History of England, Part III, William and Mary to 1887

Tout, T. F. --Powell, F. York
1898

CHAPTER V: George II., Wesley and Pitt 1739-1760

CHAPTER V: George II., Wesley and Pitt 1739-1760

1. State of Religion. Latitudinarianism and Rationalism.The country grew richer during the years of peace that succeeded the Treaty of Aachen. The peace-loving, plodding Henry Pelham carried out his modest but useful plans of reform, and carefully avoided stirring up opposition. The interest payable on the national debt was reduced to three per cent. Lord Hardwicke, the Chancellor, a famous lawyer, passed a Marriage Act to check secret marriages (1753), and a system of licensing public-houses counteracted the evils which the wide prevalence of spirit drinking, a new fashion brought in from Holland, had produced. But the sluggishness of Pelham's government, as opposed as Walpole's to all great changes, was reflected in the deadness of the nation to higher things. Men believed that religion, enthusiasm, patriotism were dying and rightly giving way to reason, solid good sense, and general love of mankind. In particular, the old religious hatreds that had raged so fiercely when Anne was on the throne had largely yielded to the easy common-sense tolerance of the new generation. The High Church and the Puritan parties equally lost ground. The bishops were now mostly Low Churchmen, or Latitudinarians, or, as we should call them, Broad Churchmen. The country clergy remained High Church, and quarrelled so fiercely with the bishops in Convocation that, after 1717, it was not allowed to meet again to transact business. Laymen became careless and sceptical. Preachers taught that men should be prudent, moral, and moderate. Their sermons were "solid but dry dissertations, read without a gesture and without any particular elevation of the voice." A school, which disbelieved in miracles and revelation, grew up, headed by Collins and Tindal, called the English Deists, against whom Joseph Butler, Bishop of Durham, wrote his famous Analogy of Religion (1736). Leading clergymen were anxious to escape signing the Articles and repeating the Creeds. English Presbyterians were becoming Unitarians. Church-going ceased to be fashionable, and few new churches were built. Side by side with learning and dull good sense, among the educated classes, there was much gross neglect of duty and corruption, [1729-1791.] while among the masses brutality, ignorance, drunkenness, and vice were hardly kept in check.

2. The Methodist Movement, 1729-39.The most emotional and enthusiastic of modern forms of Protestant religion sprang up in strong reaction to the general temper ofthis period. About 1729, a few earnest Oxford men formed a little society which met to discuss religious questions, and whose members were remarkable for the holiness and good order of their lives. They fasted on Wednesdays and Fridays, received the Communion once a week, and ministered to the sick, the poor, and the prisoners in Oxford gaol. They were laughed at by their fellow-students, and nicknamed Methodists. Their leader was John Wesley (1703-1791), fellow of Lincoln College, a man of extraordinary force of character, who had learnt from the Serious Call of the holy Nonjuror, William Law, a lofty and fervent piety. His brother, Charles Wesley, afterwards famous as a hymn- writer, also joined the movement. They were both High Churchmen, like their father Samuel, rector of Epworth, Lincolnshire. Others of the little group were George Whitefield (1714-1770), servitor of Pembroke College, the son of a Gloucester innkeeper, who soon gained extraordinary influence by his vivid and heart-stirring sermons, and James Hervey, author of the Meditations. They continued their meetings until 1735, when the Wesleys left Oxford, and went on a mission to the colony of Georgia, just established by the warm-hearted General Oglethorpe as a refuge for debtors. But in 1738 Wesley returned to England, after altogether failing in his work in America. He was strangely despondent when he learnt from the Moravians (a German sect of gentle enthusiasts) that he had not yet been converted to a true sense of religion. At last, in a little room in Aldersgate Street, during a meeting of the society, " about a quarter past nine," says Wesley, "I felt my heart strangely warmed, I felt I trusted in Christ alone for salvation, and an assurance that He had taken away my sins." Inspired with this belief, Wesley and his friends preached with a stronger fervour and an unwonted zeal. The congregations groaned or wept, swayed by intense feeling, or they broke up the services by violence and riot. The sober and decorous clergy thought the Methodists mad, and refused to let them preach in their churches. In 1739, therefore, the Methodists first built chapels of their own, though they declared that they were not dissenters, but anxious only to labour in the ground left untilled by the Church. In the same year Whitefield began to preach in the fields to the half-savage colliers of Kingswood, near Bristol. Tears ran down the blackened cheeks of his rude hearers as he spoke with intense pathos of death, sin, repentance, and the wrath to come. Wesley, who had "thought the saving of souls almost a sin if it had not been done in a church," was driven into following Whitefield's example. For the rest of their lives the two great preachers wandered ceaselessly over the land; wherever they went they excited a storm of opposition or of enthusiasm. Often they were in danger of their lives, hooted at, pelted, maltreated by brutal mobs, and left to protect themselves by weak and bigoted magistrates. They were denounced as Papists, as hypocrites, as impostors. The wild excitement following from their preaching often produced the maddest extravagances. But they roused many thousands to lead new lives, and to shake off sluggish indifference or brutal vice. They stamped a profound impression upon English character which has not yet been effaced.

Arminian and Calvinistic Methodism, 1739-91.Whitefield was an eloquent enthusiast who appealed chiefly to the emotion of the moment, but Wesley was a man of forethought and a remarkable organiser. He saw that to make the effects of his preach- ing last, he must establish an organised society. The Methodist body, over which he exercised a dictatorship, soon grew into a large and well-governed community, which, as time went on, gradually drifted into the position of a new dissenting sect. To the last Wesley professed his attachment to the Church of England; but by ordaining his lay-preachers, and empowering them to administer the Holy Communion, he established a precedent which, after his death, resulted in total separation. But long before this the Methodist camp had begun to be broken up. Whitefield was a Calvinist, like the old Puritans, while Wesley's High Church surroundings had made him a strong Arminian, who believed that God's grace was open to all mankind. They accordingly parted company, and Whitefield attached himself to Selina, Countess of Huntingdon, a pious lady, whose chaplains stood half-way between conformity and dissent. But the great preacher's lack of the statesmanlike gifts of Wesley caused " Lady Huntingdon's Connexion," as the English Calvinistic Methodists were called, to gradually dwindle away.

Only in Wales did Calvinistic Methodism take deep root. [l754-1757.] Welsh Methodism, 1730-1811.There a parallel movement had been going on-started early in the century by Griffith Jones, Rector of Llanddowror, in Carmarthenshire, who invented a system of circulating schools, and carried on by Daniel Rowlands, vicar of Llangeitho, in Cardiganshire, and Howel Harris of Trevecca, near Brecon, in whose house Lady Huntingdon established a college for her preachers. Greater corruption in the ignorant and isolated clergy, and the extraordinary fervour and eloquence of the simple men who preached to the people in their own tongue, resulted in a movement of lasting importance. But it was not until 1811 that, under the guidance of Thomas Charles of Bala, the Welsh Methodists gave up their regular connection with the Established Church.

In Scotland and Ireland religious conditions were too different for the movement to exercise much influence. But in British America it spread like wildfire, and to-day the Methodists are the most numerous body of American Protestants.

3. William Pitt, 1708-78.While Wesley's self-devotion and noble zeal were reviving religious enthusiasm in the face of torpor and vice, William Pitt, with eloquence even greater, and with devotion as unselfish, was striving to restore high ideals and noble ambitions among the governing classes soiled by the corruption of Walpole, and guided only by the timid expediency of the Pelhams. The grandson of a governor of Madras, Pitt abandoned the army for a seat in Parliament, as representative of the deserted hill of Old Sarum. His thunders against Walpole first brought him into notice. "His person was tall and imposing, with the eye of a hawk, a little head, thin face, long aquiline nose, and perfectly erect posture; his action was most expressive; his invectives were uttered with such energy and stern dignity of action and countenance that he intimidated all able to encounter him." Like Whitefield, he was a consummate actor, while his "manners prohibited all familiarity, and almost seemed to forbid approach." Gold could not tempt him, and he was loftily conscious of his rare power and his high mission. Poor, without great connections, he looked to the mass of the people of England rather than to the crowd of venal place-hunters that he addressed in the House. His marriage with Lady Hester Grenville, sister of Lord Temple, brought him into touch with a noble Whig family, but it lost him more than he gained. When he had driven Walpole from power, he thundered with equal vehemence against the Hanoverian and unpopular policy of Carteret. At last Henry Pelham silenced him by office in 1746; but on the Prime Minister's death, in 1754, Pitt stood forth again in his solitary grandeur as the one popular hero among the statesmen of the day.

4. Whig schism after Pelham's death, 1764-57.The Duke of Newcastle stepped into his brother's place. Horace Walpole, the great statesman's younger son, thus describes him: "A borrowed importance and a real insignificance gave him the perpetual air of a solicitor. He had no pride, though unfailing self-love. He loved business immoderately; yet was always doing it, and never did it. When left to himself he always plunged into difficulties, and then shuddered for the consequences." Newcastle Ministry, 1754-56.This fussy busybody almost wrecked his ministry by giving the leadership of the House of Commons to Sir Thomas Robinson, a man as insignificant as himself. He was compelled to replace him by the able and eloquent, but unscrupulous and unpopular, Henry Fox, an old rival of Pitt. But as there was a likelihood of war, all Newcastle's electioneering craft and parliamentary management could not compensate for the loss of confidence and popularity that followed Pitt's dismissal. Devonshire Ministry, 1756-57.In November 1756 Newcastle resigned; but Pitt and the Duke of Devonshire, who now became ministers, found that without Newcastle's command over votes they were unable to carry on the government. At last the good sense of Lord Chesterfield healed the third Whig schism. The Pitt-Newcastle Ministry, 1757-61.In June 1757 a coalition was brought about by which Newcastle and Pitt became sharers of power. Newcastle became First Lord of the Treasury, and Pitt Secretary of State. The gallant Anson took charge of the Admiralty. The Duke confined himself to his natural sphere of intrigue and corruption, and to the peddling details of administration in which he delighted. Scornfully regardless of such sordid cares, the great Commoner threw his whole soul into the conduct of the war, which had broken out disastrously for England, while factions were raging in Parliament, and feeble governments struggling in vain for power.

5. Ever since the Revolution England had been growing richer through foreign trade, and her colonies and possessions were steadily rising in importance. Her old rival, Holland, had given up competing against her, and had become [1741-1757.] her ally; while Portugal, the earliest European colonial power, had, since the Methuen Treaty (1703), become her dependant. Origin of the Seven Years' War, 1748-55.But Spain and France watched the expansion of England with great jealousy, and even Austria was thoroughly disgusted at the selfish way in which the trade of the Netherlands had been sacrificed to English interests. The naval war with Spain in 1739 (since 1743 with France also), began a long struggle for the possession of India and America, which continued without a break till 1763; and whether peace or war prevailed at home, continued hostilities marked the fierce struggle of France and England for the possession of India and the New World.

6. France and England in India.The great Mogul Empire, which had ruled northern and controlled southern India, broke up after the death of Aurangzeb in 1707. India was plunged into extreme confusion. The Nawabs and viceroys of the Emperor of Delhi now became, like the counts and dukes of the Roman Empire in the middle ages, independent and hereditary princes. The Hindus had long submitted to the rule of the foreign Mohammedan Moguls, but the successes of the warlike Marathas now marked a great Hindu revival. The companies of foreign merchants, who had long been rulers of trading settlements, now won for themselves political independence. After 1702 the Whig New East India Company joined the Tory Old East India Company to form the United Company of Merchants trading to the East Indies. The restoration of the monopoly led to a great increase of their trade, and their stations of Bombay, Fort St. George (Madras), and Fort William (Calcutta) became the centres of a great and rich commerce. They found a keen competitor in the French India Company, whose chief seats were at Pondicherri, near Madras, and in the isles of Bourbon and France (Mauritius). But Francois Joseph Dupleix, the brilliant and far-seeing Governor of Pondicherri (since 1741), was the first European to perceive that, in the anarchy springing from the break up of the Mogul Empire, Europeans might hope for political rule as well as riches. Dupleix, 1741-1754.He took advantage of the Austrian Succession war to capture Madras in 1746, and this conquest, though given back by the peace of 1748, spread the fame of France throughout southern India. A more dangerous form of rivalry followed during the years of peace, which were not years of peace in India. Dupleix saw that by setting one native state or one rival prince against the other, he might take a leading part in Indian affairs; while by drilling Indian troops (Sepoys) in the European way, he might make them as good as European soldiers, and easily defeat the huge but untrained hosts of the native princes, and with Indian arms and Indian gold make the vast continent subject to a small and distant European state. For India is a continent, not a nation. Its inhabitants are of many grades of civilisation, many religions, races, and tongues. No cohesion or unity was possible in such a vast mass of different elements. Here Dupleix's plans were as practicable as they were brilliant.

7. The second and greatest struggle between England and France for India began when the nations were at peace. Just after the treaty of Aachen, Dupleix took up the cause of Murzaffar Jang, who disputed with Nasir Jang, his uncle, the succession as subahdar (viceroy) of the Deccan, and supported Chanda Sahib against Anwar-ud-din Khan in his claim to the nawabship of the Karnatik. The English took up the other pretender's cause. Robert Clive, 1725-74.A worthy rival of Dupleix was found in Robert Clive, the son of a poor Shropshire squire, who had been sent out to be a clerk at Madras, as his turbulent and unruly disposition unfitted him for most careers at home. He became a soldier when Dupleix attacked Madras, and was now a captain. Arcot, 1751.In 1751 he suggested that the only way to save Trichinopoli, closely besieged by Chanda Sahib, was to seize Arcot, the capital of the Karnatik. He was intrusted with the task. The last march of his little force to Arcot was through a tropical thunderstorm. The garrison fled in a panic, but the whole forces of the Nawab and the French were now directed to reconquer it. Clive held out with firm determination. He filled his troops with such enthusiasm that when supplies ran short the Sepoys proposed to live on the water in which the rice was boiled, and leave the grain for the greater need of their English comrades. At last Clive compelled the enemy to raise the siege. This filled Southern India with profound belief in the bravery and resources of the English. "The defence of Arcot was the turning-point in the eastern career of the English." Clive followed up his victory by the destruction of Dupleix Fatihabad (city of the victory of Dupleix), and by the capture of Trichinopoli. Dupleix's schemes were defeated. He returned to France (1754), to obscurity and disgrace, disgusted that the French Government had not realised the grandeur and practicability of his schemes.

Plassey, 1757.Meanwhile Siraj-ud-Daula (Surajah Dowlah), Nawab of Bengal- an ally of the French-had quarrelled with the factory at Fort William. After seizing the town, he shut up the English prisoners in what was afterwards known as the "Black Hole," a small and pestilent chamber, where, out of 146, all but 23 died of suffocation during the single night of their confinement. Clive was sent to avenge the outrage, and easily won back Calcutta. He sought to divide the Nawab's forces by persuading Mir Jafar, his general, to lay claim to Bengal; and on 23d June 1757 his little army [1749-1756.] of 3000 men utterly routed the 55,000 men that followed Siraj-ud- Daula, attacking their camp suddenly as they were cooking their dinner, and scattering them in a panic with little loss. The battle of Plassey made the English masters of Bengal, where Mir Jafar now reigned under their protection. Pitt, who saw Clive's greatness, declared that he was a "heaven-born general."

Wandewash, 1760.When open war broke out between England and France, the gallant and unfortunate Count de Lally sought to revive Dupleix's great schemes. But in January 1760 the decisive victory of Wandewash secured the supremacy of England in Southern India. The English commander, Colonel (afterwards Sir) Eyre Coote, completed the destruction of the French by the capture of Pondicherri in 1761. The foundations of our Indian Empire were now firmly laid. Clive and Coote had beaten Dupleix and Lally in the policy which the Frenchmen had first conceived, but which the Englishmen were better able to carry out.

8. The North American Colonies.While Clive and Coote were conquering India, a similar struggle between England and France was being fought out in North America. The English colonies, thirteen in number, were grouped along the eastern seaboard. In the north were the New England colonies, the settlements of seventeenth century Puritanism, and now free democracies, with, in some cases, even the privilege of electing their own governor. These were Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island. South of them were New York and New Jersey, which in 1667 had been conquered from the Dutch. The coast beyond was included in Delaware (cut off from Pennsylvania in 1701) and Maryland (1632), while the great quaker colony of Pennsylvania (1681) extended far into the interior. Pennsylvania was still a Proprietary Colony, and the "proprietors," the sons of William Penn, the founder, were overlords of the whole country, nominated the governor, and were constantly quarrelling with the Assembly. Virginia, the great tobacco-planting state, founded in 1607, came next. With its planter aristocracy, sprung from good English families, its population of slaves, and its Church of England religion, it stood in the strongest contrast to New England, whose inhabitants were yeomen farmers and small traders, with few inequalities of wealth or rank. It was, however, the most advanced of the colonies, and took the lead in all colonial movements. North and South Carolina (1663) lay south of Virginia, while Georgia (1731) separated South Carolina from the Spanish colony of Florida. Georgia had been founded by the philanthropic Oglethorpe as a refuge for debtors, and had been the place of the first labours of John Wesley. The colonies were now very flourishing, and fast increasing in population; but they were very jealous of each other, were discouraged from acting together, and had no common ideas save fear of the French and their Indian allies, and jealousy of English influence.

9. England and France in North America.The French colonies enclosed the English on every side. Along the valley of the St. Lawrence lay Canada, the most important of them, while in the Gulf of St. Lawrence lay the islands of St. John (Prince Edward's Island) and Cape Breton, containing Louisbourg, a great fortress. Acadie, now called Nova Scotia, had been ceded to the English in 1713, along with the whole of the great cod-fishing island of Newfoundland. In 1749 Halifax, its future capital, had been founded by the English Government, almost the only English settlement established purely by the state. But the English and French were still quarrelling about the boundaries of the ceded country, especially whether the coasts of the Bay of Fundy were or were not given up to England. There was another French settlement called Louisiana, of which New Orleans, named after the Regent Philip, was the capital. It stretched up the Mississippi valley, and threatened to shut the English out from access to the west. The French colonies were thinly inhabited, and badly governed; but the fur dealers and Indian traders were hardy, energetic, and daring; and, as in the East, the governors planned great schemes for extending the power of France. The French now took nearly all the Red Indians into their pay, drove the English traders over the Alleghanies, and set up a series of forts which aimed at connecting Louisiana and Canada. Forts Frontenac and Toronto commanded Lake Ontario; Fort Niagara the passage to the south between the two great lakes; while Fort Duquesne, on the Alleghany river, was the key to the upper valley of the Ohio.

A brisk frontier war now broke out, in which the Indians in the French pay committed all sorts of atrocities. In 1754, Major George Washington, of the Virginian Militia, scarcely twenty-two years of age, but already able to control his vehement and fiery nature by his coolness of judgment and sense of public duty, was compelled to capitulate after an unsuccessful attack on Fort Duquesne. Both England and France now sent troops to America. But in 1755, General Braddock, a brave but blundering guardsman, at the head of 1500 men, was disgracefully defeated and slain in an expedition against the same stronghold. The English now turned the wretched Acadians out of Nova Scotia; and in 1756, after war had been formally declared, the English colonies were forced by their fears from their sluggish NEW ENGLAND AND NEW FRANCE, 1755-1783. 1757.] attitude of indifference. When once the real struggle began, the overwhelming superiority in numbers of the English soon made itself felt. The ardent and generous Marquis of Montcalm succeeded, in 1756, in taking Oswego, the English fort on Lake Ontario, and, in 1757, Fort William Henry, at the head of Lake St. George. These were the last important French successes.

10. The attack on Prussia, 1756.The struggle for India and America was soon overshadowed by the outbreak of a great European war. A formidable coalition was formed, which, though mostly turned against Prussia, was also partly aimed at England. After the treaty of 1748, European affairs took a new turn. Austria was so disgusted with England and Holland for making her give up Silesia and a large part of the Milanese, and for their old policy of putting down the trade of the Netherlands, that, by a bold stroke of Kaunitz, her minister, Maria Theresa established a close alliance with the French, hoping thus to ruin Prussia, or at least get back Silesia. Russia, under the Empress Elizabeth, joined them. Sweden followed her example. The weak and dilettante Augustus, Elector of Saxony, who was also King of Poland, was, with many of the smaller states of Germany, also won over. Prussia was thus forced to struggle for its very existence; but Frederick the Great showed wonderful coolness, presence of mind, and energy in the face of danger. The old jealousies with his uncle George now seemed to vanish. In great alarm England made, in 1756, a treaty with Prussia. Frederick anticipated attack by overrunning the territory of his least formidable enemy, Saxony, and compelled the Saxon army to surrender at Pirna (15th October 1756), after the Austrians had been defeated in an attempt to relieve it at the battle of Lobositz (1st October). This was the beginning of what is properly called the Seven Years' War.

11. English disasters, 1757.England was quite unready to fight. " From every side came tidings of disaster." Our allies, the Dutch, would not depart from their neutrality. Frederick, assailed on all hands, was in a desperate state. Minorca, which had been English since 1708, was attacked by the Duke of Richelieu. Admiral Byng, sent out with a fleet for its defence, withdrew without fighting a battle, and the castle of St. Philip surrendered. Byng was made a scapegoat for the national fury, and tried and shot for cowardice (14th March 1757). Meanwhile the Duke of Cumberland, now grown unwieldy and inactive, was, in July 1757, completely beaten by the French at Hastenbeck, and driven back on to the Elbe. In September he was forced to sign the Capitulation of Klosterseven, by which Hanover was entirely left in French hands, and the army of the Duke partly disbanded. The French were thus left free to attack [l757-1760.] Prussia. England daily expected an invasion. French cruisers plundered her commerce: expeditions against Louisbourg and Rochefort failed. " The nation trembled under a shameful panic too public to be concealed, too shameful in its consequences to be ever long forgotten."

12. Pitt's victories, 1757-60.Such was the state of things when Pitt, in June 1757, became minister. "I am sure," said he, "that I can save the country, and I am sure that no one else can." He at once set to work with extraordinary energy to restore the flagging spirits of his countrymen. "Ignorant of finance, he kept aloof from all details, drew magnificent plans, and left to others to find the magnificent means. Secluded from all eyes, his orders were received as oracles. Their success was imputed to his inspiration-misfortunes and miscarriages fell to the account of the more human agents." Such is an enemy's account of his success.

Under Pitt's guidance the war, which had begun with such disasters, soon turned out the most brilliant and successful of the century. He often wasted money and men on useless expeditions; but he saw clearly that his first duty was to maintain Frederick in his heroic struggle, and to secure English supremacy all over the world. He threw to the winds his old hatred of foreign subsidies and German alliances. His large subsidies enabled Frederick to keep an army together. "America must be conquered in Germany" was Pitt's answer to those who grew impatient at the vast expenses of his German campaigns. The capitulation of Klosterseven was repudiated. The crushing defeat of the French at Rossbach (5th November 1757), and of the Austrians at Leuthen (5th December 1757), showed that Frederick was able to struggle with success against his three mighty foes. Though in 1758 and 1759 the King of Prussia was brought to sore straits, the well-directed attacks of the English and Hanoverians kept the French busy on the Rhine, and left Frederick to struggle against the Austrians, Russians, and Swedes. On 1st August 1759 a great victory at Minden was won by Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick at the head of the English troops. On 3d November 1760 Frederick defeated the Austrians in the bloody battle of Torgau.

The greatest victories of England were at sea and outside Europe. We have seen how Clive won Bengal, and Coote destroyed the French power in Southern India. In September 1759 Hawke put an end to all fears of invasion by his crushing defeat of the French in Quiberon Bay. All over the world the French colonies were now conquered. But Pitt's crowning triumph was the annihilation of French influence in North America.

13. Conquest of Canada, 1758-60.In 1758 Pitt formed a great plan for attacking Canada from three different sides, and sent some of the best of his young officers to carry it out. Jeffrey Amherst conquered and destroyed the great fortress of Louisbourg. With him was Brigadier James Wolfe, a man after Pitt's own heart, who, with wretched health and mean appearance, had the heart of a hero, and whose dearest ambition was to "cut up New France by the roots." Another favourite of Pitt was the young, popular, and brilliant Lord Howe, " a complete model of military virtue," who was destined to accompany the incompetent leader Abercromby to attack Ticonderoga. But with his death " the soul of the expedition seemed to expire," and the English and Colonial forces were completely defeated by Montcalm. Yet before the year was out the French lost Fort Frontenac, and abandoned Fort Duquesne, which the colonists renamed Pittsburg, in honour of the great minister. In 1759 the French were assailed on every side. Wolfe was put at the head of an army of nearly 9000 men that sailed safely up the difficult navigation of the St. Lawrence to attack Quebec, where Montcalm had gathered nearly every able-bodied Canadian for its defence. But for a long time the two armies faced each other without coming to a serious encounter. "Montcalm," wrote Wolfe, " is at the head of a great number of bad soldiers, and I am at the head of a small number of good ones, that wish for nothing so much as to fight him; but the wary old fellow avoids an action, doubtful of the behaviour of his army." After failing to attack Montcalm's camp on the north of the river below the town, Wolfe resolved to pass higher up the river and attack Quebec on a side thought impregnable. In the dead of night 4000 English troops were brought in row-boats to the foot of the steep cliffs that overhang the north bank of the St. Lawrence. They scaled these as best they could, swinging themselves up by the help of the trees. The French sentries were surprised and disarmed, and daybreak saw the English forces arrayed on the Heights of Abraham, to the west of Quebec. The battle that ensued was little more than a skirmish; but, measured by results, it may rank with the greater battles of the world. The Canadians fought badly, and the French regulars were outflanked and overpowered. Wolfe and Montcalm were slain in the encounter. The incompetent governor, Vaudreuil, in his terror abandoned Quebec, which soon surrendered. Meanwhile Amherst had got hold of Ticonderoga, and another force had occupied Niagara. Next year three armies marched from Lake Ontario, Ticonderoga, and Quebec upon Montreal, where, after a short resistance, the small French garrison surrendered to Amherst's larger force, and a convention was signed, by which the Canadians were abandoned.

14. Death of George II., 1760.On the 25th October 1760, in the midst of these great successes, George II. died suddenly. As his son, the pretentious and insincere Frederick, had died in 1751, George was succeeded by Frederick's eldest son, George III. His other son William (1721-1765) created Duke of Cumberland in 1726, was the victor of Culloden, a man with none of the softer virtues, but possessed of courage, honesty, and obstinacy, a capable soldier, and a fervent patron of English sports.

1. [1] The country grew richer during the years of peace that succeeded the Treaty of Aachen. The peace-loving, plodding Henry carried out his modest but useful plans of reform, and carefully avoided stirring up opposition. The interest payable on the national debt was reduced to three per cent. Lord Hardwicke, the Chancellor, a famous lawyer, passed a to check secret marriages (), and a system of licensing public-houses counteracted the evils which the wide prevalence of spirit drinking, a new fashion brought in from Holland, had produced. But the sluggishness of 's government, as opposed as 's to all great changes, was reflected in the deadness of the nation to higher things. Men believed that religion, enthusiasm, patriotism were dying and rightly giving way to reason, solid good sense, and general love of mankind. In particular, the old religious hatreds that had raged so fiercely when was on the throne had largely yielded to the easy common-sense tolerance of the new generation. The High Church and the Puritan parties equally lost ground. The bishops were now mostly Low Churchmen, or Latitudinarians, or, as we should call them, Broad Churchmen. The country clergy remained High Church, and quarrelled so fiercely with the bishops in Convocation that, after , it was not allowed to meet again to transact business. Laymen became careless and sceptical. Preachers taught that men should be prudent, moral, and moderate. Their sermons were

"solid but dry dissertations, read without a gesture and without any particular elevation of the voice."

A school, which disbelieved in miracles and revelation, grew up, headed by Collins and Tindal, called the , against whom Joseph , Bishop of Durham, wrote his famous (). Leading clergymen were anxious to escape signing the Articles and repeating the Creeds. English Presbyterians were becoming Unitarians. Church-going ceased to be fashionable, and few new churches were built. Side by side with learning and dull good sense, among the educated classes, there was much gross neglect of duty and corruption,

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[1] 
while among the masses brutality, ignorance, drunkenness, and vice were hardly kept in check.

2. [2] The most emotional and enthusiastic of modern forms of Protestant religion sprang up in strong reaction to the general temper ofthis period. About , a few earnest Oxford men formed a little society which met to discuss religious questions, and whose members were remarkable for the holiness and good order of their lives. They fasted on Wednesdays and Fridays, received the Communion once a week, and ministered to the sick, the poor, and the prisoners in Oxford gaol. They were laughed at by their fellow-students, and nicknamed . Their leader was (), fellow of Lincoln College, a man of extraordinary force of character, who had learnt from the of the holy Nonjuror, William Law, a lofty and fervent piety. His brother, , afterwards famous as a hymn- writer, also joined the movement. They were both High Churchmen, like their father Samuel, rector of Epworth, Lincolnshire. Others of the little group were , servitor of Pembroke College, the son of a Gloucester innkeeper, who soon gained extraordinary influence by his vivid and heart-stirring sermons, and , author of the . They continued their meetings until , when the Wesleys left Oxford, and went on a mission to the colony of Georgia, just established by the warm-hearted General Oglethorpe as a refuge for debtors. But in returned to England, after altogether failing in his work in America. He was strangely despondent when he learnt from the (a German sect of gentle enthusiasts) that he had not yet been converted to a true sense of religion. At last, in a little room in Aldersgate Street, during a meeting of the society,

" about a quarter past nine,"

says ,

"I felt my heart strangely warmed, I felt I trusted in Christ alone for salvation, and an assurance that He had taken away my sins."

Inspired with this belief, and his friends preached with a stronger fervour and an unwonted zeal. The congregations groaned or wept, swayed by intense feeling, or they broke up the services by violence and riot. The sober and decorous clergy thought the Methodists mad, and refused to let them preach in their churches. In , therefore, the Methodists first built chapels of their own, though they declared that they were not dissenters, but anxious only to labour in the

61

ground left untilled by the Church. In the same year began to preach in the fields to the half-savage colliers of Kingswood, near Bristol. Tears ran down the blackened cheeks of his rude hearers as he spoke with intense pathos of death, sin, repentance, and the wrath to come. , who had

"thought the saving of souls almost a sin if it had not been done in a church,"

was driven into following 's example. For the rest of their lives the two great preachers wandered ceaselessly over the land; wherever they went they excited a storm of opposition or of enthusiasm. Often they were in danger of their lives, hooted at, pelted, maltreated by brutal mobs, and left to protect themselves by weak and bigoted magistrates. They were denounced as Papists, as hypocrites, as impostors. The wild excitement following from their preaching often produced the maddest extravagances. But they roused many thousands to lead new lives, and to shake off sluggish indifference or brutal vice. They stamped a profound impression upon English character which has not yet been effaced.

[3]  was an eloquent enthusiast who appealed chiefly to the emotion of the moment, but was a man of forethought and a remarkable organiser. He saw that to make the effects of his preach- ing last, he must establish an organised society. The Methodist body, over which he exercised a dictatorship, soon grew into a large and well-governed community, which, as time went on, gradually drifted into the position of a new dissenting sect. To the last professed his attachment to the Church of England; but by ordaining his lay-preachers, and empowering them to administer the Holy Communion, he established a precedent which, after his death, resulted in total separation. But long before this the Methodist camp had begun to be broken up. was a Calvinist, like the old Puritans, while 's High Church surroundings had made him a strong , who believed that God's grace was open to all mankind. They accordingly parted company, and attached himself to Selina, Countess of Huntingdon, a pious lady, whose chaplains stood half-way between conformity and dissent. But the great preacher's lack of the statesmanlike gifts of caused

" Lady Huntingdon's Connexion,"

as the English Calvinistic Methodists were called, to gradually dwindle away.

Only in Wales did Calvinistic Methodism take deep root.

62

[1] [4] 
There a parallel movement had been going on-started early in the century by Griffith Jones, Rector of Llanddowror, in Carmarthenshire, who invented a system of circulating schools, and carried on by Daniel Rowlands, vicar of Llangeitho, in Cardiganshire, and Howel Harris of Trevecca, near Brecon, in whose house Lady Huntingdon established a college for her preachers. Greater corruption in the ignorant and isolated clergy, and the extraordinary fervour and eloquence of the simple men who preached to the people in their own tongue, resulted in a movement of lasting importance. But it was not until that, under the guidance of of Bala, the Welsh Methodists gave up their regular connection with the Established Church.

In Scotland and Ireland religious conditions were too different for the movement to exercise much influence. But in British America it spread like wildfire, and to-day the Methodists are the most numerous body of American Protestants.

3. [5] While 's self-devotion and noble zeal were reviving religious enthusiasm in the face of torpor and vice, , with eloquence even greater, and with devotion as unselfish, was striving to restore high ideals and noble ambitions among the governing classes soiled by the corruption of , and guided only by the timid expediency of the Pelhams. The grandson of a governor of Madras, abandoned the army for a seat in Parliament, as representative of the deserted hill of Old Sarum. His thunders against first brought him into notice.

"His person was tall and imposing, with the eye of a hawk, a little head, thin face, long aquiline nose, and perfectly erect posture; his action was most expressive; his invectives were uttered with such energy and stern dignity of action and countenance that he intimidated all able to encounter him."

Like , he was a consummate actor, while his

"manners prohibited all familiarity, and almost seemed to forbid approach."

Gold could not tempt him, and he was loftily conscious of his rare power and his high mission. Poor, without great connections, he looked to the mass of the people of England rather than to the crowd of venal place-hunters that he addressed in the House. His marriage with Lady , sister of Lord , brought him into touch with a noble Whig family, but it lost him more than he gained. When he had

63

driven from power, he thundered with equal vehemence against the Hanoverian and unpopular policy of . At last Henry silenced him by office in ; but on the Prime Minister's death, in , stood forth again in his solitary grandeur as the one popular hero among the statesmen of the day.

4. [6] The Duke of stepped into his brother's place. , the great statesman's younger son, thus describes him:

"A borrowed importance and a real insignificance gave him the perpetual air of a solicitor. He had no pride, though unfailing self-love. He loved business immoderately; yet was always doing it, and never did it. When left to himself he always plunged into difficulties, and then shuddered for the consequences."

[7] This fussy busybody almost wrecked his ministry by giving the leadership of the House of Commons to Sir Thomas Robinson, a man as insignificant as himself. He was compelled to replace him by the able and eloquent, but unscrupulous and unpopular, Henry , an old rival of . But as there was a likelihood of war, all 's electioneering craft and parliamentary management could not compensate for the loss of confidence and popularity that followed 's dismissal. [8] In November resigned; but and the Duke of Devonshire, who now became ministers, found that without 's command over votes they were unable to carry on the government. At last the good sense of Lord Chesterfield healed the third Whig schism. [9] In June a coalition was brought about by which and became sharers of power. became First Lord of the Treasury, and Secretary of State. The gallant took charge of the Admiralty. The Duke confined himself to his natural sphere of intrigue and corruption, and to the peddling details of administration in which he delighted. Scornfully regardless of such sordid cares, the great Commoner threw his whole soul into the conduct of the war, which had broken out disastrously for England, while factions were raging in Parliament, and feeble governments struggling in vain for power.

5. Ever since the Revolution England had been growing richer through foreign trade, and her colonies and possessions were steadily rising in importance. Her old rival, Holland, had given up competing against her, and had become

64

[1] 
her ally; while Portugal, the earliest European colonial power, had, since the (), become her dependant. [10] But Spain and France watched the expansion of England with great jealousy, and even Austria was thoroughly disgusted at the selfish way in which the trade of the Netherlands had been sacrificed to English interests. The naval war with Spain in (since with France also), began a long struggle for the possession of India and America, which continued without a break till ; and whether peace or war prevailed at home, continued hostilities marked the fierce struggle of France and England for the possession of India and the New World.

6. [11] The great Mogul Empire, which had ruled northern and controlled southern India, broke up after the death of Aurangzeb in . India was plunged into extreme confusion. The and viceroys of the Emperor of Delhi now became, like the counts and dukes of the Roman Empire in the middle ages, independent and hereditary princes. The Hindus had long submitted to the rule of the foreign Mohammedan Moguls, but the successes of the warlike Marathas now marked a great Hindu revival. The companies of foreign merchants, who had long been rulers of trading settlements, now won for themselves political independence. After the Whig joined the Tory to form the . The restoration of the monopoly led to a great increase of their trade, and their stations of , Fort St. George (Madras), and Fort William (Calcutta) became the centres of a great and rich commerce. They found a keen competitor in the French India Company, whose chief seats were at Pondicherri, near Madras, and in the isles of Bourbon and France (Mauritius). But Francois Joseph Dupleix, the brilliant and far-seeing Governor of Pondicherri (since ), was the first European to perceive that, in the anarchy springing from the break up of the Mogul Empire, Europeans might hope for political rule as well as riches. [12] He took advantage of the Austrian Succession war to capture Madras in , and this conquest, though given back by the peace of , spread the fame of France throughout southern India. A more dangerous form of rivalry followed during the years of peace, which were not years of peace in India. Dupleix saw that by setting one native state or one

65

rival prince against the other, he might take a leading part in Indian affairs; while by drilling Indian troops (Sepoys) in the European way, he might make them as good as European soldiers, and easily defeat the huge but untrained hosts of the native princes, and with Indian arms and Indian gold make the vast continent subject to a small and distant European state. For India is a continent, not a nation. Its inhabitants are of many grades of civilisation, many religions, races, and tongues. No cohesion or unity was possible in such a vast mass of different elements. Here Dupleix's plans were as practicable as they were brilliant.

7. The second and greatest struggle between England and France for India began when the nations were at peace. Just after the treaty of Aachen, Dupleix took up the cause of Murzaffar Jang, who disputed with Nasir Jang, his uncle, the succession as subahdar (viceroy) of the Deccan, and supported Chanda Sahib against Anwar-ud-din Khan in his claim to the nawabship of the Karnatik. The English took up the other pretender's cause.

Robert Clive, 1725-74.

A worthy rival of Dupleix was found in Robert

Clive

, the son of a poor Shropshire squire, who had been sent out to be a clerk at Madras, as his turbulent and unruly disposition unfitted him for most careers at home. He became a soldier when Dupleix attacked Madras, and was now a captain.

Arcot, 1751.

In

1751

he suggested that the only way to save Trichinopoli, closely besieged by Chanda Sahib, was to seize Arcot, the capital of the Karnatik. He was intrusted with the task. The last march of his little force to Arcot was through a tropical thunderstorm. The garrison fled in a panic, but the whole forces of the Nawab and the French were now directed to reconquer it.

Clive

held out with firm determination. He filled his troops with such enthusiasm that when supplies ran short the Sepoys proposed to live on the water in which the rice was boiled, and leave the grain for the greater need of their English comrades. At last

Clive

compelled the enemy to raise the siege. This filled Southern India with profound belief in the bravery and resources of the English.

"The defence of Arcot was the turning-point in the eastern career of the English."

Clive

followed up his victory by the destruction of Dupleix Fatihabad (city of the victory of Dupleix), and by the capture of Trichinopoli. Dupleix's schemes were defeated. He returned to France (

1754

), to obscurity and disgrace, disgusted that the French Government had not realised the grandeur and practicability of his schemes.

Plassey, 1757.

Meanwhile Siraj-ud-Daula (Surajah Dowlah), Nawab of Bengal- an ally of the French-had quarrelled with the factory at Fort William. After seizing the town, he shut up the English prisoners in what was afterwards known as the

"Black Hole,"

a small and pestilent chamber, where, out of 146, all but 23 died of suffocation during the single night of their confinement.

Clive

was sent to avenge the outrage, and easily won back Calcutta. He sought to divide the Nawab's forces by persuading Mir Jafar, his general, to lay claim to Bengal; and on 23d June

1757

his little army

[1749-1756.]

of 3000 men utterly routed the 55,000 men that followed Siraj-ud- Daula, attacking their camp suddenly as they were cooking their dinner, and scattering them in a panic with little loss. The

battle of Plassey

made the English masters of Bengal, where Mir Jafar now reigned under their protection.

Pitt

, who saw

Clive

's greatness, declared that he was a

"heaven-born general."

Wandewash, 1760.

When open war broke out between England and France, the gallant and unfortunate Count de Lally sought to revive Dupleix's great schemes. But in January

1760

the decisive

victory of Wandewash

secured the supremacy of England in Southern India. The English commander, Colonel (afterwards Sir) Eyre

Coote

, completed the destruction of the French by the capture of Pondicherri in

1761

. The foundations of our Indian Empire were now firmly laid.

Clive

and

Coote

had beaten Dupleix and Lally in the policy which the Frenchmen had first conceived, but which the Englishmen were better able to carry out.

8. [17] While and were conquering India, a similar struggle between England and France was being fought out in North America. The English colonies, thirteen in number, were grouped along the eastern seaboard. In the north were the colonies, the settlements of seventeenth century Puritanism, and now free democracies, with, in some cases, even the privilege of electing their own governor. These were South of them were and , which in had been conquered from the Dutch. The coast beyond was included in (cut off from in ) and (), while the great quaker colony of () extended far into the interior. Pennsylvania was still a , and the

"proprietors,"

the sons of William Penn, the founder, were overlords of the whole country, nominated the governor, and were constantly quarrelling with the Assembly. , the great tobacco-planting state, founded in , came next. With its planter aristocracy, sprung from good English families, its population of slaves, and its Church of England religion, it stood in the strongest contrast to New England, whose inhabitants were yeomen farmers and small traders, with few inequalities of wealth or rank. It was, however, the most advanced of the colonies, and took the lead in all colonial movements. () lay south of Virginia, while () separated South Carolina from the Spanish colony of Florida. Georgia had been founded by the philanthropic Oglethorpe as a refuge for debtors, and had been the place of the first labours of John . The colonies

67

were now very flourishing, and fast increasing in population; but they were very jealous of each other, were discouraged from acting together, and had no common ideas save fear of the French and their Indian allies, and jealousy of English influence.

9. [18] The French colonies enclosed the English on every side. Along the valley of the St. Lawrence lay Canada, the most important of them, while in the Gulf of St. Lawrence lay the islands of St. John (Prince Edward's Island) and Cape Breton, containing Louisbourg, a great fortress. Acadie, now called Nova Scotia, had been ceded to the English in , along with the whole of the great cod-fishing island of Newfoundland. In Halifax, its future capital, had been founded by the English Government, almost the only English settlement established purely by the state. But the English and French were still quarrelling about the boundaries of the ceded country, especially whether the coasts of the Bay of Fundy were or were not given up to England. There was another French settlement called , of which , named after the Regent Philip, was the capital. It stretched up the Mississippi valley, and threatened to shut the English out from access to the west. The French colonies were thinly inhabited, and badly governed; but the fur dealers and Indian traders were hardy, energetic, and daring; and, as in the East, the governors planned great schemes for extending the power of France. The French now took nearly all the Red Indians into their pay, drove the English traders over the Alleghanies, and set up a series of forts which aimed at connecting and Canada. Forts Frontenac and Toronto commanded Lake Ontario; Fort Niagara the passage to the south between the two great lakes; while Fort Duquesne, on the Alleghany river, was the key to the upper valley of the Ohio.

A brisk frontier war now broke out, in which the Indians in the French pay committed all sorts of atrocities. In

1754

, Major George

Washington

, of the Virginian Militia, scarcely twenty-two years of age, but already able to control his vehement and fiery nature by his coolness of judgment and sense of public duty, was compelled to capitulate after an unsuccessful attack on Fort Duquesne. Both England and France now sent troops to America. But in

1755

, General Braddock, a brave but blundering guardsman, at the head of 1500 men, was disgracefully defeated and slain in an expedition against the same stronghold. The English now turned the wretched Acadians out of Nova Scotia; and in

1756

, after war had been formally declared, the English colonies were forced by their fears from their sluggish

NEW ENGLAND AND NEW FRANCE, 1755-1783.

1757.]

attitude of indifference. When once the real struggle began, the overwhelming superiority in numbers of the English soon made itself felt. The ardent and generous Marquis of

Montcalm

succeeded, in

1756

, in taking Oswego, the English fort on Lake Ontario, and, in

1757

, Fort William Henry, at the head of Lake St. George. These were the last important French successes.

10. [19] The struggle for India and America was soon overshadowed by the outbreak of a great European war. A formidable coalition was formed, which, though mostly turned against Prussia, was also partly aimed at England. After the treaty of , European affairs took a new turn. Austria was so disgusted with England and Holland for making her give up Silesia and a large part of the Milanese, and for their old policy of putting down the trade of the Netherlands, that, by a bold stroke of Kaunitz, her minister, Maria Theresa established a close alliance with the French, hoping thus to ruin Prussia, or at least get back Silesia. Russia, under the Empress Elizabeth, joined them. Sweden followed her example. The weak and dilettante Augustus, Elector of Saxony, who was also King of Poland, was, with many of the smaller states of Germany, also won over. Prussia was thus forced to struggle for its very existence; but the Great showed wonderful coolness, presence of mind, and energy in the face of danger. The old jealousies with his uncle George now seemed to vanish. In great alarm England made, in , a treaty with Prussia. anticipated attack by overrunning the territory of his least formidable enemy, Saxony, and compelled the Saxon army to surrender at Pirna (15th October ), after the Austrians had been defeated in an attempt to relieve it at the (1st October). This was the beginning of what is properly called the

11.

English disasters, 1757.

England was quite unready to fight.

" From every side came tidings of disaster."

Our allies, the Dutch, would not depart from their neutrality.

Frederick

, assailed on all hands, was in a desperate state. Minorca, which had been English since

1708

, was attacked by the Duke of Richelieu. Admiral

Byng

, sent out with a fleet for its defence, withdrew without fighting a battle, and the castle of St. Philip surrendered.

Byng

was made a scapegoat for the national fury, and tried and shot for cowardice (14th March

1757

). Meanwhile the Duke of

Cumberland

, now grown unwieldy and inactive, was, in July

1757

, completely beaten by the French at

Hastenbeck

, and driven back on to the Elbe. In September he was forced to sign the

Capitulation of Klosterseven,

by which Hanover was entirely left in French hands, and the army of the Duke partly disbanded. The French were thus left free to attack

[l757-1760.]

Prussia. England daily expected an invasion. French cruisers plundered her commerce: expeditions against Louisbourg and Rochefort failed.

" The nation trembled under a shameful panic too public to be concealed, too shameful in its consequences to be ever long forgotten."

12. [21] Such was the state of things when , in June , became minister.

"I am sure,"

said he,

"that I can save the country, and I am sure that no one else can."

He at once set to work with extraordinary energy to restore the flagging spirits of his countrymen.

"Ignorant of finance, he kept aloof from all details, drew magnificent plans, and left to others to find the magnificent means. Secluded from all eyes, his orders were received as oracles. Their success was imputed to his inspiration-misfortunes and miscarriages fell to the account of the more human agents."

Such is an enemy's account of his success.

Under

Pitt

's guidance the war, which had begun with such disasters, soon turned out the most brilliant and successful of the century. He often wasted money and men on useless expeditions; but he saw clearly that his first duty was to maintain

Frederick

in his heroic struggle, and to secure English supremacy all over the world. He threw to the winds his old hatred of foreign subsidies and German alliances. His large subsidies enabled

Frederick

to keep an army together.

"America must be conquered in Germany"

was

Pitt

's answer to those who grew impatient at the vast expenses of his German campaigns. The capitulation of Klosterseven was repudiated. The crushing defeat of the French at Rossbach (5th November

1757

), and of the Austrians at Leuthen (5th December

1757

), showed that

Frederick

was able to struggle with success against his three mighty foes. Though in

1758

and

1759

the King of Prussia was brought to sore straits, the well-directed attacks of the English and Hanoverians kept the French busy on the Rhine, and left

Frederick

to struggle against the Austrians, Russians, and Swedes. On 1st August

1759

a great victory at Minden was won by Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick at the head of the English troops. On 3d November

1760

Frederick

defeated the Austrians in the bloody battle of Torgau.

The greatest victories of England were at sea and outside Europe. We have seen how

Clive

won Bengal, and

Coote

destroyed the French power in Southern India. In September

1759

Hawke put an end to all fears of invasion by his crushing defeat of the French in Quiberon Bay. All over the world the French colonies were now conquered. But

Pitt

's crowning triumph was the annihilation of French influence in North America.

13.

Conquest of Canada, 1758-60.

In

1758

Pitt

formed a great plan for attacking Canada from three different sides, and sent some of the best of his young officers to carry it out.

Jeffrey Amherst

conquered and destroyed the great fortress of Louisbourg. With him was Brigadier

James Wolfe

, a man after

Pitt

's own heart, who, with wretched health and mean appearance, had the heart

of a hero, and whose dearest ambition was to

"cut up New France by the roots."

Another favourite of

Pitt

was the young, popular, and brilliant Lord Howe,

" a complete model of military virtue,"

who was destined to accompany the incompetent leader Abercromby to attack Ticonderoga. But with his death

" the soul of the expedition seemed to expire,"

and the English and Colonial forces were completely defeated by

Montcalm

. Yet before the year was out the French lost Fort Frontenac, and abandoned Fort Duquesne, which the colonists renamed Pittsburg, in honour of the great minister. In

1759

the French were assailed on every side.

Wolfe

was put at the head of an army of nearly 9000 men that sailed safely up the difficult navigation of the St. Lawrence to attack Quebec, where

Montcalm

had gathered nearly every able-bodied Canadian for its defence. But for a long time the two armies faced each other without coming to a serious encounter.

"Montcalm,"

wrote

Wolfe

,

" is at the head of a great number of bad soldiers, and I am at the head of a small number of good ones, that wish for nothing so much as to fight him; but the wary old fellow avoids an action, doubtful of the behaviour of his army."

After failing to attack

Montcalm

's camp on the north of the river below the town,

Wolfe

resolved to pass higher up the river and attack Quebec on a side thought impregnable. In the dead of night 4000 English troops were brought in row-boats to the foot of the steep cliffs that overhang the north bank of the St. Lawrence. They scaled these as best they could, swinging themselves up by the help of the trees. The French sentries were surprised and disarmed, and daybreak saw the English forces arrayed on the

Heights of Abraham

, to the west of Quebec. The battle that ensued was little more than a skirmish; but, measured by results, it may rank with the greater battles of the world. The Canadians fought badly, and the French regulars were outflanked and overpowered.

Wolfe

and

Montcalm

were slain in the encounter. The incompetent governor, Vaudreuil, in his terror abandoned Quebec, which soon surrendered. Meanwhile

Amherst

had got hold of Ticonderoga, and another force had occupied Niagara. Next year three armies marched from Lake Ontario, Ticonderoga, and Quebec upon Montreal, where, after a short resistance, the small French garrison surrendered to

Amherst

's larger force, and a convention was signed, by which the Canadians were abandoned.

14. [23] On the 25th October , in the midst of these great successes, died suddenly. As his son, the pretentious and insincere , had died in , was succeeded by 's eldest son, His other son William created Duke of in , was the victor of Culloden, a man with none of the softer virtues, but possessed of courage, honesty, and obstinacy, a capable soldier, and a fervent patron of English sports.

 
 
Footnotes:

[1] State of Religion. Latitudinarianism and Rationalism.

[1] [1729-1791.]

[2] The Methodist Movement, 1729-39.

[3] Arminian and Calvinistic Methodism, 1739-91.

[1] [l754-1757.]

[4] Welsh Methodism, 1730-1811.

[5] William Pitt, 1708-78.

[6] Whig schism after Pelham's death, 1764-57.

[7] Newcastle Ministry, 1754-56.

[8] Devonshire Ministry, 1756-57.

[9] The Pitt-Newcastle Ministry, 1757-61.

[1] [1741-1757.]

[10] Origin of the Seven Years' War, 1748-55.

[11] France and England in India.

[12] Dupleix, 1741-1754.

[17] The North American Colonies.

[18] England and France in North America.

[19] The attack on Prussia, 1756.

[21] Pitt's victories, 1757-60.

[23] Death of George II., 1760.