[9] Polar Voyages.

[10] Missionary and Scientific travel.

[11] Beginnings of Australian Settlement, 1788.

[1] [1788-1834.]

[12] Colonial Expansion during the French Wars, 1793-1815.

[13] Decay of the West Indies, 1815-49.

[1] [1849.

[14] The new Colonial Policy.

[1] 1840.]

[15] Wakefield's System of Colonisation, 1829.

[1] [1812-1867.]

[16] North American Colonies.

[17] The Rebellion of 1837, and Lord Durham.

[18] Canadian Unity and Independence, 1840.

[19] The Dominion of Canada, 1867.

[20] Australian Colonies.

[21] New South Wales after 1813.

[22] Queensland, 1859.

[23] Western Australia, 1829.

[24] Victoria, 1803-51.

[25] Tasmania, 1804-56.

[26] South Australia, 1836-40.

[1] [1837-1885.]

[27] New Zealand, 1839-75.

[28] Independence granted to Australia, 1850-56.

[29] The Settlements in the Pacific and Indian Oceans.

[1] [1820-1877.]

[30] South Africa.

[31] Cape Colony

[32] The Great Trek, 1835.

[33] Natal, 1843-56

[34] British Kaffraria, 1833-65.

[35] Orange River Free State, 1835-48, and 1854-87.

[36] The Transvaal, 1852-77.

[37] South African troubles, 1877-81.

[1] [1879-1887.]

[38] Zulu war, 1879.

[39] Transvaal Revolt, 1880-82.

[40] The Colonies in 1887.