History of England, Part III, William and Mary to 1887

Tout, T. F. --Powell, F. York
1898

CHAPTER II: Anne 1702-1714

CHAPTER II: Anne 1702-1714

1. Accession and character of Queen Anne.Queen Anne was "of the middle size, and well-proportioned. Her hair was of a dark-brown colour, her complexion ruddy; her features were regular, her countenance was rather round than oval, and her aspect more comely than majestic." She was good-natured, true to her friends, sincerely religious, and truly boasted to her parliament "that her heart was entirely English." She was well liked for her honesty and strong Tory and High Church feelings. But she was dull, obstinate, and narrow-minded, giving herself up altogether to the guidance of some stronger and abler friend. Since they had played together as children, Anne had been quite governed by clever, strong-willed, and handsome Sarah Jennings, who became the wife of Marlborough. "As a girl," says Lady Marlborough, " she had proposed that whenever I should happen to be absent, we might in all our letters write ourselves by feigned names such as would import nothing of distinction of rank between us. Morley and Freeman were the names her fancy hit upon. My frank open temper led me to pitch upon Freeman, and from this time Mrs. Morley and Mrs. Freeman conversed as equals, made so by affection and friendship." Yet Lady Marlborough knew that "in matters of ordinary moment her discourse had nothing of brightness or wit, and in weightier matters she never spoke but in a hurry, and had a fault of sticking to what had been dictated to her without the least sign of understanding or judgment." In 1683 Anne had married Prince George of Denmark (brother of King Christian V.), who was made Duke of Cumberland, a man "of comely and erect aspect, blonde, and of the Danish countenance," but "very fat," and "of few words [1702-1710.] and somewhat heavy, though reported to be valiant." All their children, to her great grief, died young.

2. Marlborough, 1650-1722.It was well for England that the new queen was so completely ruled by Marlborough and his wife, for Marlborough was the one man in Europe able to carry on the life-work of William III., and keep together the Grand Alliance. Marlborough was "a man of noble and graceful appearance," " tall and handsome, with a beautiful figure and irresistible manner" ; yet, "with all his gentleness and gracefulness, no man living was more conscious of his situation nor maintained his dignity better." Though badly brought up, and unable to spell, he was a natural orator of the first rank. He was also a far-seeing and wise statesman, and the greatest general of his age, whose daring tactics, rapid movements, and dashing attacks were strongly in contrast to the stiff and slow movements of generals who liked sieges better than battles, and were enslaved by a rigid system of drill. Yet Marlborough was selfish and ungenerous, betraying friends and country when it paid him to do so, and using men as his tools to get himself on. He was cold-hearted and unfeeling, and greedy of money and place. But he had now bent his great faculties on a great object, and he carried his plans out with wonderful courage, temper, and skill.

3. Ministerial history, 1702-8.William's death broke up the Whig ministry. Anne began to push forward Tories and High Churchmen both in Church and State. She made Marlborough a duke, and captain-general of her army. His great friend Godolphin (whose son married one of his daughters) now became Lord Treasurer, and Nottingham, the strictest of Churchmen, Secretary of State. But Marlborough and Godolphin, who really ruled the country, were afraid to go too far or to disgust the Whig supporters of King William's foreign policy. While winning over the clergy by restoring to the Church the tenths and first-fruits, which had belonged to the Crown since 1534 (this has been since used to increase poor livings, and is called Queen Anne's Bounty), they were afraid to press the Bill against Occasional Conformity, which sought to prevent Dissenters qualifying themselves for office by receiving once in the way the communion in church. Rochester, the leader of the " Highfliers," was disgusted at being only Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, and threw up his office. Bit by bit the stronger Tories followed his example, and were led by him to opp ose the war, into the conduct of which Godolphin and Marlborough threw their whole energy. While Marlborough won great victories, Godolphin managed Parliament and got together supplies. The custom of both armies going into winter quarters allowed even Marlborough to lead his party in Parliament as well as his army in the field. Despairing of the extreme Tories, they sought, like William, to rule through a mixed ministry. But they found at last, like William, that the Whigs alone would really help them. To get the Whigs on their side, they had to offend the queen and the Church by voting against the Occasional Conformity Bill. In 1704 Nottingham joined Rochester in the opposition; but the Whig House of Lords backed up the Government, though it had great difficulties with High-Church and Tory majorities in the Commons. At last, in 1706, Marlborough made his son-in-law, Sunderland (son of the old adviser of James and William), Secretary of State. Sunderland was a strong Whig and a friend of the lords of the Junto still shut out from office. But the Tory section of the Cabinet grew angry at being gradually pushed from power, and began to intrigue against Marlborough. Robert Harley, the Tory Secretary of State, got a place at court for his Tory High-Church cousin, Abigail Hill, now married to a courtier named Masham. Her easy, placid ways soon won her Anne's favour, especially as the queen was getting quite tired of the Duchess of Marlborough's overbearing temper. She now told Anne that the Whigs were secretly plotting against the Church, and made her thoroughly suspicious of her leading ministers.

The Whig Ministry, 1708-10.Whigs and Tories united in Parliament to attack the composite government. At last Marlborough and Godolphin found that they had to choose their side, and went over altogether to the Whigs as the only party zealous for their war policy. They now com- pelled the unwilling queen to turn out Harley (February 1708). With him Henry St. John, the Secretary at War, and Simon Harcourt, the Attorney-General, left the ministry. Zealous Whigs were put in their places. Somers became President of the Council, Orford First Lord of the Admiralty, and Robert Walpole, the most rising of the younger Whigs, was made Secretary at War. From 1708 to 1710 Marlborough and Godolphin kept themselves in power entirely through their old opponents. Foreign policy now really divided Whig and Tory. The Tory ministry had gradually turned into a Whig one.

[1702-1704.]

4. The War of the Spanish succession, 1702-14.Marlborough finished the negotiations which William III. had almost carried through. On 4th May 1702 England, the United Provinces, and the Emperor declared war against France. A whole crowd of lesser states followed these great Powers. The Elector of Brandenburg (Frederick, son of the Great Elector, Frederick William) was bought over to the Coalition by being recognised as King of Prussia. The lesser German states were so much afraid of Louis, that even the sluggish Diet of the Empire declared war. Yet Louis had great resources at his back. He governed the richest, most compact, and in some ways the best ruled state in Europe. The army and fleet of France, with their famous generals and admirals and almost unbroken record of victories, were far larger and better managed than those of any other state. Every patriotic Castilian was deeply incensed at the proposed partition of the Spanish empire, and zealous on Louis's side. For the first time the Spanish Netherlands, with their mighty fortresses, were entirely in Louis's hands; and he could begin the war by attacking the Dutch frontier. Even in Germany the Elector of Bavaria and his brother the Elector of Cologne were French partisans; and in the east the discontented Hungarians and the warlike Turks were their constant allies againstAustria. The Spanish Succession gave Louis practical command of Italy, especially as Victor Amadeus, Duke of Savoy and Lord of Piedmont, was the father-in-law of his grandson Philip of Spain. But mighty as were the two great coalitions, they did not include the whole of Europe. While the War of the Spanish Succession was waged in southern and central Europe, another great struggle was being fought out in the north and east, where Charles XII., the last of the great Swedish monarchs, and Peter the Great, the first of the great Russian Czars, were engaged in a deadly fight for the supremacy of the Baltic lands, which ended at last by the defeat of Charles at Poltava (1709), his subsequent captivity in Turkey, and the complete triumph of Russia.

The Dutch, more fearful of invasion than in 1672, made Marlborough commander of their army, but constantly kept him in check by their jealousy and sluggishness. Yet, in 1702, he managed not only to prevent invasion, but to capture Venlo, Liege, and a long line of fortresses on the Meuse, to overwhelm the Elector of Cologne, and to cut off the French from the Lower Rhine. But in Upper Germany the French, with their Bavarian allies, were more successful, and in Italy they seemed so threatening that Savoy, in great alarm, joined the Coalition. Portugal, long closely connected with England, now signed the Methuen Treaty (1703), and united with the allies.

By this Portugal opened up her markets to English woollen goods; England took Portuguese wine at a third less duty than French. The result was that Englishmen gave up drinking claret and burgundy, and took to port, and Portugal became dependent on England, both in politics and trade.

5. Blenheim, 1704.Enemies now assailed France on every side, yet the mighty monarchy still more than held its own. The campaign of 1703 led to nothing great, as the fears of the Dutch prevented Marlborough carrying out his scheme for the capture of Antwerp and the invasion of Flanders. In 1704 things seemed even worse. " I see so ill a prospect," wrote Marlborough to Godolphin, " that I am extremely out of heart." A great French army, under Marshal Tallard, had joined the Bavarians, and was threatening Vienna, also menaced on the east by the revolted Hungarians. It seemed as if Austria would be forced to make peace. Help could only come from Marlborough. But his army was hundreds of miles away on the Lower Meuse; the armies of the time were unwieldy, and slow in moving, and the Dutch would never lay bare their own frontiers for the sake of their ally. Yet the great general at once made up his mind to march with his whole force from the Lower Meuse to the Upper Danube, though he could only get away from Holland by pretending that he wished to fight on the Moselle. But he hurried up the Rhine, past Coblenz and Mainz, to Mannheim, where he left the Rhine for the hilly and picturesque vale of the Neckar, crossing safely the rugged hills of Swabia, and reaching the Danube near Ulm.

Marlborough had already been joined by the German army under Louis, Margrave of Baden, a slow-minded and old-fashioned general. The gallant Prince Eugene of Savoy, the greatest of the Imperial generals, was commanding the army of the Rhine, against which Tallard had now again marched. The brilliant Marlborough and the heavy Margrave agreed to command their united army on alternate days. On Louis's days very little was done; but Marlborough showed great activity when his turn to act as general came, since he saw that his best chance was to crush the Bavarians before Tallard came back to help them. He therefore marched eastwards towards Donauworth, stormed the strong hill called the Schellenberg, drove out the Bavarian army, captured Donauworth, and its bridge over the Danube, and plundered and devastated the surrounding country.

The beaten Elector retreated southwards to Augsburg, whither Tallard was now again hurrying through the narrow passes of the Black Forest. Eugene, finding no enemy left on the Rhine, also joined Marlborough, and the two generals of genius persuaded Louis of Baden to leave them alone, and go off to besiege Ingoldstadt. Meanwhile Tallard again joined the Elector, and on 13th August a great battle was fought at Blindheim, called by the English Blenheim, a little village on the north bank of the Danube, a short way to the east of Hochstadt. The French and Bavarians took up their position facing eastwards on some rising ground at the bottom of which [1704-1707.] the little river Nebel runs through marshes to join the Danube at Blenheim, which village was strongly entrenched, and held in force by Tallard himself. The left, further from the Danube, was commanded by the Elector, and the centre by Marshal Marsin. Against these Eugene fought, while Marlborough opposed Tallard. The English began the battle by a fierce attack on Blenheim; but all the efforts of the gallant Cutts and his grenadiers proved in vain, as the village was too strong to be taken. But Marlborough's quick eye soon saw that the French had weakened their centre to protect their right. He poured his troops over the treacherous marshes of the Nebel, and up the steep slopes beyond. After a fierce fight, the enemy's centre was broken. Tallard, cut off from the Elector, was forced to surrender with the BATTLE OF BLENHEIM, 1704. 11,000 men that still survived of the defenders of Blenheim. On this, the Elector, who had hitherto held his own against Eugene, drew off his troops. It was a great victory. " Tallard's army," wrote Marlborough to his wife, "is quite ruined. Had Eugene's success been equal to his merit we should in that day's action have made an end of the war." As it was, a fatal blow was given to the prestige of the hitherto unbeaten armies of France. Vienna was saved, Bavaria was forced to sue for peace, and the French hurried back over the Rhine, whither Marlborough rapidly followed them.

6. The French made such great efforts that Marlborough failed in 1705 to carry out his plan of marching up the Moselle and invading France, and was forced back to the Low Countries, where the dashing, sanguine, and vainglorious Marshal Villeroi had won back the fortresses captured in 1702, and was again threatening the Dutch frontier. The Campaign of 1706.Meanwhile all the genius of Eugene could not withstand the victorious French in Italy. But in 1706 Marlborough, disgusted at the poor results of the preceding campaign, again invaded the Spanish Netherlands, and fought on 23d May a decisive battle at Ramillies (north of Namur). It was almost Blenheim over again. Ramillies.The French were drawn up in a semicircle along a row of heights, and again made the mistake of sending too many troops to defend the strongest point of their position, the village of Autre Eglise on their left. But Marlborough's attack on that hamlet was only a feint to cover his real assault on the enemy's right, grouped round a barrow called the Tomb of Ottomond, immediately above Ramillies village. When this was captured, the enemy's left could no longer hold Autre Eglise, and the whole host fell back in panic flight on Brussels. The result was the capture of almost all the Spanish Netherlands by the allies. Brussels at once opened its gates: mighty fortresses like Ghent, Bruges, Antwerp, and Ostend surrendered after a show of resistance. Mons and Namur alone remained to the French.

TurinThe loss of Flanders and Brabant was not the only French disaster in 1706. On 7th September Eugene won the decisive battle of Turin, which drove the French out of Italy, and brought Milan and Naples to accept the Archduke Charles as their king. An equally brilliant success attended the allies in Spain. In 1704 Admiral Rooke took the rock of Gibraltar by surprise while the sentries had left their posts to go to mass and pray for deliverance from the heretics. In 1705 the capture of Barcelona by the brave, rash, and eccentric Earl of Peterborough led to a great revolt of the Catalans against Castile in favour of the Archduke, who soon advanced to Madrid.Madrid. But the English, Dutch, and Portuguese under the Huguenot refugee Ruvigny, Earl of Galway, had already marched up eastwards along the Tagus, and had proclaimed King Charles in the Spanish capital. Thus Germany, the Netherlands, Italy, and Spain seemed all lost to France.

7. The French Victories in 1707.France was not yet beaten. In Spain a great popular revolt brought back Philip to Madrid, and showed that Spanish national spirit was still too strong to suffer foreigners to force an unwelcome stranger into the throne of Philip II. The disorderly and badly led armies of the allies were soon forced to evacuate Madrid, and on 25th April 1707, the high-minded and valiant Duke of Berwick (son of James II. by Marlborough's sister, Arabella Churchill) won a complete victory at Almanza. It was all Charles could do henceforth to hold his own in Catalonia. Meanwhile the French Marshal Villars captured the lines of Stollhofen, and again opened out the way for the invasion of Upper Germany. Eugene failed completely in an attempt to invade France and capture Toulon. The French again began to make way in Flanders, where Marshal Vendome ended a career of minor successes by the recapture of Ghent and Bruges in 1708. An attempt was even made to excite a Jacobite rising in Scotland, but James II.'s son, who called himself James III., fell ill of the measles just as he was going to start off, and when he got better Admiral Byng's fleet stood in his way.

[1708-1710.]

8. Oudenarde, 1708.In 1708 Marlborough made a fierce effort to regain his lost ground. Vendome was now besieging Oudenarde on the Scheldt, and Marlborough and Eugene resolved to fight a battle to save the town. By a series of dexterous manoeuvres they got into a good position among the hills to the west of Oudenarde, while the French, owing to the jealousy felt between the shy and reserved Duke of Burgundy (Louis's grandson), the nominal general, and the real leader, the brutal, violent, but extremely able Vendome, made all sorts of mistakes. On 11th July the battle of Oudenarde resulted in the complete defeat of the French. Their previous successes were now undone. The surrender of Lille, the key of French Flanders, in December left the way open for the invasion of France. In the same year General Stanhope conquered the island stronghold of Minorca.

9. In despair Louis XIV. sought peace, but the terms of the allies were so harsh that he was forced to carry on the war. He was willing to renounce the Spanish succession, but the allies, seeing that the expulsion of Philip was no easy task, insisted that he must help them with his troops to drive him out. " If I must fight," declared the old king, " I would rather fight against my enemies than my own children." So France, tired out as she was, got ready to resist invasion. Now that she stood at bay, with the national feeling thoroughly aroused, Marlborough had no easy task before him.

10. Maplaquet, 1709.Before invading France,Marlboroughbusied himself with the capture of the few Netherland fortresses that still remained in the enemy's hands. With this object he and Eugene laid siege to Mons. Thereupon Marshal Villars, the only unbeaten French general left, took up a very strong position a few miles south of the town, upon the ridge of the upland heath which is crowned by the village of Malplaquet. Dense woods protected the French flanks, and strong entrenchments were rapidly thrown up to further strengthen their position. On 11th September the allies marched to the assault of the almost impregnable heights. For a time the French held their own, and the allies suffered terribly. But Villars, like Tallard at Blenheim, weakened his centre to prevent the wood of Taisniere on his left from being taken by the daring of the English right under Withers. Marlborough soon perceived this, and succeeded in cutting his way through the enemy's middle lines. But he had lost 20,000 men, and the French had retreated in perfect order, and were ready for another battle. The chief result of this bloody day was the capture of Mons.

11. The last campaigns of the war, 1710-11.In 1710 a conference was held at Gertruydenberg, in Holland, but the allies would not listen to reasonable terms, so the war went on, though the time of glorious victories was now over. Little was done in the Netherlands during 1710 or 1711. In Spain, however (where the English Tories insisted the war ought chiefly to be carried on), General Stanhope succeeded for a second time in occupying Madrid for King Charles, but the national rising of the Spaniards made it quite impossible to hold it long, and Stanhope was forced to hurry back into Aragon. But Vendome had now been sent to command the French and Spanish forces, and, as in 1707, it was not hard to get the better of the motley army of the allies. Stanhope was forced to surrender with most of his men at Brihuega (1710), and his colleague, the Austrian general Stahremberg, was only able to bring back to Barcelona a miserable remnant of 7000 men. Henceforth Philip reigned as undisputed king of Spain. Only the gallant Catalans continued to uphold King Charles.

The war was now being fought for very little. Louis's attempt to dictate to Europe had failed, and his power of further aggression was gone. But the allies had equally failed to invade France, or to force Charles upon the unwilling Spaniards, though they had succeeded in breaking up the Spanish power by the capture of the Netherlands and Italy. In 1711 Charles was elected the Emperor Charles VI. after the death of his brother Joseph I., who had succeeded Leopold I., their father, in 1705. Friends of the balance of power might argue that his establishment in Spain would be the revival of the empire of Charles V., which in its day had been as dangerous to Europe as that of Louis XIV. had ever been. But the new emperor's stubborn clinging to his claims combined with the sluggishness and fears of the Dutch to carry on the war, and reject Louis's overtures for peace. In England the continuance of the war now became a mere party question, and the destinies of Europe no longer depended on the armies in the field, but on parliamentary struggles and obscure court intrigues.

12. Fall of the Whigs, 1710.The Whigs still clung to power, but the game was now up. They were rudely exposed by the brilliant band of Tory pamphleteers, including Atterbury, Prior, and, towering above them all, Jonathan Swift (after 1713 Dean of St. Patrick's, Dublin), whose Examiner and pamphlet on The Conduct of the Allies laid bare with fierce ruthlessness the factiousness of the ministry. Against them the rival Whig writers could make little way, though the polished wit of Addison, the vigorous ardour of Steele, and the rough strong invective of Defoe were all enlisted on that side. But plain men were now sick of the war; and popular feeling swung round still more strongly when the cry was raised that the Church was in danger through the Whig supremacy. Anne (who had now violently broken with the Duchess of Marlborough) was quite led away by this, and the strong High Church feeling in the country was inflamed almost to madness by the violent sermons of Dr. Sacheverell, chaplain of St. Saviour's, Southwark, a rash, hot-headed partisan, who denounced the Toleration Act and upheld the doctrine of non-resistance. At last the Government foolishly impeached Sacheverell for [1710-1714.] a sermon preached at St. Paul's before a Tory Lord Mayor. The Whig House of Lords voted him guilty, but his only punishment was three years' suspension from preaching, and the burning of his sermons by the hangman. This sentence made the noisy doctor a popular hero, and a most useful electioneering agent for the Tories. Bit by bit the queen plucked up courage to bring back the Tories into office. By November the last of the Whigs were got rid of. The new elections sent back a strong majority of High Church Tories to the House of Commons, eager to upset the policy of their predecessors.

13. The Tory Ministry, 1710-14.Robert Harley, made Lord High Treasurer and Earl of Oxford in May 1711, was now the chief minister. He was a man " of low stature and slender," "affable and courteous, and extremely easy and agreeable in conversation." He was a skilful party leader, though a poor speaker, slow, hesitating, timid, and too fond of underhand intrigue. "He had," says Dean Swift, "an air of secrecy in his manner and countenance." But the most attractive of the Tory statesmen was Henry St. John, Secretary of State since September 1710, and created Viscount Bolingbroke in 1712. "He has," says Lord Chesterfield, " a very handsome person, with a most engaging address: and all the dignity and good breeding which a man of quality can have. All the internal and external advantages of an orator are undoubtedly his-figure, voice, elocution, knowledge." He was a famous man of fashion and letters, a brilliant writer, a philosopher, and a sceptic, besides being one of the greatest party leaders that England has ever seen. But he looked on politics as a mere game, and had little real earnestness and conviction. He laughed at the most cherished beliefs of the party that he hounded on to battle. Still his clear insight and rare knowledge of English character gave him and the popular, national, progressive Toryism which he represented a lasting influence on English politics. Rochester now became President of the Council, and Harcourt Lord Chancellor.

14. The Peace of Utrecht, 1713.Thwarted on every side, Marlborough came home in November 1711, after a fruitless campaign. Grave charges of peculation and fraud were now brought against him and his friends, and twelve Tory peers (one of whom was Abigail Masham's husband) were made all at once to get rid of the friendly Whig majority in the upper house. On 31st December he was turned out of all his offices, " in order that the matter might undergo an impartial investigation." A few months later Godolphin, his only true friend, died. The Jacobite Duke of Ormonde, a well-bred, good-looking, but not very competent soldier, was made commander of the English army, but he withdrew from all active share in the war, while St. John hurried through negotiations for peace. The Tories now showed as much factiousness in ending as the Whigs had shown in refusing to end the war. They threw over their allies, who, without English help, could do very little, and let Louis have more favourable terms than he himself had formerly offered at Gertruydenberg. At last, on 31st March 1713, the Peace of Utrecht was signed, though it was not till 1714 that the slow and tenacious emperor brought himself to end the war by the Treaty of Rastadt.

The terms of peace were:-1. Philip V. was recognised as king of Spain and the Indies, the Catalans who had fought so well for Charles being abandoned to his rival's mercy. 2. The emperor was compensated by the cession of Milan, Naples, and Sardinia. 3. The Spanish Netherlands were handed over to the Dutch, who were, however, to resign them to the emperor, after he had made with them a Barrier Treaty, providing for Dutch garrisons of the great fortresses on the French frontier. (This was only done in 1715 after much quarrelling, the emperor being naturally disgusted at the way England and Holland sacrificed the Netherlands to their political and trading interests.) 4. Sicily was ceded to the Duke of Savoy, with the title of King. 5. Prussia was recognised as a kingdom and Hanover as an electorate. (This treaty marks the beginning of the importance of Savoy and Prussia.) 6. The Protestant succession in England was recognised. 7. France ceded to England Newfoundland, Acadie (Nova Scotia), and the Hudson's Bay Territory, and agreed to pull down the fortifications of Dunkirk. 8. A favourable commercial treaty was proposed tending towards free-trade between England and France, but this fell through owing to parliamentary opposition, to Bolingbroke's great disgust. 9. Spain ceded Gibraltar and Minorca to England, and made the Asiento (or contract) which gave England the exclusive right, formerly held by France, of supplying the Spanish American colonies with negro slaves. Besides this very lucrative monopoly in human flesh, England could also send one ship a year to Portobello in South America.

15. The Jacobite conspiracy, 1713-14.The Treaty of Utrecht was a great triumph for the Tories. Secure of popular support, they looked forward to a long lease of power. But the great danger before them lay in the weak health of Queen Anne. The Act of Settlement made Sophia, Electress of Hanover, the eldest surviving Protestant daughter of Elizabeth of Bohemia, James I.'s daughter, and the sister of Princes Rupert and Maurice, the next in succession; but she was now over eighty years of age. Her son, [1711-1714.] George Louis (Elector since 1698), was a decided enemy of the peace of Utrecht, and known to be friendly to the Whigs. If he became king there was little hope of keeping the Tories in power. Bolingbroke was, above all things, a strong party man, and though no believer in divine right, or friend of Popery, preferred a Tory to a Whig king. So he began to prepare the way for bringing back Anne's half- brother, James, generally called the Chevalier of St. George, or the Pretender. Anne herself was not unwilling, and the High Churchmen were still strongly influenced by their old doctrines of passive obedience and divine right. If James had not been a steadfast Roman Catholic the plan would not have been hard, as the Hanover succession excited no enthusiasm whatever. As it was, many strong Churchmen forgot their Protestantism in their zeal for the Stewart cause.

Having made up his mind, Bolingbroke threw himself with his usual eagerness into his new and treasonable policy, and was actively backed up by Ormonde, Harcourt, Sir William Wyndham, by Atterbury, the fiery High Church Bishop of Rochester, and by Dean Swift. But the cautious and vacillating Harley could hardly be won over, so fresh intrigues were set on foot to discredit him.

Active preparations were now made to upset the Act of Settlement. Strong efforts were made to use the High-Church feeling in the country to get back a king who was not a Churchman. The clergy had already been well rewarded for their great share in the Tory triumph. In 1711 the Occasional Conformity Act (which fined and disqualified all officials who attended any conventicle, and thus made it useless for dissenters to make themselves eligible for municipal offices by taking the Communion once a year in church) had been carried, Whigs vying with Tories in supporting the bill to disprove the taunt that they were at heart enemies of the Church, and buying thus the support of Nottingham and a little band of discontented Tories, shut out of the ministry. A bill was next passed to build fifty new churches in the rapidly increasing suburbs of London, a much-needed measure, but hardly passed from nothing but pure zeal for religion. Finally the Schism Act (1714) was carried, which absolutely prevented any dissenter from acting as a schoolmaster or tutor; but this never came into operation.

The Whigs were almost in despair, when the elections of 1713 sent a new Tory parliament to Westminster. They tried to bring the Electoral Prince of Hanover (afterwards George II.) to England, to take his seat in the Lords as Duke of Cambridge; but this unwise move led only to a personal quarrel between Anne and the old Electress, who died shortly after. But the Whigs' best hopes were in the bad health of the queen and the disunion of the Cabinet. At last the long smouldering dispute between Oxford and Bolingbroke burst to a flame. On 27th July 1714 a fierce altercation in the sick queen's presence was kept up till two in the morning, and only ended by Anne's taking away from Oxford the White Staff of the Treasurer. Instigated by Lady Masham, who had now deserted her cousin for Bolingbroke, Anne now complained that " he neglected all business, never told the truth, often came drunk to her presence, and behaved himself with great disrespect to her."

16. Bolingbroke put Jacobites into the vacant offices, and made ready for a revolution. But Anne never got over the stormy scene of Oxford's dismissal. Intervention of the Whig Dukes and Death of Anne, 1714. On 30th July she had a fit of apoplexy, and lay speechless and without hope of recovery. All was now excitement. The Whigs prepared to fight, and the Tories did not know what to do. But the Duke of Shrewsbury, who had begun life as a Whig but now held office with the Tories, was at the last moment seized with scruples. The Cabinet met at Kensington to decide on what course to pursue. Suddenly the Whig Dukes of Argyll and Somerset appeared and demanded admission as Privy Councillors. The law knew nothing of Cabinet Councils, and it could only be as Privy Councillors that the ministers had met together. Shrewsbury, by previous arrangement, backed up their claims; and they in return urged his appointment as Treasurer. The White Staff was at once put into his hands by the half-unconscious and dying queen. The three dukes now took everything upon themselves, and prepared to secure the Protestant succession. The baffled conspirators were quite overpowered when, disregarding the Cabinet, the dukes got special summonses to the Council for all the Privy Councillors, mostly Whigs, living in London. On 1st August Queen Anne died, and, though some desperate men were for proclaiming the Pretender, the risk was too great. " In six weeks more," moaned Bolingbroke, "we should have put things in such a condition that there would have been nothing to fear. But Oxford was removed on Tuesday; the queen died on Sunday! What a world is this, and how does fortune banter us ! "

[1702-1707.]

17. The Union between England and Scotland, 1702-7.The reign of Queen Anne witnessed the Union between England and Scotland. The stormy history of Scotland in the years succeeding the Revolution of 1688 showed clearly that some great change was required. There had been much bad blood between England and Scotland during the time that the Stewart kings had frankly sought to make Scotland depend upon England. But much worse feelings grew up after the Revolution left Scotland a small free state bound to a greater and richer one by no other tie than subjection to a common sovereign. Scots now found that they were shut off from all the sources of wealth which were making England the greatest commercial country of the world. The Darien failure had shown that Scotland, as the weaker power, would be obliged, in really essential matters, to follow the lead of England. The result was the bitterest ill-will between the two nations. Wise men, like William III., saw that separation or fuller union were now the only ways out of the deadlock. But if William pressed for a union, the new "Patriotic Party," which now grew up in Scotland, would be satisfied with nothing less than complete separation. This party centred round the Club, and had for its leader Andrew Fletcher of Salton, in East Lothian, an aristocratic republican, like the old Commonwealth's men. He was "a thin man, of a brown complexion; full of fire, with a stern sour look; but a gentleman of nice honour, and abundance of learning, bold as a lion; a sure friend, and an irreconcilable enemy; whose thoughts were large as to religion," and who " would not be under the distinction of a Whig or Tory, saying, those names are used to cloak the knaves of both." Largely through his influence the negotiations for union which, through William's influence, had begun in 1702, came to an end in 1703.

In 1703 the Scottish Parliament (still bitterly mortified by the Darien failure) met under the Duke of Queensberry, a lazy and easy-tempered, but shrewd and far-seeing man, as Lord Commissioner. Fletcher brought forward a Bill of Security, which provided that, on Queen Anne's death, the Scottish throne should go to some Protestant descendant of the royal house, but excluding the successor to the English crown, "unless the sovereignty of this kingdom, the frequency of its Parliaments, and its religious freedom and trade be secured from English or any foreign influence." Fletcher also proposed a series of Limitations, in case the two countries remained under the same monarch which transferred the whole executive power from the Crown to a Committee of the Estates, while providing for parliamentary reform and a national militia. Both measures were eagerly accepted, and Government, though refusing to touch with the sceptre (the way of signifying the Crown's approval of Scottish laws) the Bill of Security, did not dare to refuse the royal assent to the Limitations. Thereupon Fletcher carried a resolution "that, after the decease of her Majesty, we will separate our Crown from that of England." All subsidies were refused, and toleration to Episcopalian dissenters contemptuously rejected. Next year the same stormy scenes were renewed, and the timidity of Godolphin and the new Commissioner, the Marquis of Tweeddale, led to the royal assent being given even to the Act of Security.

The English Parliament, not unnaturally, retaliated, the Whigs pressing for severe measures in order to embarrass the Tory government. All trade with Scotland was cut off, Scots were declared aliens, Newcastle and Carlisle were fortified, the militia of the four northern shires called out, and all available troops marched to the Border. But the hopelessness and wantonness of the struggle, the pressure of the Court influence, dislike to play the game of the Jacobites, and a shrewd sense of the benefits to be got from commercial union gradually got the better of the patriotic enthusiasm of the Scottish Parliament. In vain Fletcher joined forces with the Jacobites. In 1705 Tweeddale formed a middle party called the Squadrone Volante (Italian for Flying Squadron, a name given at that time to a party of cardinals in the papal court), which, though professing to hold the balance between patriots and courtiers, on the whole favoured the reasonable schemes of union which were now brought forward. England therefore showed a conciliatory spirit by dropping the Alien Act.

Early in 1706 both nations appointed Commissioners to treat for a union. Two months were spent in active negotiations. At last a Treaty of Union was drawn up, and laid before the two Parliaments. There was nothing to fear at Westminster, but a last expiring effort was made at Edinburgh to overthrow the hated measure. Riots broke out, which showed the unpopularity of the Act out of doors. But the Duke of Hamilton (the greatest lord on the patriotic side, who had even hoped to become king under the Act of Security) lost courage at the critical moment, and in January 1707 the Act was passed by a majority of 40.

[1707-

The terms of the Union were :-1. There should be one kingdom, one Parliament, one Privy Council, one Government, and one succession to the throne. The United Kingdom was to be called Great Britain, and its arms and national flag, the "Union Jack," made of the crosses of St. George and St. Andrew combined into one. The Scotch government departments were mostly transferred to London, but put under a new minister, the Secretary of State for Scotland. (In 1746 this office was abolished, and Scotch business shared by the other two Secretaries.) 2. Scotland was to be represented in the United Parliament by 45 commoners and 16 elected representatives of the Scottish peerage. 3. The Presbyterian Church government was declared "for ever unalterable, and the only government of the Church within Scotland," and every monarch of the United Kingdom was required to swear at his accession to protect it. A special Act of Security was passed by the Scots to provide for this, and also for the freedom of the four Scottish Universities. 4. The Scottish legal system (so different from that of England) was not to be affected by the Union, though there was now an appeal from the Court of Session to the House of Lords. 5. The Scotch debt was paid off, the Darien Company dissolved, and its shareholders compensated, and the proportion of Scotch taxation fixed. 6. The English coinage was brought in, which was the easier, as there was already a scarcity of the depreciated Scottish coins. 7. Complete equality of trade between the two countries was established, so that Scots might trade with the English colonies.

The Union did not at first practically affect the lawless freedom of the Celtic Highlanders; but in the Lowlands, which really were Scotland, it was felt as a grievous blow to national feeling, and long remained intensely unpopular. But the wise care taken to uphold the Scotch Church and the Scotch law blunted the sharpest edge of hostility. Bit by bit the opening up of trade began to work its results. Glasgow became a great port and the rival of Bristol and Liverpool in the American trade. The idle and vagrant population (which Fletcher in despair had proposed to turn into slaves) now acquired those habits of thrift and industry which mark the modern Scot. Mines were opened up; the soil was tilled with more energy and success; the linen and iron trades took a deep hold of the country; and the great growth of trade and manufactures in the middle of the eighteenth century completed the formation of modern industrial Scotland. The Union Parliament proved on the whole very careful to uphold Scottish privileges. The ill- judged restoration of patronage in the Scottish Church by the Tories under Queen Anne was the only really important instance of disregard for Scottish feeling. So gradually the old dislike died away, though all through the eighteenth century much bad blood remained. So great a man and shrewd a thinker as David Hume, the philosopher and EUROPE IN 1713. [1714-1715.] historian, regarded England with intense detestation; and so late as the reign of George III. Wilkes the agitator was applauded for maintaining that a "Scot should have no more rights in England than a Hanoverian or a Hottentot." Twice disgust for the Union made Protestant Scotland an easy conquest to Popish Pretenders. But as time went on community of blood, tongue, and interests began to assert themselves against the animosities of centuries. The Scots had withstood the Union, fearing for their national life. But they got the best share of the advantages that accrued from it, and found that their national life could still live on even without their separate Parliament.

1. [1] Queen was

"of the middle size, and well-proportioned. Her hair was of a dark-brown colour, her complexion ruddy; her features were regular, her countenance was rather round than oval, and her aspect more comely than majestic."

She was good-natured, true to her friends, sincerely religious, and truly boasted to her parliament

"that her heart was entirely English."

She was well liked for her honesty and strong Tory and High Church feelings. But she was dull, obstinate, and narrow-minded, giving herself up altogether to the guidance of some stronger and abler friend. Since they had played together as children, had been quite governed by clever, strong-willed, and handsome , who became the wife of .

"As a girl,"

says ,

" she had proposed that whenever I should happen to be absent, we might in all our letters write ourselves by feigned names such as would import nothing of distinction of rank between us. Morley and Freeman were the names her fancy hit upon. My frank open temper led me to pitch upon Freeman, and from this time Mrs. Morley and Mrs. Freeman conversed as equals, made so by affection and friendship."

Yet knew that

"in matters of ordinary moment her discourse had nothing of brightness or wit, and in weightier matters she never spoke but in a hurry, and had a fault of sticking to what had been dictated to her without the least sign of understanding or judgment."

In had married Prince George of Denmark (brother of King Christian V.), who was made Duke of Cumberland, a man

"of comely and erect aspect, blonde, and of the Danish countenance,"

but

"very fat,"

and

"of few words

[1702-1710.]

and somewhat heavy, though reported to be valiant."

All their children, to her great grief, died young.

2. [2] It was well for England that the new queen was so completely ruled by and his wife, for was the one man in Europe able to carry on the life-work of , and keep together the Grand Alliance. was

"a man of noble and graceful appearance,"

" tall and handsome, with a beautiful figure and irresistible manner"

; yet,

"with all his gentleness and gracefulness, no man living was more conscious of his situation nor maintained his dignity better."

Though badly brought up, and unable to spell, he was a natural orator of the first rank. He was also a far-seeing and wise statesman, and the greatest general of his age, whose daring tactics, rapid movements, and dashing attacks were strongly in contrast to the stiff and slow movements of generals who liked sieges better than battles, and were enslaved by a rigid system of drill. Yet was selfish and ungenerous, betraying friends and country when it paid him to do so, and using men as his tools to get himself on. He was cold-hearted and unfeeling, and greedy of money and place. But he had now bent his great faculties on a great object, and he carried his plans out with wonderful courage, temper, and skill.

3. [3] 's death broke up the Whig ministry. began to push forward Tories and High Churchmen both in Church and State. She made a duke, and captain-general of her army. His great friend (whose son married one of his daughters) now became Lord Treasurer, and Nottingham, the strictest of Churchmen, Secretary of State. But and , who really ruled the country, were afraid to go too far or to disgust the Whig supporters of King 's foreign policy. While winning over the clergy by restoring to the Church the tenths and first-fruits, which had belonged to the Crown since (this has been since used to increase poor livings, and is called ), they were afraid to press the , which sought to prevent Dissenters qualifying themselves for office by receiving once in the way the communion in church. Rochester, the leader of the

" Highfliers,"

was disgusted at being only Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, and threw up his office. Bit by bit the stronger Tories followed his example, and were led by him to opp ose

19

the war, into the conduct of which and threw their whole energy. While won great victories, managed Parliament and got together supplies. The custom of both armies going into winter quarters allowed even to lead his party in Parliament as well as his army in the field. Despairing of the extreme Tories, they sought, like , to rule through a mixed ministry. But they found at last, like , that the Whigs alone would really help them. To get the Whigs on their side, they had to offend the queen and the Church by voting against the Occasional Conformity Bill. In Nottingham joined Rochester in the opposition; but the Whig House of Lords backed up the Government, though it had great difficulties with High-Church and Tory majorities in the Commons. At last, in , made his son-in-law, (son of the old adviser of and ), Secretary of State. was a strong Whig and a friend of the lords of the Junto still shut out from office. But the Tory section of the Cabinet grew angry at being gradually pushed from power, and began to intrigue against . Robert , the Tory Secretary of State, got a place at court for his Tory High-Church cousin, Abigail Hill, now married to a courtier named Masham. Her easy, placid ways soon won her 's favour, especially as the queen was getting quite tired of the Duchess of 's overbearing temper. She now told that the Whigs were secretly plotting against the Church, and made her thoroughly suspicious of her leading ministers.

[4] Whigs and Tories united in Parliament to attack the composite government. At last and found that they had to choose their side, and went over altogether to the Whigs as the only party zealous for their war policy. They now com- pelled the unwilling queen to turn out (February ). With him , the Secretary at War, and Simon Harcourt, the Attorney-General, left the ministry. Zealous Whigs were put in their places. became President of the Council, Orford First Lord of the Admiralty, and Robert , the most rising of the younger Whigs, was made Secretary at War. From to and kept themselves in power entirely through their old opponents. Foreign policy now really divided Whig and Tory. The Tory ministry had gradually turned into a Whig one.

4. [5]  finished the negotiations which had almost carried through. On 4th May England, the United Provinces, and the Emperor declared war against France. A whole crowd of lesser states followed these great Powers. The Elector of Brandenburg (Frederick, son of the Great Elector, Frederick William) was bought over to the Coalition by being recognised as King of Prussia. The lesser German states were so much afraid of Louis, that even the sluggish Diet of the Empire declared war. Yet Louis had great resources at his back. He governed the richest, most compact, and in some ways the best ruled state in Europe. The army and fleet of France, with their famous generals and admirals and almost unbroken record of victories, were far larger and better managed than those of any other state. Every patriotic Castilian was deeply incensed at the proposed partition of the Spanish empire, and zealous on Louis's side. For the first time the Spanish Netherlands, with their mighty fortresses, were entirely in Louis's hands; and he could begin the war by attacking the Dutch frontier. Even in Germany the Elector of Bavaria and his brother the Elector of Cologne were French partisans; and in the east the discontented Hungarians and the warlike Turks were their constant allies againstAustria. The Spanish Succession gave Louis practical command of Italy, especially as Victor Amadeus, Duke of Savoy and Lord of Piedmont, was the father-in-law of his grandson Philip of Spain. But mighty as were the two great coalitions, they did not include the whole of Europe. While the War of the Spanish Succession was waged in southern and central Europe, another great struggle was being fought out in the north and east, where Charles XII., the last of the great Swedish monarchs, and Peter the Great, the first of the great Russian Czars, were engaged in a deadly fight for the supremacy of the Baltic lands, which ended at last by the defeat of Charles at Poltava (), his subsequent captivity in Turkey, and the complete triumph of Russia.

The Dutch, more fearful of invasion than in , made commander of their army, but constantly kept him in check by their jealousy and sluggishness. Yet, in , he managed not only to prevent invasion, but to capture Venlo, Liege, and a long line of fortresses on the Meuse, to overwhelm the Elector of Cologne, and to cut off the French from the Lower Rhine. But in Upper Germany the French, with their Bavarian allies, were more successful,

21

and in Italy they seemed so threatening that Savoy, in great alarm, joined the Coalition. Portugal, long closely connected with England, now signed the Methuen Treaty (), and united with the allies.

By this Portugal opened up her markets to English woollen goods; England took Portuguese wine at a third less duty than French. The result was that Englishmen gave up drinking claret and burgundy, and took to port, and Portugal became dependent on England, both in politics and trade.

5.

Blenheim, 1704.

Enemies now assailed France on every side, yet the mighty monarchy still more than held its own. The campaign of

1703

led to nothing great, as the fears of the Dutch prevented

Marlborough

carrying out his scheme for the capture of Antwerp and the invasion of Flanders. In

1704

things seemed even worse.

" I see so ill a prospect,"

wrote

Marlborough

to

Godolphin

,

" that I am extremely out of heart."

A great French army, under Marshal Tallard, had joined the Bavarians, and was threatening Vienna, also menaced on the east by the revolted Hungarians. It seemed as if Austria would be forced to make peace. Help could only come from

Marlborough

. But his army was hundreds of miles away on the Lower Meuse; the armies of the time were unwieldy, and slow in moving, and the Dutch would never lay bare their own frontiers for the sake of their ally. Yet the great general at once made up his mind to march with his whole force from the Lower Meuse to the Upper Danube, though he could only get away from Holland by pretending that he wished to fight on the Moselle. But he hurried up the Rhine, past Coblenz and Mainz, to Mannheim, where he left the Rhine for the hilly and picturesque vale of the Neckar, crossing safely the rugged hills of Swabia, and reaching the Danube near Ulm.

Marlborough

had already been joined by the German army under Louis, Margrave of Baden, a slow-minded and old-fashioned general. The gallant Prince Eugene of Savoy, the greatest of the Imperial generals, was commanding the army of the Rhine, against which Tallard had now again marched. The brilliant

Marlborough

and the heavy Margrave agreed to command their united army on alternate days. On Louis's days very little was done; but

Marlborough

showed great activity when his turn to act as general came, since he saw that his best chance was to crush the Bavarians before Tallard came back to help them. He therefore marched eastwards towards Donauworth, stormed the strong hill called the

Schellenberg

, drove out the Bavarian army, captured Donauworth, and its bridge over the Danube, and plundered and devastated the surrounding country.

The beaten Elector retreated southwards to Augsburg, whither Tallard was now again hurrying through the narrow passes of the Black Forest. Eugene, finding no enemy left on the Rhine, also joined

Marlborough

, and the two generals of genius persuaded Louis of Baden to leave them alone, and go off to besiege Ingoldstadt. Meanwhile Tallard again joined the Elector, and on 13th August a great battle was fought at

Blindheim

, called by the English

Blenheim

, a little village on the north bank of the Danube, a short way to the east of Hochstadt. The French and Bavarians took up their position facing eastwards on some rising ground at the bottom of which

[1704-1707.]

the little river Nebel runs through marshes to join the Danube at Blenheim, which village was strongly entrenched, and held in force by Tallard himself. The left, further from the Danube, was commanded by the Elector, and the centre by Marshal Marsin. Against these Eugene fought, while

Marlborough

opposed Tallard. The English began the battle by a fierce attack on Blenheim; but all the efforts of the gallant Cutts and his grenadiers proved in vain, as the village was too strong to be taken. But

Marlborough

's quick eye soon saw that the French had weakened their centre to protect their right. He poured his troops over the treacherous marshes of the Nebel, and up the steep slopes beyond. After a fierce fight, the enemy's centre was broken. Tallard, cut off from the Elector, was forced to surrender with the

BATTLE OF BLENHEIM, 1704.

11,000 men that still survived of the defenders of Blenheim. On this, the Elector, who had hitherto held his own against Eugene, drew off his troops. It was a great victory.

" Tallard's army,"

wrote

Marlborough

to his wife,

"is quite ruined. Had Eugene's success been equal to his merit we should in that day's action have made an end of the war."

As it was, a fatal blow was given to the prestige of the hitherto unbeaten armies of France. Vienna was saved, Bavaria was forced to sue for peace, and the French hurried back over the Rhine, whither

Marlborough

rapidly followed them.

6. The French made such great efforts that

Marlborough

failed in

1705

to carry out his plan of marching up the Moselle and invading

France, and was forced back to the Low Countries, where the dashing, sanguine, and vainglorious Marshal Villeroi had won back the fortresses captured in

1702

, and was again threatening the Dutch frontier.

The Campaign of 1706.

Meanwhile all the genius of Eugene could not withstand the victorious French in Italy. But in

1706

Marlborough

, disgusted at the poor results of the preceding campaign, again invaded the Spanish Netherlands, and fought on 23d May a decisive battle at

Ramillies

(north of Namur). It was almost Blenheim over again.

Ramillies.

The French were drawn up in a semicircle along a row of heights, and again made the mistake of sending too many troops to defend the strongest point of their position, the village of Autre Eglise on their left. But

Marlborough

's attack on that hamlet was only a feint to cover his real assault on the enemy's right, grouped round a barrow called the Tomb of Ottomond, immediately above Ramillies village. When this was captured, the enemy's left could no longer hold Autre Eglise, and the whole host fell back in panic flight on Brussels. The result was the capture of almost all the Spanish Netherlands by the allies. Brussels at once opened its gates: mighty fortresses like Ghent, Bruges, Antwerp, and Ostend surrendered after a show of resistance. Mons and Namur alone remained to the French.

Turin

The loss of Flanders and Brabant was not the only French disaster in

1706

. On 7th September Eugene won the decisive

battle of Turin

, which drove the French out of Italy, and brought Milan and Naples to accept the Archduke

Charles

as their king. An equally brilliant success attended the allies in Spain. In

1704

Admiral Rooke took the rock of Gibraltar by surprise while the sentries had left their posts to go to mass and pray for deliverance from the heretics. In

1705

the capture of

Barcelona

by the brave, rash, and eccentric Earl of Peterborough led to a great revolt of the Catalans against Castile in favour of the Archduke, who soon advanced to Madrid.

Madrid.

But the English, Dutch, and Portuguese under the Huguenot refugee Ruvigny, Earl of Galway, had already marched up eastwards along the Tagus, and had proclaimed King

Charles

in the Spanish capital. Thus Germany, the Netherlands, Italy, and Spain seemed all lost to France.

7.

The French Victories in 1707.

France was not yet beaten. In Spain a great popular revolt brought back

Philip

to Madrid, and showed that Spanish national spirit was still too strong to suffer foreigners to force an unwelcome stranger into the throne of Philip II. The disorderly and badly led armies of the allies were soon forced to evacuate Madrid, and on 25th April

1707

, the high-minded and valiant Duke of Berwick (son of

James II.

by

Marlborough

's sister, Arabella Churchill) won a complete victory at

Almanza

. It was all

Charles

could do henceforth to hold his own in Catalonia. Meanwhile the French Marshal Villars captured the

lines of Stollhofen

, and again opened out the way for the invasion of Upper Germany. Eugene failed completely in an attempt to invade France and capture

Toulon

. The French again began to make way in Flanders, where Marshal Vendome ended a career of minor successes by the recapture of Ghent and Bruges in

1708

. An attempt was even made to excite a Jacobite rising in Scotland, but

James II.

's son, who called himself James III., fell ill of the measles just as he was going to start off, and when he got better Admiral

Byng

's fleet stood in his way.

8.

Oudenarde, 1708.

In

1708

Marlborough

made a fierce effort to regain his lost ground. Vendome was now besieging Oudenarde on the Scheldt, and

Marlborough

and Eugene resolved to fight a battle to save the town. By a series of dexterous manoeuvres they got into a good position among the hills to the west of Oudenarde, while the French, owing to the jealousy felt between the shy and reserved Duke of Burgundy (Louis's grandson), the nominal general, and the real leader, the brutal, violent, but extremely able Vendome, made all sorts of mistakes. On 11th July the

battle of Oudenarde

resulted in the complete defeat of the French. Their previous successes were now undone. The surrender of Lille, the key of French Flanders, in December left the way open for the invasion of France. In the same year General

Stanhope

conquered the island stronghold of

Minorca

.

9. In despair

Louis XIV.

sought peace, but the terms of the allies were so harsh that he was forced to carry on the war. He was willing to renounce the Spanish succession, but the allies, seeing that the expulsion of Philip was no easy task, insisted that he must help them with his troops to drive him out.

" If I must fight,"

declared the old king,

" I would rather fight against my enemies than my own children."

So France, tired out as she was, got ready to resist invasion. Now that she stood at bay, with the national feeling thoroughly aroused,

Marlborough

had no easy task before him.

10.

Maplaquet, 1709.

Before invading France,

Marlborough

busied himself with the capture of the few Netherland fortresses that still remained in the enemy's hands. With this object he and Eugene laid siege to Mons. Thereupon Marshal Villars, the only unbeaten French general left, took up a very strong position a few miles south of the town, upon the ridge of the upland heath which is crowned by the village of

Malplaquet

. Dense woods protected the French flanks, and strong entrenchments were rapidly thrown up to further strengthen their position. On 11th September the allies marched to the assault of the almost impregnable heights. For a time the French held their own, and the allies suffered terribly. But Villars, like Tallard at Blenheim, weakened his centre to prevent the wood of Taisniere on his left from being taken by the daring of the English right under Withers.

Marlborough

soon perceived this, and succeeded in cutting his way through the enemy's middle lines. But he had lost 20,000 men, and the French had retreated in perfect order, and were ready for another battle. The chief result of this bloody day was the capture of Mons.

11.

The last campaigns of the war, 1710-11.

In

1710

a conference was held at

Gertruydenberg

, in Holland, but the allies would not listen to reasonable terms, so the war went on, though the time of glorious victories was now over. Little was done in the Netherlands during

1710

or

1711

. In Spain, however (where the English Tories insisted the war ought chiefly to be carried on), General

Stanhope

succeeded for a second time in occupying Madrid for King

Charles

, but the national rising of the Spaniards made it quite impossible to hold it long, and

Stanhope

was forced to hurry back into Aragon. But Vendome had now been sent to command the French and Spanish forces, and, as in

1707

, it was not hard to get the better of the motley army of the allies.

Stanhope

was forced to surrender with most of his men at Brihuega (

1710

), and his colleague, the Austrian general Stahremberg, was only able to bring back to Barcelona a miserable remnant of 7000 men. Henceforth Philip reigned as undisputed king of Spain. Only the gallant Catalans continued to uphold King

Charles

.

The war was now being fought for very little. Louis's attempt to dictate to Europe had failed, and his power of further aggression was gone. But the allies had equally failed to invade France, or to force upon the unwilling Spaniards, though they had succeeded in breaking up the Spanish power by the capture of the Netherlands and Italy. In was elected the Emperor VI. after the death of his brother Joseph I., who had succeeded Leopold I., their father, in . Friends of the balance of power might argue that his establishment in Spain would be the revival of the empire of , which in its day had been as dangerous to Europe as that of had ever been. But the new emperor's stubborn clinging to his claims combined with the sluggishness and fears of the Dutch to carry on the war, and reject Louis's overtures for peace. In England the continuance of the war now became a mere party question, and the destinies of Europe no longer depended on the armies in the field, but on parliamentary struggles and obscure court intrigues.

12. [15] The Whigs still clung to power, but the game was now up. They were rudely exposed by the brilliant band of Tory pamphleteers, including , Prior, and, towering above them all, Jonathan (after Dean of St. Patrick's, Dublin), whose and pamphlet on laid bare with fierce ruthlessness the factiousness of the ministry. Against them the rival Whig writers could make little way, though the polished wit of , the vigorous ardour of Steele, and the rough strong invective of were all enlisted on that side. But plain men were now sick of the war; and popular feeling swung round still more strongly when the cry was raised that the Church was in danger through the Whig supremacy. (who had now violently broken with the Duchess of ) was quite led away by this, and the strong High Church feeling in the country was inflamed almost to madness by the violent sermons of Dr. Sacheverell, chaplain of St. Saviour's, Southwark, a rash, hot-headed partisan, who denounced the Toleration Act and upheld the doctrine of non-resistance. At last the Government foolishly impeached Sacheverell for

26

[1] 
a sermon preached at St. Paul's before a Tory Lord Mayor. The Whig House of Lords voted him guilty, but his only punishment was three years' suspension from preaching, and the burning of his sermons by the hangman. This sentence made the noisy doctor a popular hero, and a most useful electioneering agent for the Tories. Bit by bit the queen plucked up courage to bring back the Tories into office. By November the last of the Whigs were got rid of. The new elections sent back a strong majority of High Church Tories to the House of Commons, eager to upset the policy of their predecessors.

13. [16] Robert , made Lord High Treasurer and Earl of Oxford in May , was now the chief minister. He was a man

" of low stature and slender,"

"affable and courteous, and extremely easy and agreeable in conversation."

He was a skilful party leader, though a poor speaker, slow, hesitating, timid, and too fond of underhand intrigue.

"He had,"

says Dean ,

"an air of secrecy in his manner and countenance."

But the most attractive of the Tory statesmen was Henry , Secretary of State since September , and created Viscount Bolingbroke in .

"He has,"

says Lord Chesterfield,

" a very handsome person, with a most engaging address: and all the dignity and good breeding which a man of quality can have. All the internal and external advantages of an orator are undoubtedly his-figure, voice, elocution, knowledge."

He was a famous man of fashion and letters, a brilliant writer, a philosopher, and a sceptic, besides being one of the greatest party leaders that England has ever seen. But he looked on politics as a mere game, and had little real earnestness and conviction. He laughed at the most cherished beliefs of the party that he hounded on to battle. Still his clear insight and rare knowledge of English character gave him and the popular, national, progressive Toryism which he represented a lasting influence on English politics. Rochester now became President of the Council, and Harcourt Lord Chancellor.

14. [17] Thwarted on every side, came home in November , after a fruitless campaign. Grave charges of peculation and fraud were now brought against him and his friends, and twelve Tory peers (one of whom was Abigail Masham's husband) were made all at once to get rid of the friendly Whig majority in the upper house. On 31st December he was turned out of all his offices,

" in order that the matter might undergo an

impartial investigation."

A few months later , his only true friend, died. The Jacobite Duke of Ormonde, a well-bred, good-looking, but not very competent soldier, was made commander of the English army, but he withdrew from all active share in the war, while hurried through negotiations for peace. The Tories now showed as much factiousness in ending as the Whigs had shown in refusing to end the war. They threw over their allies, who, without English help, could do very little, and let Louis have more favourable terms than he himself had formerly offered at Gertruydenberg. At last, on 31st March , the was signed, though it was not till that the slow and tenacious emperor brought himself to end the war by the .

The terms of peace were:-1. Philip V. was recognised as king of Spain and the Indies, the Catalans who had fought so well for Charles being abandoned to his rival's mercy. 2. The emperor was compensated by the cession of Milan, Naples, and Sardinia. 3. The Spanish Netherlands were handed over to the Dutch, who were, however, to resign them to the emperor, after he had made with them a Barrier Treaty, providing for Dutch garrisons of the great fortresses on the French frontier. (This was only done in 1715 after much quarrelling, the emperor being naturally disgusted at the way England and Holland sacrificed the Netherlands to their political and trading interests.) 4. Sicily was ceded to the Duke of Savoy, with the title of King. 5. Prussia was recognised as a kingdom and Hanover as an electorate. (This treaty marks the beginning of the importance of Savoy and Prussia.) 6. The Protestant succession in England was recognised. 7. France ceded to England Newfoundland, Acadie (Nova Scotia), and the Hudson's Bay Territory, and agreed to pull down the fortifications of Dunkirk. 8. A favourable commercial treaty was proposed tending towards free-trade between England and France, but this fell through owing to parliamentary opposition, to Bolingbroke's great disgust. 9. Spain ceded Gibraltar and Minorca to England, and made the Asiento (or contract) which gave England the exclusive right, formerly held by France, of supplying the Spanish American colonies with negro slaves. Besides this very lucrative monopoly in human flesh, England could also send one ship a year to Portobello in South America.

15. [18] The Treaty of Utrecht was a great triumph for the Tories. Secure of popular support, they looked forward to a long lease of power. But the great danger before them lay in the weak health of Queen . The Act of Settlement made Sophia, Electress of Hanover, the eldest surviving Protestant daughter of Elizabeth of Bohemia, 's daughter, and the sister of Princes Rupert and Maurice, the next in succession; but she was now over eighty years of age. Her son,

28

[1] 
George Louis (Elector since ), was a decided enemy of the peace of Utrecht, and known to be friendly to the Whigs. If he became king there was little hope of keeping the Tories in power. was, above all things, a strong party man, and though no believer in divine right, or friend of Popery, preferred a Tory to a Whig king. So he began to prepare the way for bringing back 's half- brother, James, generally called the Chevalier of St. George, or the Pretender. herself was not unwilling, and the High Churchmen were still strongly influenced by their old doctrines of passive obedience and divine right. If James had not been a steadfast Roman Catholic the plan would not have been hard, as the Hanover succession excited no enthusiasm whatever. As it was, many strong Churchmen forgot their Protestantism in their zeal for the Stewart cause.

Having made up his mind, threw himself with his usual eagerness into his new and treasonable policy, and was actively backed up by Ormonde, Harcourt, Sir William Wyndham, by , the fiery High Church Bishop of Rochester, and by Dean . But the cautious and vacillating could hardly be won over, so fresh intrigues were set on foot to discredit him.

Active preparations were now made to upset the Act of Settlement. Strong efforts were made to use the High-Church feeling in the country to get back a king who was not a Churchman. The clergy had already been well rewarded for their great share in the Tory triumph. In the (which fined and disqualified all officials who attended any conventicle, and thus made it useless for dissenters to make themselves eligible for municipal offices by taking the Communion once a year in church) had been carried, Whigs vying with Tories in supporting the bill to disprove the taunt that they were at heart enemies of the Church, and buying thus the support of Nottingham and a little band of discontented Tories, shut out of the ministry. A bill was next passed to build fifty new churches in the rapidly increasing suburbs of London, a much-needed measure, but hardly passed from nothing but pure zeal for religion. Finally the () was carried, which absolutely prevented any dissenter from acting as a schoolmaster or tutor; but this never came into operation.

The Whigs were almost in despair, when the elections of sent a new Tory parliament to Westminster. They

29

tried to bring the Electoral Prince of Hanover (afterwards ) to England, to take his seat in the Lords as Duke of Cambridge; but this unwise move led only to a personal quarrel between and the old Electress, who died shortly after. But the Whigs' best hopes were in the bad health of the queen and the disunion of the Cabinet. At last the long smouldering dispute between Oxford and burst to a flame. On 27th July a fierce altercation in the sick queen's presence was kept up till two in the morning, and only ended by 's taking away from Oxford the White Staff of the Treasurer. Instigated by Lady Masham, who had now deserted her cousin for , now complained that

" he neglected all business, never told the truth, often came drunk to her presence, and behaved himself with great disrespect to her."

16. put Jacobites into the vacant offices, and made ready for a revolution. But never got over the stormy scene of Oxford's dismissal. [19]  On 30th July she had a fit of apoplexy, and lay speechless and without hope of recovery. All was now excitement. The Whigs prepared to fight, and the Tories did not know what to do. But the Duke of Shrewsbury, who had begun life as a Whig but now held office with the Tories, was at the last moment seized with scruples. The Cabinet met at Kensington to decide on what course to pursue. Suddenly the Whig Dukes of and Somerset appeared and demanded admission as Privy Councillors. The law knew nothing of Cabinet Councils, and it could only be as Privy Councillors that the ministers had met together. Shrewsbury, by previous arrangement, backed up their claims; and they in return urged his appointment as Treasurer. The White Staff was at once put into his hands by the half-unconscious and dying queen. The three dukes now took everything upon themselves, and prepared to secure the Protestant succession. The baffled conspirators were quite overpowered when, disregarding the Cabinet, the dukes got special summonses to the Council for all the Privy Councillors, mostly Whigs, living in London. On 1st August Queen died, and, though some desperate men were for proclaiming the Pretender, the risk was too great.

" In six weeks more,"

moaned ,

"we should have put things in such a condition that there would have been nothing to fear. But Oxford was removed on Tuesday; the queen died on Sunday! What a world is this, and how does fortune banter us ! "

17. [20] The reign of Queen witnessed the Union between England and Scotland. The stormy history of Scotland in the years succeeding the Revolution of showed clearly that some great change was required. There had been much bad blood between England and Scotland during the time that the Stewart kings had frankly sought to make Scotland depend upon England. But much worse feelings grew up after the Revolution left Scotland a small free state bound to a greater and richer one by no other tie than subjection to a common sovereign. Scots now found that they were shut off from all the sources of wealth which were making England the greatest commercial country of the world. The failure had shown that Scotland, as the weaker power, would be obliged, in really essential matters, to follow the lead of England. The result was the bitterest ill-will between the two nations. Wise men, like , saw that separation or fuller union were now the only ways out of the deadlock. But if pressed for a union, the new

"

Patriotic Party

,"

which now grew up in Scotland, would be satisfied with nothing less than complete separation. This party centred round the Club, and had for its leader Andrew Fletcher of Salton, in East Lothian, an aristocratic republican, like the old Commonwealth's men. He was

"a thin man, of a brown complexion; full of fire, with a stern sour look; but a gentleman of nice honour, and abundance of learning, bold as a lion; a sure friend, and an irreconcilable enemy; whose thoughts were large as to religion,"

and who

" would not be under the distinction of a Whig or Tory, saying, those names are used to cloak the knaves of both."

Largely through his influence the negotiations for union which, through 's influence, had begun in , came to an end in .

In the Scottish Parliament (still bitterly mortified by the failure) met under the Duke of Queensberry, a lazy and easy-tempered, but shrewd and far-seeing man, as Lord Commissioner. Fletcher brought forward a , which provided that, on Queen 's death, the Scottish throne should go to some Protestant descendant of the royal house, but excluding the successor to the English crown,

"unless the sovereignty of this kingdom, the frequency of its Parliaments, and its religious freedom and trade be secured from English or any foreign influence."

Fletcher also proposed a series of , in case the two countries remained under the same monarch which transferred

31

the whole executive power from the Crown to a Committee of the Estates, while providing for parliamentary reform and a national militia. Both measures were eagerly accepted, and Government, though refusing to touch with the sceptre (the way of signifying the Crown's approval of Scottish laws) the Bill of Security, did not dare to refuse the royal assent to the Limitations. Thereupon Fletcher carried a resolution

"that, after the decease of her Majesty, we will separate our Crown from that of England."

All subsidies were refused, and toleration to Episcopalian dissenters contemptuously rejected. Next year the same stormy scenes were renewed, and the timidity of and the new Commissioner, the Marquis of Tweeddale, led to the royal assent being given even to the .

The English Parliament, not unnaturally, retaliated, the Whigs pressing for severe measures in order to embarrass the Tory government. All trade with Scotland was cut off, Scots were declared aliens, Newcastle and Carlisle were fortified, the militia of the four northern shires called out, and all available troops marched to the Border. But the hopelessness and wantonness of the struggle, the pressure of the Court influence, dislike to play the game of the Jacobites, and a shrewd sense of the benefits to be got from commercial union gradually got the better of the patriotic enthusiasm of the Scottish Parliament. In vain Fletcher joined forces with the Jacobites. In Tweeddale formed a middle party called the (Italian for , a name given at that time to a party of cardinals in the papal court), which, though professing to hold the balance between patriots and courtiers, on the whole favoured the reasonable schemes of union which were now brought forward. England therefore showed a conciliatory spirit by dropping the Alien Act.

Early in both nations appointed Commissioners to treat for a union. Two months were spent in active negotiations. At last a was drawn up, and laid before the two Parliaments. There was nothing to fear at Westminster, but a last expiring effort was made at Edinburgh to overthrow the hated measure. Riots broke out, which showed the unpopularity of the Act out of doors. But the Duke of Hamilton (the greatest lord on the patriotic side, who had even hoped to become king under the Act of Security) lost courage at the critical moment, and in January the Act was passed by a majority of 40.

The terms of the Union were :-1. There should be one kingdom, one Parliament, one Privy Council, one Government, and one succession to the throne. The United Kingdom was to be called Great Britain, and its arms and national flag, the "Union Jack," made of the crosses of St. George and St. Andrew combined into one. The Scotch government departments were mostly transferred to London, but put under a new minister, the Secretary of State for Scotland. (In 1746 this office was abolished, and Scotch business shared by the other two Secretaries.) 2. Scotland was to be represented in the United Parliament by 45 commoners and 16 elected representatives of the Scottish peerage. 3. The Presbyterian Church government was declared "for ever unalterable, and the only government of the Church within Scotland," and every monarch of the United Kingdom was required to swear at his accession to protect it. A special Act of Security was passed by the Scots to provide for this, and also for the freedom of the four Scottish Universities. 4. The Scottish legal system (so different from that of England) was not to be affected by the Union, though there was now an appeal from the Court of Session to the House of Lords. 5. The Scotch debt was paid off, the Darien Company dissolved, and its shareholders compensated, and the proportion of Scotch taxation fixed. 6. The English coinage was brought in, which was the easier, as there was already a scarcity of the depreciated Scottish coins. 7. Complete equality of trade between the two countries was established, so that Scots might trade with the English colonies.

The Union did not at first practically affect the lawless freedom of the Celtic Highlanders; but in the Lowlands, which really were Scotland, it was felt as a grievous blow to national feeling, and long remained intensely unpopular. But the wise care taken to uphold the Scotch Church and the Scotch law blunted the sharpest edge of hostility. Bit by bit the opening up of trade began to work its results. Glasgow became a great port and the rival of Bristol and in the American trade. The idle and vagrant population (which Fletcher in despair had proposed to turn into slaves) now acquired those habits of thrift and industry which mark the modern Scot. Mines were opened up; the soil was tilled with more energy and success; the linen and iron trades took a deep hold of the country; and the great growth of trade and manufactures in the middle of the eighteenth century completed the formation of modern industrial Scotland. The Union Parliament proved on the whole very careful to uphold Scottish privileges. The ill- judged restoration of patronage in the Scottish Church by the Tories under Queen was the only really important instance of disregard for Scottish feeling. So gradually the old dislike died away, though all through the eighteenth century much bad blood remained. So great a man and shrewd a thinker as David , the philosopher and

33

34

[1] 
historian, regarded England with intense detestation; and so late as the reign of the agitator was applauded for maintaining that a

"Scot should have no more rights in England than a Hanoverian or a Hottentot."

Twice disgust for the Union made Protestant Scotland an easy conquest to Popish Pretenders. But as time went on community of blood, tongue, and interests began to assert themselves against the animosities of centuries. The Scots had withstood the Union, fearing for their national life. But they got the best share of the advantages that accrued from it, and found that their national life could still live on even without their separate Parliament.

 
 
Footnotes:

[1] Accession and character of Queen Anne.

[2] Marlborough, 1650-1722.

[3] Ministerial history, 1702-8.

[4] The Whig Ministry, 1708-10.

[5] The War of the Spanish succession, 1702-14.

[15] Fall of the Whigs, 1710.

[1] [1710-1714.]

[16] The Tory Ministry, 1710-14.

[17] The Peace of Utrecht, 1713.

[18] The Jacobite conspiracy, 1713-14.

[1] [1711-1714.]

[19] Intervention of the Whig Dukes and Death of Anne, 1714.

[20] The Union between England and Scotland, 1702-7.

[1] [1714-1715.]