Walks in London, vol. 2

Hare, Augustus J. C.
1878

Chapter II: The West-End.

Chapter II: The West-End.

 

From , , the handsomest street in London, leads to the west. Its name is a record of its having been the place where the game of Palle-malle was played--a game still popular in the deserted streets of old sleepy Italian cities, and deriving its name from , a ball, and a mallet. It was already introduced into England in the reign of James I., who (in his

*basiliko\n *dw=ron

) recommended his son Prince Henry to play at it. Charles II., who was passionately fond of the game, removed the site for it to .[n.43.1] 

It was across the ground afterwards set apart for Pallemalle, described by Le Serre as

near the avenues of the (St. James's) palace--a large meadow, always green, in which ladies walk in summer,

that Sir Thomas Wyatt led his rebel troops into London in , passing with little loss under the fire of the artillery planted on by the Earl of Pembroke, and forcing his way successfully through the guard drawn out to defend , but

44

only to be deserted by his men and taken prisoner as he entered the City.

The street was not enclosed till about , when it was at called , in honour of Catherine of Braganza, and it still continued to be a fashionable promenade rather than a highway for carriage traffic. Thus Gay alludes to it-

O bear me to the paths of fair Pall Mall! Safe are thy pavements, grateful is thy smell! At distance rolls along the gilded coach, Nor sturdy carmen on thy walks encroach; No lets would bar thy ways were chairs deny'd, The soft supports of laziness and pride; Shops breathe perfumes, through sashes ribbons glow, The mutual arms of ladies and the beau. Trivia, bk. II.

Club-houses are the characteristic of the street, though. none of the existing buildings date beyond the present century. In the last century their place was filled by taverns where various literary and convivial societies had their meetings: Pepys in was frequently at of these, The trial of street gas in London was made here in , in a row of lamps, on the King's birthday, before the colonnade of Carlton House. Amid all the changes of the town, London-lovers have continued to give their best affections to , and how many there are who agree with the lines of Charles Morris [n.44.1] -

In town let me live, then, in town let me die;

For in truth I can't relish the country, not I.

If one must have a villa in summer to dwell,

Oh! give me the sweet shady side of Pall Mall.

Entering the street by , we pass, just beyond the rooms of the Old Water Colour Society, the entrance to , where Charles II.

furnished a house most richly

[n.45.1]  for his beloved Moll Davis, and where Pepys

did see her coach come for her to her door, a mighty pretty fine coach.

[n.45.2]  Here also lived Miss Esther Vanhomrigh, who has become, under the name of Vanessa, celebrated for her unhappy and ill-requited devotion to Dean Swift. On the right is the existed as early as , marking the site of a house of the Earls of Suffolk, but did not become important till the Restoration, when the residence of Secretary Coventry gave a name to the neighbouring .

On the left falls into . At the end of ,[n.45.3]  which opens into it, stood Warwick House, where Princess Charlotte was compelled by her father to reside, and where

wearied out by a series of acts all proceeding from the spirit of petty tyranny, and each more vexatious than another, though none of them very important in itself,

she determined to escape. She ()

rushed out of her residence in Warwick House, unattended; hastily crossed

Cockspur Street

; flung herself into the

first

hackney-coach she could find; and drove to her mother's house in

Connaught Place

.

[n.45.4] 

A public-house at the entrance of still bears the sign of which recalls the habits of locomotion in the last century, when Defoe wrote-

I am lodged in the street called

Pall Mall

, the ordinary residence of all strangers, because of its vicinity to the Queen's Palace, the Park, the

Parliament House, the theatres, and the chocolate and coffee houses, where the best company frequent. If you would know our manner of living, 'tis thus :--we rise by

nine

, and those that frequent great men's levees find entertainment at them till

eleven

, or, as at Holland, go to tea-tables. About

twelve

, the

beau-monde

assembles in several coffee or chocolate houses; the best of which are the Cocoa Tree, and White's chocolate-houses; St. James's, the Smyrna, Mr. Rochford's, and the British coffee-houses; and all these so near

one

another, that in less than

one

hour you see the company of them all. We are carried to these places in Sedan chairs, which are here very cheap, a guinea a week, or a shilling per hour; and your chairmen serve you for porters to run on errands, as your gondoliers do at Venice.

Passing the equestrian statue of George III., by , , we now reach the foot of the , so called from the market for hay and straw which was held here in the reign of Elizabeth, and was not finally abolished till . On the right is the (opened ), on the left the Italian Opera House (built in

). It was between these, at the foot of the , that Thomas Thynne of Longleat was murdered on Sunday, , by ruffians hired by Count Konigsmarck, who hoped, when Thynne was out of the way, to ingratiate himself with his affianced bride, the rich young Lady Elizabeth Percy, already, in her year, the widow of Lord Ogle. The assassins employed were Vratz, a German; Stern, a Swede; and Borotski, a Pole; but only the last of these fired, though no less than of his bullets pierced his victim. The scene is represented on Thynne's monument in . The conspirators were taken, and tried at Hicks's Hall in Clerkenwell, where Königsmarck was acquitted, but the others sentenced to death, and hanged in the street which was the scene of their crime. They were attended by Bishop Burnet, who

47

narrates that, in return for his religious admonitions, Vratz expressed his conviction that

God would consider a gentleman, and deal with him suitably to the condition and profession he had placed him in; and that he would not take it ill if a soldier who lived by his sword avenged an affront offered him by another.

Stern, on the scaffold, complained that he died for.a man's fortune whom he never spoke to, for a woman whom he never saw, and for a dead man whom he never had a sight of.

[Addison lived in. the , and wrote his there. On the right are , where James II. used to play in the tennis court, and , so called from Colonel Panton, the successful gamester, who died in . At the corner of (left) lived Hannah Lightfoot, the fair Quakeress, beloved by George III. Farther on the left is the entry of the little court called , where Richard Baxter preached.] Proceeding down , and passing the , by , , we reach the opening of , which occupies the site of Carlton House, built for Henry Boyle, Lord Carlton, in , and purchased by Frederick, Prince of Wales, in . His widow, Augusta of Saxe-Cobourg, lived here for many years, and died in . The house was redecorated for the marriage of the Prince of Wales, afterwards George IV. Here his daughter Charlotte was born (), and married to Leopold of Saxe-Cobourg (. ). Here also, in , George IV. gave his famous banquet as Prince Regent.

Horace Walpole was beyond measure ecstatic in his

48

admiration of Carlton House, though where the money to pay for it was to come from he could not conceive;

all the mines in Cornwall could not pay a quarter.

The redundancy of ornament induced Bonomi to write on the Ionic screen facing the epigram-

Care colonne, che fate quà?

Non sappiamo, in verità!

But all its magnificence came to an end in , when the house was pulled down, its fittings taken to Buckingham Palace, and its columns used in building the portico of the . Its site is marked by the ( feet high) surmounted by a , son of George III., by , which faces . On the right is a . On the left is a by . The relief on its pedestal represents the funeral of Franklin, with Captain Crozier reading the burial service: it wonderfully appeals to human sympathies, and there is scarcely a moment in the day when passers-by are not lingering to examine it.

We now enter upon a perfect succession of the buildings erected for the clubs, originally defined by Dr. Johnson as

assemblies of good fellows, meeting under certain conditions.

They have greatly improved since those days, and are now the great comfort of bachelor-life in London.

Comme ils savent organiser le bien-être!

Taine justly exclaims with regard to them. At the angle of is the , the chief literary club in London, built by Decimus Burton, . Beyond arise, on the left, the (by Barry, ); the

49

(by Barry, ); and the (by Smirke, , from St. Mark's Library at Venice), the famous political Conservative club founded by the Duke of Wellington in . Beyond these, the occupies a house originally built for Edward, Duke of York, brother of George III., with an admirable meditative statue in front of it, representing Lord Herbert of Lea, Secretary of State for War (by , ). Beyond this are the (by Smirke, -); and the (by Harrison, ). On the right, opposite the War Office, is the Parnell and Smith, ).

(The short streets on the right of lead into , which dates from the time of Charles II., when the adjoining and were named in honour of the King, and and in honour of the Duke of York. In the centre was a Gothic conduit, which is seen in old prints and maps of London, with a steep gable and walls of coloured bricks in diamond patterns. Its site is now occupied by a statue of William III. by the younger , . The great Duke of Ormond lived here in Ormond House, and his duchess died there. No. was the house of the Duke of Leeds.

When the Duke of Leeds shall married be To a fair young lady of high quality, How happy will that gentlewoman be In his grace of Leeds' good company!

She shall have all that's fine and fair, And the best of silk and satin. shall wear; And ride in a coach to take the air, And have a house in St. James's Square.

50

No. , which belonged to Sir Philip Francis, was lent to Queen Caroline (), and was inhabited by her during the earlier part of her trial. No. was the house of Lord Castlereagh, who lay in state there in . No. , the Duke of Cleveland's, is an interesting old house, and contains a fine picture of Barbara, Duchess of Cleveland, by . No. , in the south-east corner, is , and has been inhabited by the Dukes of Norfolk since . Hither Frederick Prince of Wales, when turned out of St. James's by George II., took refuge with his family till the purchase of Leicester House; and here George III. was born, , being a -months' child, and was privately baptized the same day by Secker, Bishop of Oxford.)

We may notice No. , , as occupying the site of the house which was given by Charles II. to Nell Gwynne,. described by Burnet as

the indiscreetest and wildest creature that ever was in a court.

She lived here from to . It is still the only freehold in the street.

It was given by a long lease by Charles II. to Nell Gwyn, and upon her discovering it to be only a lease under the Crown, she returned him the lease and conveyances, saying she had always conveyed free under the Crown, and always would; and would not accept it till it was conveyed free to her by Act of Parliament made on and for that purpose. Upon Nell's death it was sold, and has been conveyed free ever since.-Granger's Letters, p. 308.

The garden of the house had a mount, on which Nell used to stand to talk over the wall to the King as he. walked in .

5 March, 1671.-I walk'd with him (Charles II.) thro' St. James's Parke to the gardens, where I both saw and heard a very familiar discourse between the King and Mrs. Nellie, as they cal'd an impudent comedian, she looking out of her garden on a terrace on the top of the wall, and the king standing on ye greene walke under it. I was heartily sorry at this scene. Thence the king walk'd to the Duchess of Cleaveland, another lady of pleasure and curse of our nation.- Evelyn.

This neighbourhood, so close to the palace, was naturally popular with the mistresses of the royal Stuarts. Barbara Palmer, Duchess of Cleveland, and Hortensia Mancini, Duchess of Mazarin, both lived at time in , and Moll Davis in . Arabella Churchill and Catherne Sedley, mistresses of James II., also lived in .

Nos. and are portions of , built for the great Duke of Schomberg, who was killed in his year at the Battle of the Boyne in , and over whose death William III. wept, saying,

I have lost my father.

[n.51.1]  It was afterwards inhabited by John Astley the painter, who placed the relief over the entrance. He divided the house and after his death the central compartment was occupied by Cosway the miniature painter. Gainsborough lived in of the wings of the house from to , and Sir Joshua Reynolds sat to him for his portrait there. It was there also,

in a

second

-floor chamber,

that Sir Joshua Was present () at the death-bed of Gainsborough, and heard his last words,

We are all going to heaven, and Vandyke is of the company.

Much of the house has been demolished, but Gainsborough's wing remains.

On the opposite side of the street was the

Star and Garter

,

where the Literary Club had the meetings which

52

Swift describes in a letter to Stella; and where () William, Lord Byron, having a quarrel with his neighbour, Mr. Chaworth, as to which had most game on his estate, challenged him, fought him by the light of a single tallow candle, and gave him a wound which proved fatal the next day, and for which he was tried in Hall.

On the left is , built (-) by Sir Christopher Wren for the great Duke of Marlborough, on an offset of the Park given by Queen Anne. The Duke died in the house in , and here also died his famous duchess, Sarah,

The wisest fool that ever Time has made,

in spite of her retort when told, in her eigtty- year, that she must either be blistered or die-

I won't be blistered, and I won't die.

She kept up the utmost pomp to the last, and talked of her

neighbour George

at St. James's. The bad entrance that still exists testifies to the spite of Sir Robert Walpole, who, when he found the old duchess desirous of making a suitable approach to her house, bought up the leases of the encroaching houses to prevent her. The house remained in the Marlborough family till it was purchased for Princess Charlotte in . It was the London residence of Queen Adelaide in her widowhood, and was settled upon Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, in . The saloon still contains a number of very interesting pictures by of the victories of the Duke of Marlborough. George IV. made a plan for connecting Marlborough House with Carlton House by a gallery of portraits of the British Sovereigns and historical personages connected with them.

The building which projects into the grounds of Marlborough House, and which is entered from the roadway into the Park on the left of , is interesting as the Roman built by Charles I. for Henrietta Maria, the erection of which gave such offence to his subjects.

 

The picturesque old brick gateway of still looks up , of the most precious relics of the past in London, and enshrining the memory of a greater succession of historical events than any other domestic building in England, Windsor Castle not excepted. The site of the palace was occupied, even before the

54

Conquest, by a hospital dedicated to St. James, for

fourteen

maidens that were leprous.

Henry VIII. obtained it by exchange, pensioned off the sisters, and converted the hospital into

a fair mansion and park,

[n.54.1]  in the same year in which he was married to Anne Boleyn, who was commemorated here with him in love-knots, now almost obliterated, upon the side doors of the gateway, and in the letters

H. A.

on the chimney-piece of the presence-chamber or tapestry room. Holbein is sometimes said to have been the king's architect here, as he was at . Henry can seldom have lived here, but hither his daughter, Mary I., retired, after her husband Philip left England for Spain, and here she died, .

It is said that in the beginning of her sickness, her friends, supposing King Philip's absence afflicted her, endeavoured by all means. to divert her melancholy. But all proved in vain: and the Queen, abandoning herself to despair, told them she should die, though they were yet strangers to the cause of her death; but if they would know it hereafter, they must dissect her, and they would find Calais at her heart; intimating that the loss of that place was her death's wound.- Godwin.

James I., in , settled St. James's on his eldest son, Prince Henry, who kept his court here for years with great magnificence, having a salaried household of no less than persons. Here he died in his year, . Upon his death, St. James's was given to his brother Charles, who frequently resided here after his accession to the throne, and here Henrietta Maria gave birth to Charles II., James II., and the Princess Elizabeth. In the palace was given as a refuge to the queen's mother, Marie de' Medici,

55

who lived here for years, with a pension of a month I Hither Charles I. was brought from Windsor as the prisoner of the Parliament, his usual attendants, with exception, being debarred access to him, and being replaced by common soldiers, who sat smoking and drinking even in the royal bedchamber, never allowing him a moment's privacy, and hence he was taken in a sedan chair to his trial at .

On Sunday the 28th (after his condemnation) he was attended by a guard from Whitehall to St. James's, where Juxon, Bishop of London, preached before him on these words (Rom. ii. 16), In the day when God shall judge the secrets of all men by Jesus Christ, according to my gospel. After the service the King received the Sacrament, and he spent the rest of the day in private devotion, and in conferences with the Bishop. The next day Charles underwent the cruel pang of separating from his two children (who alone were in England), Henry, Duke of Gloucester, who was about seven years of age, and the Princess Elizabeth, who was about thirteen. Their interview with him was long, tender, and afflicting. He bade the Lady Elizabeth tell her mother that his thoughts had never strayed from her, and that his love should be the same to the last, and begged her to remember to tell her brother James that it was his father's last desire that after his death he should no longer look upon his brother Charles merely as his elder brother, but should be obedient to him as his sovereign; and that they should both love one another, and forgive their father's enemies. But, said the King to her, sweetheart, you will forget this? No, said she, I will never forget it as long as I live. He prayed her not to grieve for him, for he should die a glorious death; it being for the laws and liberties of the land, and for maintaining the true Protestant religion. He charged her to forgive those people, but never to trust them; for they had been most false to him, and to those that gave them power, and he feared also to their own souls. He then urged her to read Bishop Andrewes' Sermons, Hooker's Ecclesiastical Polity, and Archbishop Laud's Book against Fisher, which would strengthen her faith, and confirm her in a pious attachment to the Church of England, and an aversion from Popery. Then taking the Duke of Gloucester on his knee, the King said to him, Sweetheart, now they will cut off thy father's head (upon which words the child looked very earnestly and steadfastly at him). Mark, child, what I say, they will cut off my head, and perhaps make thee a king: but mark me, you must not be a king, so long as your brothers, Charles and James, do live; for they will cut off your brothers' heads when they can catch them, and cut off thy head at last too; and therefore I charge you do not be made a king by them: at which the child said earnestly, I will be torn in pieces first, which ready reply from so young an infant filled the King's eyes with tears of admiration and pleasure.-Trial of Charles I., Family Library, xxxi.

On the following day the king was led away from St. James's to the scaffold. His faithful friends Henry Rich, Earl of Holland; the Duke of Hamilton and Lord Capel; were afterwards imprisoned in the palace and suffered like their master.

Charles II., who was born at St. James's (), resided at , giving up the palace to his brother the Duke of York (also born here, ), but reserving apartments for his mistress, the Duchess of Mazarin, who at time resided there with a pension of a year. Here Mary II. was born, ; and here she was married to William of Orange, at at night, . Here for many years the Duke and Duchess of York secluded themselves with their children, in mourning and sorrow, on the anniversary of his father's murder. Here, also, Anne Hyde, Duchess of York, died, , asking

What is truth?

of Blandford, Bishop of Worcester, who came to visit her.

In also, James's wife, Mary of Modena, gave birth to her child, Prince James Edward (

the Old Pretender

) on .

There, on the morning of Sunday, the tenth of June, a day long kept sacred by the too faithful adherents of a bad cause, was born the most unfortunate of princes, destined to seventy-seven years of exile and wandering, of vain projects, of honours more galling than insults, and of hopes such as make the heart sick.-Macaulay, ch. viii.

The king rose between seven and eight, and went to his own side of the palace. About a quarter of an hour after, the queen sent for him in hot haste, and requested to have every one summoned whom he wished to be witnesses of the birth of their child. The first person who obeyed the summons was Mrs. Margaret Dawson, one of her bedchamber women, formerly in the service of Anne Hyde, Duchess of York; she had been present at the birth of all the king's children, including the Princess Anne of Denmark. The bed was then made ready for her majesty, who was very chilly, and wished it to be warmed. Accordingly, a warming-pan full of hot coals was brought into the climber, with which the bed was warmed previously to the queen entering it. From this circumstance, simple as it was, but unusual, the absurd talk was fabricated that a spurious child was introduced into the queen's bed. Mrs. Dawson afterwards deposed, on oath, that she saw fire in the warming-pan when it was brought into her majesty's chamber, the time being then about eight o'clock, and the birth of the prince did not take place until ten .... After her majesty was in bed, the king came in, and she asked him if he had sent for the queen dowager. He replied, I have sent for everybody, and so, indeed, it seemed; for besides the queen dowager and her ladies, and the ladies of the queen's household, the state officers of the palace, several of the royal physicians, and the usual professional attendants, there were eighteen members of the Privy Council, who stood at the foot of the bed. There were in all sixty-seven persons present. Even the Princess Anne, in her coarse, cruel letters to her sister on this subject, acknowledged that the queen was much distressed by the presence of so many men, especially by that of the Lord Chancellor Jeffreys.- Stickland's Queens of England.

It was to St. James's that William III. came on his arrival in England, and he frequently resided there afterwards, dining in public, with the Duke of Schomberg seated at his right hand and a number of Dutch guests, but on no occasion was any English gentleman invited. In the latter part of William's reign the palace was given up to the Princess Anne, who had been born there, , and married there to Prince George of Denmark, .

58

She was residing here when Bishop Burnet brought her the news of William's death and her own accession.

George I., on his arrival in England, came at once to St. James's.

This is a strange country, he remarked afterwards; the first morning after my arrival at St. James's, I looked out of the window, and saw a park with walks, and a canal, which they told me were mine. The next day Lord Chetwynd, the ranger of my park, sent me a fine brace of carp out of my canal; and I was told I must give five guinea. to Lord Chetwynd's servant for bringing me my own carp, out of my own canal, in my own park. -Walpole's Reminiscences.

The Duchess of Kendal, the king's mistress, had rooms in the palace, and, towards the close of his reign, George I. assigned appartments there on the ground-floor to a fresh favourite, Miss Anne Brett. When the king left for Hanover, Miss Brett had a door opened from her rooms to the royal gardens, which the king's grand-daughter, Princess Anne, who was residing in the palace, indignantly ordered to be walled up. Miss Brett had it opened a time, and the quarrel was at its height, when the news of the king's death put an end to the power of his mistress. With the accession of George II. the Countesses of Yarmouth and Suffolk took possession of the apartments of the Duchess of Kendal. As Prince of Wales, George II. had resided in the palace, till a smouldering quarrel with his father came to a crisis over the christening of of the royal children, and the next day he was put under arrest, and ordered to leave St. James's with his family the same evening. Wilhelmina Caroline of Anspach, the beloved queen of George II., died in the palace, , after an agonizing illness, endured with the utmost fortitude and consideration for all around her.

Of the daughters of George II. and Queen Caroline, Anne, the eldest, was married at St. James's to the Prince of Orange, , urged to the alliance by her desire for power, and answering to her parents, when they reminded her of the hideous and ungainly appearance of the bridegroom,

I would marry him, even if he were a baboon!

The marriage, however, was a happy , and a pleasant contrast to that of her younger sister Mary, the king's daughter, who was married here to the brutal Frederick of Hesse Cassel, . The daughter, Caroline, died at St. James's, , after a long seclusion consequent upon the death of John, Lord Harvey, to whom she was passionately attached.

George I. and George II. used, on certain days, to play at Hazard at the grooms' postern at St. James's, and the name

Hells,

as applied to modern gaming-houses, is derived from that given to the gloomy room used by the royal gamblers.[n.59.1] 

The northern part of the palace, beyond the gateway (inhabited in the reign of Victoria by the Duchess of Cambridge), was built for the marriage of Frederick Prince of Wales.

The (which those who frequent levees and drawing-rooms have abundant opportunities of surveying) are handsome, and contain a number of good royal portraits.

The , on the right on entering the

Colour Court,

has a carved and painted ceiling of . Madame d'Arblay describes the pertinacity of George III. in attending service here in bitter November weather, when

60

the queen and court at length left the king, his chaplain, and equerry

to freeze it out together.

There is still a full choral service here at A.M. and P.M., when, on payment of ., any may occupy the

seats of nobility

and say their prayers on crimson cushions. Bishop Burnet's complaint to the Princess Anne of the ogling which went on here during Divine service drew down the ballad attributed to Lord Peterborough-

When Burnet perceived that the beautiful dames, Who flock'd to the chapel of hilly St. James, On their lovers alone their kind looks did bestow, And smiled not on him while be bellow'd below,

To the Princess he went, With pious intent,

This dangerous ill to the Church to prevent. Oh, madam, he said, 'our religion is lost, If the ladies thus ogle the knights of the toast. These practices, madam, my preaching disgrace: Shall laymen enjoy the first rights of my place? Then all may lament my condition so hard, Who thrash in the pulpit without a reward.

Then pray condescend Such disorders to end,

And to the ripe vineyard the labourers send, To build up the seats, that the beauties may see The face of no bawling pretender but me.' The Princess, by rude importunity press'd, Though she laugh'd at his reasons, allow'd his request; And now Britain's nymphs, in a Protestant reign, Are box'd up at prayers like the virgins in Spain.

When Queen Caroline (wife of George II.) asked Mr. Whiston what fault people had to find with her conduct, he replied that the fault they most complained of was her habit of talking in chapel.

She promised amendment, but proceeding to ask what other faults were objected to

her, he replied,

When your Majesty has amended this I'll tell you of the next

[n.61.1] 

It was in this chapel that the colours taken from James II. at the Battle of the Boyne were hung up by his daughter Mary, an unnatural exhibition of triumph which shocked the Londoners. Besides that of Queen Anne,[n.61.2]  a number of royal marriages have been solemnised here; those of the daughters of George II., of Frederick Prince of Wales to Augusta of Saxe Cobourg, of George IV. to Caroline of Brunswick, and of Queen Victoria to Prince Albert.

The at the back of has a private entrance to the Park. It was as he was alighting from his carriage here, , that George III. was attacked with a knife by the insane Margaret Nicholson.

The bystanders were proceeding to wreak summary vengeance on the (would-be) assassin, when the King generously interfered in her behalf. The poor creature, he exclaimed, is mad: do not hurt her; she has not hurt me. He then stepped forward and showed himself to the populace, assuring them that he was safe and uninjured.Jesse, Memoirs of George III.

(where John Selwyn, Marlborough's aide de-camp, and his son, George Selwyn, lived, and where the latter died, ) now leads to (Earl of Ellesmere), built - by Barry, on the site of Cleveland House, once the residence of Barbara Villiers, Duchess of Cleveland, having before that belonged to the great Earl of Clarendon, and afterwards to the Earls of Bridgewater. The principal windows bear the monogram of EE on their pediments, and, on the panel beneath,

62

the Bridgewater motto--

Sic donec.

The can generally be visited on Wednesdays and Saturdays, but the pictorial gems of the house are all contained in the dwelling-rooms on the ground-floor, and can only be seen by an especial permission from its master. In the centre of the house is a great hall, surrounded, on the upper floor, by an arcaded gallery, which contains, turning left from the head of the stairs-

63-69. Nicholas Poussin. The Seven Sacraments--from the Orleans Gallery. A similar set of pictures, by the same master, is at Belvoir.

76. Annibale Carracci. St. Gregory at Prayer, surrounded by angels--a dull picture painted for the Church of St. Gregorio at Rome.

244. Andrea del Sarto. Holy Family.

102. Lodovico Carracci. The Descent from the Cross.

The shadows are too black, but for the taste of form, the happy chiaro-oscuro, the extreme and almost unique verity, the head, body, arms, nay, indeed, the whole Christ, is of the utmost conceivable perfection, whether unitedly or separately considered; in like manner, the feet also, and the beautiful head of the Magdalen.-Barry.

40. Tintoret. The Entombment.

P. S. Weit. The Marys at the Sepulchre--a picture well known from engravings.

105. Salvator Rosa. Jacob and his Flocks.

The is crowded with pictures, hung so entirely without reason that they are for the most part mere wall decoration. -thirds are so high up that it is impossible to see them, and nothing is

on the line.

This fine room is spoilt by the lowness of the dado. We may notice-

.

17. Titian. Diana and Actaeon. Titianus F. is inscribed in gold letters on a pilaster.

130. Ary de Voys. A Young Man with a Book--a small picture by a very rare master.

27. Guercino. David and Abigail--a coarse ugly picture from the gallery of Cardinal Mazarin.

18. Titian. The Fable of Calisto- from the Orleans Gallery; painted, with its companion picture, according to Vasari, for Philip II. of Spain, when the master was in his seventieth year.

130. Teniers. The Alchemist-inscribed 1649. A wonderful picture, but constantly repeated by the master.

.

196. Vandevelde. The Rising of the Gale at the Entrance of the Texel.

153. Jan Steen. A Village School.

168. Rembrandt. A Child saying its Prayers at an Old Woman's linees. This little picture is absurdly called Hannah and Samuel.

101. Annibale Carracci. Dana--from the Orleans Gallery.

78. Paul Veronese. The Judgment of Solomon.

Returning to the Ground Floor-

.

38. Raffaelle (?). Madonna and Child, La plus belle des Vierges

--from the Orleans Gallery, much retouched. There are many repetitions of this picture: the best is in the gallery at Naples.

*. .

La Vierge au Palmier

-a beautiful circular picture. The Virgin has wound her veil around the infant Saviour, to whom St. Joseph, kneeling, gives some flowers. Supposed to have been painted at Florence for Taddeo Taddi in .

The following anecdote of this picture was related to the Marquis of Stafford by the Duke of Orleans when on a visit to England. It happened once, amidst--the various changes of the world, that this picture fell to the portion of

two

old maids. Both having an equal right, and neither choosing to yield, they compromised the matter by cutting it in

two

. In this state the

two

halves were sold to

one

purchaser, who tacked them together as well as he could, and sent them further into the world. The transfer from canvas to wood has obliterated every trace by which the truth of this tale might be corroborated.

[n.63.1] -.

. (?). The Holy Family walking in a green landscape. Passavant and Kugler ascribe this picture to Francesco Penni. It is of exquisite beauty--the children

64

especially graceful. Philip II. of Spain gave the picture to the Duke of Urbino, who gave it to the Emperor Rudolph II. Gustavus Adolphus carried it off from Prague to Sweden. It was inherited by his daughter Christina, who took it to Rome, where it was purchased, after her death, by the Duke of Bracciano. From his collection it was purchased by the Regent Duke of Orleans. Many repetitions are in existence.

. . St. Catherine sees the Virgin and Child in a Vision. The saint recalls the work of Correggio, whom Lodovico especially studied and imitated.

. . -a very beautiful and unusually quiet work of the master.

*. . The Ages of Life.

This is one of the most beautiful idyllic groups of modern creation, and the spectator involuntarily partakes of the dreamlike feeling which it suggests.-Kugler

.

This picture is a piece of poetry in the truest sense: it is like a Greek lyric or idyll; while the melting harmony of the colour is to the significance of the composition what music is to the song.-Mrs. Jameson.

. . The Infant Christ asleep upon the Cross--a lovely little picture.

. . -a replica of the picture in the Louvre.

. . Milking.

. . The Cross-bearing.

.

15. Tintoret. Portrait of a Venetian Nobleman, 1588.

*216. A. Cuyp. The Landing of Prince Maurice at Dort--a noble, sunlit, and beautiful picture, the water especially limpid and transparent.

198. Terburg. Conseil Paternel. The girl in white satin is especially characteristic of the master, who loved to give thus his chief and harmonious light: her face betrays the feeling of shame with which she hears her father's reproof. There is an inferior repetition of this picture in the gallery at Amsterdam, and another at Berlin.

205. Dobson. Portrait of John Cleveland, the poet-friend of Charles I., for whose cause he was imprisoned by Cromwell.

11. Claude. Demosthenes on the Seashore--a lonely figure on the shore of a deep blue sea, illumined by the morning sun.

41. Claude. Moses and the Burning Bush--the incident subordinate to the wooded landscape.

32. Velasquez. A son of the Duke of Olivares--a noble, though unfinished portrait,

120. Sir J. Reynolds. Full-length Portrait of a Lady.

23. Vandyke. Virgin and Child--a careful example of a picture frequently repeated by the master.

147. A. Cuyp. Cattle, with a cowherd playing on his flute.

Colonel Blood, who afterwards became famous for his plot to seize the Crown Jewels, made his audacious attempt on the Duke of Ormond as he was returning to Cleveland House. At the end of , on the left, is the approach to (Duke of Sutherland), built by for the Duke of York, son of George III., on the site of

the Queen's Library,

erected for Caroline of Anspach. Its hall and staircase, by , perfect in proportions and harmonious in their beautiful purple and grey colouring, are the best specimens of scagliola decoration in England. The noble collection of pictures, greatly reduced in importance through the sale of several fine works by the present owner, is scattered through the different rooms of the house, and can only be seen by special permission. Amongst the pictures deserving notice are-

Ante Dining Room.

Landseer. Lady Evelyn Gower (afterwards Lady Blantyre) and the Marquis of Stafford, as children.

Danby. The Passage of the Red Sea.

Lawrence. Harriet Elizabeth, second Duchess of Sutherland, with her eldest daughter, Lady Elizabeth Gower, afterwards Duchess of Argyle.

Pordenone. The Woman taken in Adultery.

Murillo. SS. Justina and Rufina, the potter's daughters of Triana, martyred A.D. 304 for refusing to make earthenware idols. They are painted as simple Spanish muchachas, with the alcarrazas, or earthenware pots, of the country. From the Soult Collection.

Breckelencamp. An Old Woman's Grace.

Tinforet. A Consistory of Cardinals.

Hogarth. Portrait of Mr. Porter of Lichfield.

Reynolds. Portrait of Dr. Johnson, without his wig, and very blind.

Passage.

The Marriage of Henry VI.-a curious and interesting picture.

.-(In the central compartment of the ceiling is St. Crisogono supported by angels, a fine work of Guercino from the soffita of the saint's church in the Trastevere at Rome.)

Spagnoletto. Christ and the Disciples at Emmaus.

Alonzo Cano. God the Father-glorious in colour.

Vandyke. Portrait of a Student.

Velazquez. The Duke of Gandia at the door of the Convent of St. Ognato in Biscay--a poor work of the master.

* Moroni. Portrait of a Jesuit--the masterpiece of the gallery.

Titian. The Education of Cupid--from the Odescalchi Collection.

Guercino. St. Gregory the Great.

* Vandyke. A noble Portrait of Thomas Howard, Lord Arundel, the great collector, seated in an arm-chair; painted 1635.

Honthorst. Christ before Pilate--a really grand work of the master. From the Palazzo Giustiniani.

Rubens. Sketch for the Marriage of Marie de Medicis in the Louvre.

Philippe de Champagne. Portrait of the Minister Colbert.

Correggio. The Muleteer-said to have been painted as a signboard, to discharge a tavern-bill. Once in the collection of Queen Christina, and afterwards in--the Orleans Gallery.

Paul de la Roche. Lord Strafford receiving the Blessing of Archbishop Laud on his way to Execution.

Albert Dürer. The Death of the Virgin.

Murillo. Abraham and the Angels--who are represented simply as three young men. From the Soult Collection.

* Rafaelle. The Cross-bearing-painted for Cardinal Giovanni de' Medici (afterwards Leo X.), and long over a private altar of the Palazzo Medici, afterwards Ricciardi, at Florence.

* Murillo. The Prodigal Son--a very noble picture from the Soult Collection.

Carlo Maratti. St. Anne teaching the Virgin to read--a very pretty little picture.

contains-

Two chairs which belonged to Marie Antoinette in the Petit Trianon, and two admirable studies by Fra Bartolommeo and Paul Veronese. A picture of Charles I. and Henrietta Maria, by Vandyke, came from Strawberry Hill.

From , , built in , and at called , leads to . From its earliest days it has been popular.

The Campus Martius of St. James's Street, Where the beaux cavalry pace to and fro, Before they take the field in Rotten Row. Sheridan.

On the left, the building of importance is the (the Tory club), built by and , , and occupying partly the site of the old Thatched House Tavern, celebrated for its literary meetings, and partly that of the house in which Edward Gibbon, the historian of the Roman Empire, died . No. was the Cocoa-Tree Tavern, mentioned by Addison as

a place where his face is known.

No. is , so called from the proprietor of White's Chocolate House, who died in : the celebrated Kitty Fisher

68

was maintained by a subscription of the whole club at Arthur's!

On the right, beyond No. , where Lord Byron was living in , is the opening of , once celebrated as containing

Almack's,

which, opened in , continued to be the fashionable house of entertainment through the early part of the present century, when it figures in most of the novels of the time. But, as

the palmy days of exclusiveness

passed away, it deteriorated, and now, as , is used for tradesmen's balls. Close by is the . No. is the house to which Napoleon III. drew the especial attention of the Empress, on his triumphal progress through London as a royal guest, because it had been the home of his exile: a plate in the wall records his residence there.

[Out of open and , ever-crowded nests of bachelors' lodgings, though the prices are rather higher now than they were () when Swift complained to Stella from -

I have the

first

-floor, a dining-room, and bedchamber, at

eight shillings

a week,

plaguy dear

.

Horace Walpole narrates how he stood in in the snow, in his slippers and an embroidered suit, to watch a fire at o'clock in the morning.] No. , on the right of , is (Whig), built by , . No. is the

On the east side of the street, No. , is , the country gentleman's club-

Every Sir John belongs to Boodle's.

No. was the house where Gilray the caricaturist committed suicide by throwing himself from an upper

69

window. No. - is (Tory), built by , the successor of White's Chocolate House (established in ),[n.69.1]  celebrated for the bets and betting duels of the last century, when it had the reputation of

the most fashionable hell in London.

Walpole tells, in illustration of the overwhelming mania for gambling there, that when a man fell into a fit outside the door, bets were taken as to whether he was dead; and when a surgeon wished to save his life by bleeding him, the bettors furiously interposed that they would have no foul play of that kind, and that he was to let the man alone. The fire, in which Mrs. Arthur, wife of the proprietor, leaped out of a -floor window upon a feather bed unhurt, is commemorated by Hogarth in Plate VI. of the

On the left is , where Thomas Parnell the poet lived; also, for a time, Addison; and Samuel Rogers, from till he died in his year, . In , the next turn on the left, Hume the historian lived in . Then leads into , the streets commemorating the Bennets, Earls of Arlington. In lived Lady Mary Wortley Montague, in the house of her father, the Marquis of Dorchester. Here also (No. ) was the town house of Sir Robert Walpole, who died in it (), leaving it to his son Horace, who lived in it till . He had: previously resided in No. , where the quaint pillared drawing-room is represented in the scene of the It was in that (in the winter of -) Lord and Lady Nelson had their final

70

quarrel on the subject of Lady Hamilton, after which they never lived together. In No. , the house of the Duke of Rutland, Frederick Duke of York died, .

On the opposite side of opens , which (with ) commemorates Henry Jermyn, Earl of St. Alban's,[n.70.1]  the chamberlain of Henrietta Maria, whom scandal asserted to have become her husband after the execution of Charles I. The great Duke of Marlborough was living here, -, as the handsome Colonel Churchill. It was in the St. James's Hotel in this street that Sir Walter Scott spent some of the last weeks of his life in , and thence that he set off on for Abbotsford, where he died on .

falls into the important street of , which is'- generally said to derive its queer name from

piccadillies,

the favourite turn-down collars of James I., which we see in Cornelius Jansen's pictures. These collars, however, were not introduced before , and in we find Gerard, the author of the already speaking of gathering bugloss in the dry ditches of

Piccadille.

Jesse ingeniously suggests that the fashionable collar may have received its name from being worn by the dandies who frequented Piccadilla House, which, probably as early as Elizabeth's time, was a fashionable place of amusement (on the site of ), and that the word, as applied to the house, may come from the Spanish , literally meaning a venial fault. Clarendon () speaks of Picccadilly Hall as

a fair house.for entertainment and gaming, with

handsome gravel walks with shade, and where was an upper and lower bowling green, whither very many of the nobility and gentry of the best quality resorted, both for exercise and conversation.

Sir John Suckling the poet was of its gambling frequenters, and Aubrey narrates how his sisters came crying

to Peccadillo Bowling-green, for the fear he should lose all their portions.

Turning eastwards, we find, on the right, , built by Wren, . Hideous to ordinary eyes, this church is still admirable in the construction of its roof, which causes the interior to be considered as of the architect's greatest successes. The marble font is an admirable work of Gibbons: the stem represents the Tree of Knowledge, round which the Serpent twines, who offers the apple to Eve, standing with Adam beneath. The organ was ordered by James II. for his at , and was given to this church by his daughter Mary. The carving here was greatly admired by Evelyn.

Dec. 10, 1684.-I went to see the new church at St. James's, elegantly built. The altar was especially adorned, the white marble inclosure curiously and richly carved, the flowers and garlands about the walls by Mr. Gibbons, in wood; a pelican, with her young at her breast, just over the altar in the carv'd compartment and border invironing the purple velvet fringed with IHS richly embroidered, and most noble plate, were given by Sir R. Geare, to the value (as is said) of 200. There was no altar anywhere in England, nor has there been any abroad, more richly adorned.-Diary.

The Princess Anne of Denmark was in the habit of attending service in this (then newly built) church, and it was of the petty insults which William and Mary offered to their sister-in-law (after her refusal to give up Lady Marlborough) to forbid Dr. Birch, the rector, to place

72

the text upon the cushion in her pew, an order the rector, an especial partisan of the Princess, refused to comply with.

Among the illustrious persons who have been buried here are Charles Cotton, the friend of Izaak Walton, ; the painters Vandevelde; Dr. Arbuthnot, the friend of Pope and Gay, the slouching satirist, of whom Swift said that he could

do everything but walk,

-; Mark Akenside, the harsh doctor who wrote the ; Michael Dahl, the portrait-painter; Robert Dodsley, footman, poet, and bookseller, ; William, the eccentric Duke of Queensberry, known as

Old Q.

; the beautiful and brilliant Mary Granville, Mrs. Delany, ; James Gilray, the caricaturist, ; and Sir John Malcolm, Governor of Bombay, .[n.72.1]  In the vestry are portraits of most of the rectors of St. James's, including Tenison, Wake, and Secker, who were afterwards Archbishops of Canterbury. On the outside of the tower, towards , a tablet commemorates the humble poet-friend of Charles II., who wrote

Pills to purge Melancholy.

It is inscribed-

Tom D'Urfey, dyed

February 26, 1723

.

I remember King Charles leaning on Tom D'Urfey's shoulders more than once, and humming over a song with him. It is certain that the monarch was not a little supported by Joy to great Caesar, which gave the Whigs such a blow as they were not able to recover that whole reign. My friend afterwards attacked Popery with the same success, having exposed Bellarmine and Porto-Carrero more than once, in short satirical compositions which have been in everybody's mouth. ..... Many an honest gentleman has got a reputation in his country, by pretending to have been in company with Tom D'Urfey.-Addison. Guardian, No. 67.

On the other side of , nearly opposite the church, are the , which take their name from the title of the Duke of York, to whom the principal house once belonged.

In the quiet avenue of the Albany, memories of the illustrious dead crowd upon you. Lord Byron wrote his Lara here, in Lord Althorpe's chambers; George Canning lived at A. 5, and Lord Macaulay in E. ; Tom Duncombe in F. 3; Lord Valentia, the traveller, in H. 5; Monk Lewis in K. I.-Blanchard Jerrold.

On the right in returning is , built by , -. The inner part towards the courtyard is handsome; that towards the street, and the sides of the building, are spoilt by the heavy meaningless vases by which they are overladen. In the construction of this commonplace edifice, of the noblest pieces of architecture in London was wantonly destroyed-the portico, built in , of which Sir William Chambers wrote as

one

of the finest pieces of architecture in Europe,

and which Horace Walpole said

seemed

one

of those edifices in fairy-tales that are raised by genii in a night-time.

The old house (the on the site) was built from the designs of Richard Boyle, Earl of Burlington,[n.73.1]  but the portico has been attributed to Colin Campbell. The walls of the interior were painted by Marco Ricci. Handel lived in the house for years. Alas that we can no longer say with Gay-

Burlington's fair palace still remains;

Beauty within, without proportion reigns!

Beneath his eye declining art revives,

The wall with animated pictures lives;

There Handel strikes the strings, the melting strain

Transports the soul, and thrills through every vein.

was bought by the nation in . The central portion of the modern buildings is devoted to the Royal Academy, which was founded in , with Reynolds as President. It consists of Academicians and Associates. Their exhibitions took place in , but, after , they were held in the eastern wing of the .

The Exhibition opens on May 1, and closes the last week in July. Admission 1s. Catalogues 1s.

The permanent possessions of the Royal Academy include-

Leonardo da Vinci. Cartoon of the Holy Trinity in black chalk.

Michel Angelo. Relief of the Holy Trinity--in which St. John is giving a dove to the infant Saviour, who shrinks into his mother's arms.

Marco d'Oggione. A copy of Leonardo da Vinci's Last Supper from the Certosa of Pavia.

The buildings to the right of the quadrangle on entering are occupied by the Chemical, Geological, and Royal Societies: those to the left by the Linnsean, Astronomical, and Antiquarian Societies.

The had its origin in weekly meetings of learned men, which were held in . When early meetings of the Society, under the Presidency of Sir Isaac Newton, were held in Crane Court in . After the meetings were held in till , when the Society moved to . It possesses a valuable collection of portraits, including-

Hogarth. Martin Folkes the Antiquary, who succeeded Sir Hans Sloane as President in 1741.

Phillips. Sir Joseph Banks, President from 1777 to 1820, during which he contributed much to the advancement of science. He is represented in the chair adorned with the arms of the Society, which is still to be seen at the end of the room, and which was given by Sir I. Newton.

Sir Joseph Banks, who was almost bent double, retained to the last the look of a privy-councillor.-Hazlitt.

Jackson. Dr. Wollaston (1776-1828), who made platinum malleable, and is celebrated as having analyzed a lady's tear, which he arrested upon her cheek.

Kneller. Samuel Pepys, author of the well-known Diary, President from 1684 to 1686. The portrait was presented by Pepys.

Kerseboom. The Hon. Robert Boyle (1627-1669 ), equally illustrious as a religious and philosophical writer. Given by his executors.

Kneller. Lord Chancellor Somers, elected President in 1702.

Vanderbank. Sir Isaac Newton, President from 1703 to 1727. Nature and Nature's laws lay hid in night; God said, Let Newton be, and all was light

Lely. Viscount Brouncker (1620-1684), illustrious as a mathematician.

Reynolds. Sir J. Pringle, physician to George III., elected President in 1714.

Lawrence. Sir Humphry Davy, the first chemist of his age, elected President in 1820.

Hudson. George, Earl of Macclesfield, who brought about the change from the Old to the New Style, and by whose coach the people used to run shouting, Give us back our fortnight; Who stole the eleven days?

Kneller. Sir Christopher Wren the architect, 1632-1723.

Home. John Hunter (1728-1793), the great anatomist and surgeon.

Home. J. Ramsden (1735-1800), the great philosophical instrument maker, who, however, worked so slowly that people used to say that if he had to make the trumpets for the Day of Judgment they would not be ready in time.

Chamberlain. Dr. Chandler, the Nonconformist divine, 1693-1756.

Gibson. John Flamsteed (1646-1719), the first astronomer royal.

In the up-stairs are preserved a model of Davy's Safety Lamp made by himself, and many relics of Sir Isaac Newton, the most important being the complete reflecting , which had so much to do with the evolution of astronomy from astrology,

invented by Sir Isaac Newton, and made with his own hands,

1671

.

The other relics include a sundial which he carved on the wall of Woolsthorpe Manor-house, near Grantham, where he was born; his telescope, made in ; his watch; a lock of his silver hair; various articles carved from the apple-tree which has long played an imaginary part as suggesting his discoveries; and an autograph written as

Warden of the Mint,

in which office he was not above speculations in the South Sea Bubble; and a MS.-apparently written by his amanuensis, with interpolations from his own hand-of the which occupies the same position to philosophy as the Bible does to religion. There is here a fine bust of Newton by , but a cast taken after death shows that the features are too small. A noble bust by represents Sir J. Banks, the President whose despotic will was law to the Society for years, and who transacted the business of the Society at his breakfasts. Mrs. Somerville has the honour of being the only lady whose bust (by ) is placed there. The portraits include-

Paul Vansomer. Lord Chancellor Bacon, 1560-1626.

Sir P. Lely. Robert Boyle--a portrait bequeathed by Newton.

W. Dobson. Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), the free-thinking philosopher.

J. Murray. Dr. Halley (1656-1742), the mathematician and astronomer.

Jervas. Sir Isaac Newton.

The had its origin in an antiquarian society founded by Archbishop Parker in , whose members, including Camden, Cotton, Raleigh, and Stow, met in at the Heralds' College, though by the close of Elizabeth's reign we hear of the

Collegium Antiquariorum

as assembling at the house of Sir R. Cotton in . The suspicions of James I. compelled them for a time to suspend all public meetings, and in the beginning of the century they met at the

Bear Tavern

in Butchers' Row. In we find them at the

Young Devil Tavern

in ; then, in , hard by at the

Fountain;

and, in , at the

Mitre.

On , George II., who called himself

Founder and Patron,

granted a charter of incorporation to the Society, who, in , moved to the Society's house in . In apartments in were bestowed upon the Society, which they occupied till . The room in which the Society now holds its meetings contains a number of curious ancient portraits, chiefly royal: that of Margaret of York, sister of Edward IV., is by . Here also are copies by from the lost historical paintings in Chapel at . A picture of the Martyrdom of St. Erasmus is interesting as an English work of the century. On the is a diptych representing the old , with Paul's Cross, painted by John Gipkym in . The handsome on the upper floor contains a fine bust of George III. by , and the splendid portrait of Mary I., painted by in . The queen is represented in a yellow dress with black jewels: the jewel which hangs from the neck still exists in the possession of the Abercorn family.

At the back of are the Palladian buildings of the , built from designs , -.

In , facing the back of , General Wade's house was built by R. Boyle, Earl of Burlington, a house which was so uncomfortable as to make Lord Chesterfield say that if the owner could not be at his ease in it, he had better take a house over against it and ] The was built by for Lord George Cavendish'in ISIS, and is

famous,

as Leigh Hunt says,

for small shops and tall beadles.

Just beyond is the little underground newsvendor's, whither Louis Napoleon Buonaparte

would stroll quietly from his house in

King Street

, St. James's, in the evening, with his faithful dog Ham for his companion, to read the latest news in the last editions of the papers.

[n.78.1] , , , and occupy the site of Clarendon House and its gardens, built by the Lord Chancellor Earl of Clarendon, who laid out the gardens at a cost of . He sold the property in to Christopher Monk, Duke of Albemarle, who pulled down the house.

was built in by Sir Thomas Bond of Peckham, Comptroller of the Household to Henrietta Maria as Queen Mother, who was created a baronet by Charles II., and bought part of the Clarendon estate from the Duke of Albemarle. The author of Laurence Sterne, died at

the Silk Bag Shop,

No. , , without a friend near him.

No one but a hired nurse was in the room, when a footman, sent from a dinner-table where was gathered a gay and brilliant party-the Dukes of Roxburgh and Grafton, the Earls of March and Ossory, David Garrick and David Hume--to enquire how Dr. Sterne did, was bid to go up stairs by the woman of the shop. He found Sterne just a dying. In ten minutes, Now it is come, he said; he put up his hand as if to stop a blow, and died in a minute.-Leslie and Taylor's Life of Sir J. Reynolds.

No. is the , a Picture Gallery and Restaurant, opened , by Sir Coutts Lindsay. It has a doorway by , brought from the Church of St. Lucia at Venice, inserted in an inartistic front of mountebank architecture by . No. , at the corner of , is a capital modern copy of old Dutch architecture.

In , named from Christopher Monk, Duke of Albemarle, is the , established in , where the threads of science are unravelled by men. At the entrance of the street is the publishing house of John Murray, in the dynasty of John Murrays, whose house was founded in in , and whose fortunes were made by the .

derives its name from Henry Jermyn, Lord Dover. John Evelyn lived on the eastern side of this street, and died there in .his year, -.

Beyond the turn into , a high brick wall hides the great courtyard of . The site was formerly occupied by Berkeley House, built by Sir John Berkeley, created Lord Berkeley of Stratton (whence ) in . It was to this house that the Princess (afterwards Queen) Anne retreated when she quarrelled with William III. in -.

The Princess Anne, divested of every vestige of royal rank, lived at Berkeley House, where she and Lady Marlborough amused themselves with superintending their nurseries, playing at cards, and talking treason against Queen Mary and her Dutch Caliban, as they called the hero of Nassau.-Stickland's Mary II.

Berkeley House was burnt in , and was built on its site by William Kent for the Duke of Devonshire.[n.80.1]  It is a perfectly unpretending building, with a low pillared entrance-hall, but its winding marble staircase with wide shallow steps is admirably suited to the princely hospitalities of the Cavendishes, and its large gardens with their tall trees give the house an unusual air of seclusion. Of both house and garden the most interesting associations centre around the brilliant crowd which encircled the beautiful Georgiana Spencer, Duchess of Devonshire, whose verses on William Tell produced the lines of Coleridge-

Oh Lady, nursed in pomp and pleasure,

Where learnt you that heroic measure?

Her traditional purchase of a butcher's vote with a kiss, when canvassing for Fox's election, produced the epigram-

Array'd in matchless beauty, Devon's fair

In Fox's favour takes a zealous part:

But oh! where'er the pilferer comes, beware,

She supplicates a vote, and steals a heart.

[n.80.2]  The reception-rooms are handsome, with beautiful ceilings. Few of the pictures are important. Ascending the principal staircase, we may notice-

Paul Veronese. The Adoration of the Magi--a very beautiful picture, full of religious feeling.

Giacomo Bassano. (Over door) Moses and the Burning Bush.

I Calabrese. Musicians.

Micel Angelo Caravaggio. Musicians.

Cignani. Virgin and Child.

Jordaens. Prince Frederick Henry of Orange and his wife. A capital picture. There is a picturesque feeling unusual with the master in the arch with the vine tendril climbing across, and the parrot pecking at it-both dark against a dark sky, the better to bring out the light on the lady's forehead,

Saloon.

Family Portraits, including the first Duke of Devonshire and the first Lord and Lady Burlington, by Sir Godfrey Kneller.

Salvator Rosa. Jacob's Dream--a poetical picture. The angels ascending and descending are poised upon the ladder by the power of their wings.

Sir P. Lely. Portrait of a Sculptor.

Dobson. (The first great English portrait-painter) Sir Thomas Browne, the author of Religio Medici, with his wife and several of his children. She had ten, and lived very happily with her husband for forty-one years, though at the time of their marriage he had just published his opinion that man is the whole world, but woman only the rib or crooked part of man.

Frank Hals. Portrait of Himself.

Vandyke. Margaret, Countess of Carlisle, and her little daughter. Very carefully painted and originally conceived.

Vandyke. Eugenia Clara Isabella, daughter of Philip IV. of Spain, as widow of the Archduke Albert.

Vandyke. A Lady in a yellow dress.

Sir Joshua Reynolds. Lord Richard Cavendish.

Vandyke. Lord Strafford.

Blue Velvet Room.

Murillo. The Infant Moses.

Guercino. Christ on the Mount of Olives.

Guido Reni. Perseus and Andromwra.

Beyond , has only houses on side, which look into the . After passing , named from Sir Walter Clarges (nephew of Anne Clarges, the low-born wife of General Monk), we may notice No. as the house whence Sir Francis Burdett was taken to the Tower, ; at the corner of (No. ) , rebuilt in for Lord Ashburton; and No. , with a courtyard, now a Naval and Military Club, as , where Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, youngest son of George III., died . On the balcony of No. , on fine days in summer, used to sit the thin withered old figure of the Duke of Queensberry,

with

one

eye, looking on all the females that passed him, and not displeased if they returned him whole winks for his single ones.

[n.82.1]  He was the last grandee in England who employed running footmen, and he used to try their paces by watching and timing them from his balcony as they ran up and down in his liveries. day a new footman was running on trial, and acquitted himself splendidly.

You will do very well for me,

said the Duke.

And your grace's livery will do very well for me,

replied the footman, and gave a last proof of his fleetness of foot by running away with it.[n.82.2] 

, so called from a tavern, leads into (named from George Augustus Curzon, Viscount Howe), associated in the recollection of so many living persons with the charming parties of the sisters Mary and Agnes Berry, who died in equally

83

honoured and beloved. They lived at No. , where Murrell, their servant, used to set up a lamp over their door, as a sign when they had

too many women

at their parties: a few habitués of the male sex, however, knew that they could still come in, whether the lamp was lighted or not.

The day may be distant,

says Lord Houghton,

before social tradition forgets the house in

Curzon Street

where dwelt the Berrys.

[n.83.1] 

Our English grandeur on the shelf Deposed its decent gloom, And every pride unloosed itself Within that modest room, Where none were sad, and few were dull, And each one said his best, And beauty was most beautiful With vanity at rest.-Monckton Milnes.

Chantrey lived in an attic of No. , , and modelled several of his busts there.

All the streets north of now lead into the district of , which takes its name from a fair which used to be held in and its surrounding streets.

At the corner of (once Tyburn Lane!) is , where Mary, Duchess of Gloucester, died, . This was the house to which Lord Elgin brought the Elgin Marbles, and which was called by Byron the

general mart

For all the mutilated blocks of art.

In No. x, (named from James Hamilton, ranger of under Charles II.) lived the great

84

Lord Eldon. Just beyond we may notice No. , Terrace, as the house in which the separation between Lord and Lady Byron took place.

Returning to (named from John, Lord Berkeley of Stratton, Lord Deputy of Ireland in the time of Charles II.), we may remember that it was the London residence of Alexander Pope. On the left is , a stone alley sunk in the gardens of , leading to . The bar which crosses its entrance is a curious memorial of London highwaymen, having been put up in the last century to prevent their escape that way, after a mounted highwayman had ridden full gallop up the steps, having fled through , after robbing his victims in . This is

the dark uncanny-looking passage

described by Trollope in with a persistency which almost impresses the fact as real, as the scene of Mr. Bonteen's murder-

It was on the steps leading up from the passage to the level of the ground above that the body was found.

On the right is , where Sir Thomas Wyatt's head was exhibited on a long pole after the rebellion of , his quarters being set up in various other parts of the City. It was here that George IV. and the Duke of York were stopped as young men, in a hackney coach, by a robber who held a pistol at their heads, while he demanded their money, but had to go away disappointed, for they: could only muster half-a-crown between them.

On the left a heavy screen of foliage gives almost the seclusion of the country to , which stands in a large garden approached by gates decorated with the bee-hives which are the family crest. The house was built

85

by Robert Adam for the prime-minister Lord Bute, and, while still unfinished, was sold to William Petty, Earl of Shelburne, who became prime-minister on the death of Lord Rockingham, and upon whom the title of Marquis of Lansdowne was conferred by Pitt, from Lansdowne Hill, near Bath, part of the property of his wife, Sophia, daughter of John, Earl Granville. The ancient statues in were collected at Rome by Gavin Hamilton in the last century; the collection of pictures was formed by the Marquis of Lansdowne.

Lansdowne House is not shown except by special order.

In the we may notice-

Over the chimney-piece. Esculapius--a noble relief.

A Bust of Jupiter.

A Marble Seat, dedicated to Apollo, with the sacred serpent.

In the -

Diomed holding the palladium in one hand-much restored.

Mercury--a bust.

Juno--a seated figure, much restored, but with admirable drapery.

Jason fastening his sandal.

* Mercury--a glorious and entirely beautiful statue, found at the Torre Columbaro on the Via Appia. Portions of the arms and of the right leg, and the left foot, are restorations.

Marcus Aurelius, as Mars, wearing only the chlamys.

Colossal bust of Minerva.

In the -

A Sleeping Female Figure, the beautiful last work of Canoa.

Of the we may especially notice-

Gonzales. An Architect and his Wife-full of character.

Eckhardt (in a beautiful frame by Gibbons). Sir Robert Walpole and his first wife, Catherine Shorter. Their house of Houghton, represented in the background, and the dogs, are by John Wootton. From the Strawberry Hill Collection.

Raeburn. Portrait of Francis Homer.

Sir T. Lawrence. Portrait of the third Marquis of Lansdowne.

Rembrandt. His own Portrait.

Reynolds. Mary Teresa, Countess of Ilchester (mother of the third Marchioness of Lansdowne), and her two eldest daughters.

Tintoretto. Portrait of Andrew Doria.

Ostade. Skating on a canal in Holland-full of truth and beauty.

.

Reynolds. Kitty Fisher, with a bird.

Reynolds. Portrait of Garrick.

Jervas. Portrait of Pope.

Jackson. Portrait of Flaxman.

Reynolds. Portrait of Sterne.

When Sterne sat to Reynolds, he had not written the stories of Le Fevre, The Monk, or The Captive, but was known only as a fellow of infinite jest, of most excellent fancy. In this matchless portrait, with all its expression of intellect and humour, there is a sly look for which we are prepared by the insidious mixture of so many abominations-with the finest wit in Tristram Shandy and the Sentimental journey, nor is the position of the figure less characteristic than the expression of the face. It is easy, but it has not the easiness of health. Sterne props himself up ..... While he was sitting to Reynolds, his wig had contrived to get itself a little on one side; and the painter, with that readiness in taking advantage of accident to which we owe so many of the delightful novelties in his works, painted it so, .... and it is surprising what a Shandean air this venial impropriety of the wig gives to its owner.-Leslie and Taylors Life of Sir J. Reynolds.

Gainsborough. Portrait of Dr. Franklin. (A replica of this picture has been exhibited as a portrait of Surgeon-General Middleton, who died in 1785; but from the resemblance of this portrait to the miniature given by Franldin to his friend Jonathan Shipley, Bishop of St. Asaph, there can be no doubt whom it represents.)

Reynolds. Portrait of Horace Walpole.

Giorgione. Portrait of Sansovino, the Venetian architect.

Vandyke. Henrietta Maria.

Drawing Room.

Reynolds. Portrait of Lady Anstruther.

Guercino. The Prodigal Son--from the Palazzo Borghese.

Rembrandt. A Lady in a ruff: dated 1642.

Reynolds. The Sleeping Girl (a replica).

*Sebastian del Piombo. A noble Portrait of Count Federigo da Bizzola-purchased from the Ghizzi family at Naples. The gem of the collection.

Domenichino. St. Cecilia-once in the Borghese Gallery, after. wards in the collection of the Duke of Lucca.

St. Cecilia here combines the two characters of Christian martyr and patroness of music. Her tunic is of a deep red with white sleeves, and on her head she wears a kind of white turban, which, in the artless disposition of its folds, recalls the linen headdress in which her body was found, and no doubt was intended to imitate it. She holds the viol gracefully, and you almost hear the tender tones she draws from it; she looks up to heaven; her expression is not ecstatic, as of one listening to the angels, but devout, tender, melancholy--as one who anticipated her fate, and was resigned to it; she is listening to her own song, and her song is, Thy will be done. -Jameson's Sacred and Legendary Art.

Reynolds. The Girl with a muff (a replica).

Velasquez. Portraits of Himself, the Duke of Olivares, and an Infant of Spain in its cradle.

Lodovico Carracci. The Agony in the Garden--from the Giustiniani Collection.

Murillo. The Conception.

Reynolds. Portrait of Elizabeth Drax, fourth Countess of Berkeley.

, built , and named from Berkeley House in (see ), has the best trees of any square in London. They are all planes, the only trees which thoroughly enjoy a smoky atmosphere. It was in No. that Horace Walpole died in . No. has a noble staircase erected by Kent for Lady Isabella Finch. In No. the great Lord Clive, founder of the British Empire in India, committed suicide, . No. has obtained a great notoriety in late years

88

as the

Haunted House in

Berkeley Square

,

about which there have been such strange stories and surmises. Many of the houses in this and in retain, in the fine old ironwork in front of their doors, the extinguishers employed to put out the flambeaux which the footmen used to carry lighted at the back of the carriages during a night drive through the streets. Ben Jonson speaks of those thieves of the night who--

Their prudent insults to the poor confine

Afar they mark the flambeau's bright approach,

And shun the shining train, and golden coach;

and Gay says-

Yet who the footman's arrogance can quell,

Whose flambeau gilds the sashes of Pall-Mall,

When in long rank a train of torches flame,

To light the midnight visits of the dame.

of the best examples is that at No. , where the doorplate of the Earl of Powis is, with the exception of that of Lady Willoughby de Broke in , the only remaining example of the old aristocratic door-plates, which were once universal.

Near the entrance of , we may notice the tavern sign of the -

I am the only Running Footman

-only too popular with the profession, which shows the dress worn by the running retainers of the last century, who have left nothing but their name to the stately flunkeys of the present.

Just behind , at the north-east corner, in , is , preserved through all the vicissitudes of this part of London as having been the

89

little manor-house in the country which was the home of Miss Mary Davies, whose marriage with Sir Thomas Grosvenor in resulted in the enormous wealth of his family through the value to which her paternal acres rose. Her farm is commemorated in the rural names of many neighbouring streets-Farm Street, , , Hay Mews.

 

In front of this house, (named from Oliver's Mount, part of the fortifications raised round London by the Parliament in ) and (right) lead into , which has for a century and a half maintained the position of the most fashionable place of residence in London. No. was the house in which

the Cato Street conspirators

under Arthur Thistlewood

90

arranged () to murder the Ministers of the Crown while they were dining with Lord Harrowby, President of the Council.

It will be a rare haul to murder them all together,

Thistlewood exclaimed at their final meeting, and bags were actually produced in which the heads of Lord Sidmouth and Lord Castlereagh were to be brought away, after which the cavalry barracks were to be fired, and the and the Tower taken by the people, who, it was hoped, would rise on the news. The ministers were warned, and the conspirators seized in a loft in Cato Street,[n.90.1] , only.a few hours before their design was to have been carried out Thistlewood and his principal accomplices were tried for high treason, and, after a most ingenious defence in a speech of hours by John Adolphus, were condemned and hanged at the .

Before their execution it occurred to Adolphus to ask each of his clients for an autograph. One of them, J. T. Brent, wrote- Let S----h and his base colleagues Cajole and plot their dark intrigues, Still each Britton's last words shall be Oh give me Death or Liberty. Much amusement was excited by the caution as to the name of Sidmouth in one whose sentence of death would at least save him an action for libel.-See Henderson's Recollections of John Adolphus.

The old ironwork and flambeau extinguishers before many of the doors in deserve notice. In the last century the nobility were proud of their flambeaux, and it is remarkable that the aristocratic Square refused to

91

adopt the use of gas till compelled to do so by force of public opinion in , having been lighted with gas from .

is crossed by the great arteries of and . William, Duke of Cumberland, died () in . No. , with a courtyard, separated from the street by a stone colonnade with handsome metal gates (by Cundy, ) is (Duke of ), once, as , inhabited by the Duke of Gloucester, brother of George III. Its noble collection of pictures can only be seen by a personal order of admission from the Duke of . The pictures, which are all hung in the delightful rooms constantly occupied by the family, are most generously shown between the hours of and to all who have provided themselves with tickets by application. We may notice-

2. Benjamin West. The Death of General Wolfe, while heading the attack on Quebec, Sept. 13, 1759. The picture is of great interest, as that in which West (whom Reynolds had vainly endeavoured to dissuade from so great a risk) gained the first victory over the ludicrous classic taste which had hitherto crushed all historic art under the costume of the Greeks and Romans. .

7, 19. Claude Lorraine. Morning and Evening.

8, 17. Rembrandt. Noble Portraits of Nicholas Berghem, the landscape-painter and his wife, who was daughter of the painter Jan Wels, 1647.

12, 18. Claude. Two Landscapes, called, from the Roman buildings introduced, The Rise and Decline of the Roman Empire.

13. Claude. The Worship of the Golden Calf.

15. Rubens. A Flemish Landscape in Harvest-time.

16. Rembrandt. His own Portrait, at twenty, in a soldier's dress

23. Rembrandt. Portrait of a Man with a hawk, 1643.

25. Hogarth. The Distressed Poet. The landlady is furiously exhibiting her bill to the bewildered poet and his simple-minded wife.

27. Hogarth. A Boy endeavouring to rescue his kite from a raven, which is tearing it, while entangled in a bush.

26. Claude. The Sermon on the Mount.

28. Claude. One of his most beautiful Landscapes.

31. Rembrandt. A Lady with a.fan--a noble portrait.

.

39. Cuyp. A River Scene near Dort--in a haze of golden light.

40. Rembrandt. The Salutation. Elizabeth is receiving the Virgin, whose veil is being removed by a negress. The aged Zacharias is being assisted down the steps of the house by a boy. This picture, which formerly belonged to the King of Sardinia, was brought to England in 1812. It is signed, and dated 1640.

42. Paul Potter. A Scene of Pollard Willows and Cattle, painted at Dort for M. Van Singelandt.

48. Guido Reni. The Madonna watching the sleeping Child--a subject frequently repeated by the master.

50. Andrea del Sarto. Portrait of the Contessina Mattei.

53. Murillo. St. John and the Lamb-constantly repeated by the master.

69. Giulio Romano. St. Luke painting the Virgin.

72. Murillo. The Infant Christ asleep--a most lovely picture.

74. A. Van der Werf. The Madonna laying the sleeping Child upon the ground--a singular picture, with wonderful power of chiarooscuro.

75. Garofalo (?). A Riposo.

* Gainsborough. The Blue Boy (Master Buttall)-the noblest portrait ever painted by the master, who chose the colour of the dress to disprove the assertion of Reynolds that a predominance of blue in a picture was incompatible with high art.

83. Teniers. The Painter and his wife (Anne Breughel) discoursing with their old gardener at the door of his cottage, close to the artist's chateau, which is seen in the background. Painted in 1649.

85. Gainsborough. A stormy sea, with a woman selling fish upon the shore-unusual for the master.

*Sir J. Reynolds. The glorious Portrait of Mrs. Siddons as the Tlagic Muse, painted in 1785. The want of colour in the face is owing to the great actress's own request at her last sitting that Sir Joshua would not heighten that tone of complexion so accordant with the chilly and concentrated musings of pale melancholy. Remorse and Pity appear like ghosts in the background. Reynolds inscribed his name on the border of the drapery, telling Mrs. Siddons that he could not resist the opportunity of going down to posterity on the hem of her garment.

92. Vandyke. The Virgin and Child with St. Catherine. A very beautiful work of the master after his return from Italy--from the Church of the Recollets at Antwerp.

.

95. Rembrandt. A Landscape, with figures by Teniers.

98. Guido Reni. La Fortuna-a repetition of the picture at Rome.

100. Raffaele (?). Holy Family--from the Agar Collection.

101. Velazquez. The Infante Don Balthazar of Spain on horseback, attended by Don Gaspar de Guzman, the Conde de Olivares, and others. The king and queen are seen on the balcony of the riding school.

102. Tiian. Jupiter and Antiope--the landscape is said to be Cadore.

105. Rubens. The Painter and his first wife, Elizabeth Brand, as Pausias and Glycera--the inventor of garlands. The flowers are by J. Breughel.

100. Andrea Sacchi. St. Bruno.

110. Giovanni Bellini (?). Madonna and Child, with four saints.

113. The Israelites gathering Manna.

114. The Meeting of Abraham ard Melchizedek.

115. The Four Evangelists.

Three of the nine pictures painted in 1629 for Philip IV., who presented them to the Duc of Olivarez for a Carmelite convent which he had founded at Loeches, near Madrid. These belong to the seven pictures carried off by the French in 1808: two still remain at Loeches.

As a striking instance of a mistaken style of treatment, we may turn to the famous group of the Four Evangelists by Rubens, grand, colossal, standing or rather moving figures, each with his emblem, if emblems they can be called, which are almost as full of reality as nature itself: the ox so like life, that we expect him to bellow at us; the magmagnificent lion flourishing his tail, and looking at St.Mark as if about to roar at him! and herein lies the mistake of the great painter, that, for the religious and mysterious emblem, he has substituted the creatures themselves; this being one of the instances, not unfrequent in art, in which the literal truth becomes a manifest falsehood.-Jameson's Sacred Art.

Murino. Laban coming to search the tent of Jacob for his stolen gods.

.

117. Gainsborough. The Cottage Door.

119. Fra Bartolommeo. Holy Family.

121. Sir J. Reynolds. Portrait of Mrs. Hartley the actress.

125. Domenichino. Meeting of David and Abigail.

130. Albert Dürer. A Hare.

is so called from the Tye Bourne whose course it marks. No. , doors from , was the house of George Frederick Handel, the famous composer, who used to give rehearsals of his oratorios there.

North and south through runs , so called from Hugh Audley, . . No. , was the house of Alderman Wood, where Queen Caroline resided on her return from Italy in , and from the balcony of which she used to show herself to the people. Spencer Perceval was born in the recess of the eastern side of the street, called , in . At the bottom of , in (so named in , from a fair which began on May Day), gates and a courtyard lead to (Charles Magniac, Esq.), built by Ware in for Philip, Earl of Chesterfield, on land belonging to Curzon, Lord Howe (whence , , and ). It has a noble marble staircase with a bronze balustrade, which, as well as the portico, was brought from Canons, the seat of the Duke

95

of Chandos at Edgeware. The curious still remains where Lord (hesterfield. wrote his. celebrated Letters, of which Dr. Johnson said,

Take out their immorality, and they should be put into the hands of every gentleman.

The busts and pictures which once made the room so
interesting have been removed, but under the cornice still run the lines from Horace-

Nunc . veterum . libris . nunc. somno. et . inertibus. horis Ducere. solicitae . jucunda . oblivia . vitae.

We shall never recall that princely room without fancying Chesterfield receiving in it a visit of his only child's mother-while probably some new favourite was sheltered in the dim, mysterious little boudoir within.-Quarterly Review, No. 152.

Lord Chesterfield was of the English patrons of French cookery: his cook was La Chapelle, a

96

descendant of the famous cook of Louis XIV. Chesterfield died in the house in , and in accordance with his Will was interred in the nearest burial-ground (that of Grosvenor Chapel), but was afterwards removed to Shelford in Nottinghamshire.

Lord Chesterfield's entrance into the world was announced by his bon mots; and his closing lips dropped repartees, that sparkled with his juvenile fire.-Horace Walpole.

The of , mentioned by Beckford as

the finest private garden in London,

has been lamentably curtailed of late years.

In the vaults of is still buried Ambrose Philips (), described by Lord Macaulay as

a good Whig, and a middling poet,

and ridiculed by Pope as

The bard whom pilfered pastorals renown;

Who turns a Persian tale for hall-a-crown;

Just writes to make his barrenness appear,

And strains from hard-bound brains eight lines a year.

Here also rests Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (), who introduced the Turkish remedy of inoculation for the smallpox (practising it upon her own children), and who was the authoress of the charming which have been so often compared with those of Madame de Sévigné. A tablet commemorates

John Wilkes, a Friend of Liberty

(). This chapel is of the places where public thanksgivings were returned () for the acquittal of Lord George Gordon.

and lead in a direct line to , so called from having been built on the property of William Henry Portman of Orchard

97

Portman in Somersetshire (died ). , , , and , on this property, take their names from country houses of the Portman family. No. (Sir Edward Blackett, Bart.), prepared for the marriage of William Henry, Duke of Gloucester, with Lady Waldegrave in , has a beautiful drawing-room decorated by the brothers Adam, and hung with exquisite tapestry. The detached house at the northwest angle is Montagu House, which became celebrated from the parties of Mrs. Elizabeth Montagu, the

Queen of the Blues,

who here founded the Bas Bleu Society, whence the expression Blue Stocking. Her rooms, decorated with feather hangings to which all her friends contributed, are celebrated by Cowper.

The birds put off their every hue,

To dress a room for Montagu.

This plumage neither dashing shower,

Nor blasts that shake the dripping bower,

Shall drench again or discompose,

But screened from every storm that blows,

It boasts a splendour ever new,

Safe with protecting Montagu.

Mrs. Montagu was qualified to preside in her circle, whatever subject was started; but her mannerwas more dictatorial and sententious than conciliatory or diffident. There was nothing feminine about her; and though her opinions were generally just, yet the organ which conveyed them was not soft or harmonious.-Sir N. Wraxal.

Johnson used to laugh at her, but said,

I never did her serious harm; nor would I,--though I could give her a bite; but she must provoke me much

first

.

In the garden which surrounds the house Mrs. Montagu used to collect the chimney-sweeps of London every May

98

Day and give them a treat, saying that they should have at least happy day in the year. Her doing so originated in her discovering, in the disguise of a chimney-sweep, Edward Wortley Montagu (Lady Mary's son), who had run away from School. Mrs. Montagu died in , aged : she is commemorated in and Street.

, which leads north from , contains . Many of these, especially those relating to the French Revolution, were modelled from life, or death, by Madame Tussaud, who was herself imprisoned and in danger of the guillotine, with Madame Beauharnais and her child Hortense as her associates.

and [n.98.1]  lead west to . On the left is , containing , the large brick mansion and of Sir Richard Wallace, who inherited it from Lord Hertford. The pictures, which are not shown to the public, include several good works of Murillo, some fine specimens of the Dutch School, and the and other works of Sir Joshua Reynolds. The residence here of the Marchioness of Hertford will recall Moore's lines-

Oh, who will repair unto Manchester Square,

And see if the lovely Marchesa be there,

And bid her to come, with her hair darkly flowing,

All gentle and juvenile, crispy and gay,

In the manner of Ackermann's dresses for May?

, laid out in , takes its name

99

(with the neighbouring and ) from Lady Henrietta Cavendish Holles, who married, in , Edward Harley, Earl of Oxford. In the centre stood till lately a statue of William Duke of Cumberland (-), erected in by his friend General Strode. On the south side is a statue of Lord George Bentinck, . The houses at the north-east and north-west angles were intended as the extremities of the wings of the huge mansion of the great Duke of Chandos, by which he intended to occupy the whole north side of the square, but.the project was cut short by his dying of a broken heart in consequence of the death of his infant heir, while he was being christened with the utmost magnificence. On the west is , built for Lord Bingley, and bought after his death by the Earl of Harcourt, who sold it to the Duke of Portland.[n.99.1]  It has a courtyard and , like those in the Faubourg St. Germain. At No. lived and painted George Romney, always called by Sir Joshua Reynolds, whom he had the honour of rivalling,

the man of

Cavendish Square

.

Princess Amelia, daughter of George II., lived in the large house at the corner of . In No. , Lord Byron was born in . There is little more worth noticing in the frightful district to the north of , which, with the exception of the squares we have been describing, marks the limits of fashionable society. We may take as a fair specimen of

100

this dreary neighbourhood, with the grim rows of expression. less uniform houses, between which and

unexceptionable society

Dickens draws such a vivid parallel in Taine shows it us from a Frenchman's point of view.

From Regent's Park to Piccadilly a funereal vista of broad interminable streets. The footway is macadamised and black. The monotonous rows of buildings are of blackened brick. the windowpanes flash in black shadows. Each house is divided from the street by its railings and area. Scarcely a shop, certainly not one pretty one: no plate-glass fronts, no prints. How sad we should find it! Nothing to catch or amuse the eye. Lounging is out of the question. One must work at home, or hurry by under an umbrella to one's office or club.-Notes sur l'Angeterre.

Though was the high-road to the University, it derives its name from Edward Harley, Earl of Oxford, owner of the manor of Tyburn. It was formerly called the Tyburn Road, and in was only enclosed by houses on its northern side. Besides those already mentioned, we need only notice, of its side streets on this side , , where the Lord Mayor's Banqueting House stood, which was pulled down in . Thither the Lord Mayor occasionally came

to view the conduits, and afore dinner they hunted the Hare, and killed her, and thence to dinner at the head of the conduit, and after dinner they went to hunting the Fox.

[n.100.1]  The end house in , which belonged to Cosway, the miniature painter, has a beautiful ceiling by Angelica Kauffmann.

leads to the north-eastern corner of , which is entered at by the of our national follies--a despicable caricature

101

of the Arch of Constantine, originally erected by Nash at a cost of , as an approach to Buckingham Palace, and removed hither (when the palace was enlarged in ) at a cost .

At this corner of , where the angle of now stands, was the famous

Tyburn Tree,

sometimes called the

Three

-Legged Mare,

being a triangle on legs, where the public executions took place till they were transferred to Newgate in . The manor of Tyburn took its name from the Tye Bourne or brook, which rose under , and the place was originally chosen for executions because, though on the high-road to Oxford, it was remote from London. The condemned were brought hither in a cart from Newgate-

thief and parson in a Tyburn cart,Prologue by Dryden, 1684

the prisoner usually carrying the immense nosegay which, by old custom, was presented to him on the steps of St. Sepulchre's Church, and having been refreshed with a bowl of ale at . The cart was driven underneath the gallows, and, after the noose was adjusted, was driven quickly away by Jack Ketch the hangman, so that the prisoner was left suspended.[n.101.2]  Death by this method was much slower and more uncertain than it has been since the drop was invented, and there have been several cases in which animation has been restored after the prisoner was cut down. Around the place of execution were raised galleries which were let to spectators; they were destroyed by the disappointed mob who had engaged them when Dr.

102

Henesey was reprieved in . Mammy Douglas, who kept the key of the boxes, bore the name of the [n.102.1]  The bodies of Cromwell, Ireton, and Bradshaw were buried under the Tyburn tree after hanging there for a day. Some bones discovered in , on removing the pavement close to Arklow House, at the south-west angle of the Edgeware Road, are supposed to have been theirs. On the house at the corner of Upper and the Edgeware Road the iron balconies remained till , whence the sheriffs used to watch the executions.[n.102.2]  Amongst the reminiscences of executions at Tyburn are those connected with-

1388. Judge Tressilian and Sir N. Brembre, for treason.

1499. Perkin Warbeck (Richard, Duke of York?), nominally for attempting to escape from the Tower.

1534. The Maid of Kent and her confederates, for prophesying Divine vengeance on Henry VIII. for his treatment of Catherine of Arragon.

1535. Houghton, the last Prior of the Charterhouse, and several of his monks, for having spoken against the spoliation of Church lands by Henry VIII.

1595. Robert Southwell, the Jesuit poet and author of Saint Peter's Complaynt, Mary Magdalen's Funeral Teares, &c., cruelly martyred for his faith under Elizabeth-Mother of the Church- after having been imprisoned for three years in the Tower and ten times put to the torture.

1615 (Nov. 14). The beautiful Mrs. Anne Turner, for her part in the murder of Sir Thomas Overbury, hanged in a yellow cobweb lawn ruff, with a black veil over her face.

1623. John Felton, murderer of Villiers, Duke of Buckingham. His body was afterwards hung in chains at Portsmouth.

1661. On the 30th of January, the first anniversary of the execution of Charles I. after the Restoration, the bodies of Cromwell, Bradshaw, and Ireton, having been exhumed on the day before from Henry VII.'s Chapel at Westminster, and taken to the Red Lion in Holborn, were dragged hither on sledges and hanged till sunset. Then, being cut down, they were beheaded, their heads set on poles over Westminster Hall, and their bodies buried beneath the gallows.

1661, Jan. 30. This day (O the stupendous and inscrutable judgements of God!) were the carcasses of those arch rebells Cromwell, Bradshaw the judge who condemn'd his Majestie, and Ireton, son-in-law to ye Usurper, dragg'd out of their superb tombs in Westminster among the kings, to Tyburne, and hang'd on the gallows from 9 in ye morning till 6 at night, and then buried under that fatal and ignominious monument in a deepe pitt; thousands of people who had scene them in all their pride being spectators. Looke back at Nov. 22, 1658 (Oliver's funeral), and be astonish'd! and feare God and honor ye Kinge; but meddle not with them who are given to change.-Evelyn's Diary.

1661 (Oct. 19). Hacker and Axtell, the regicides.

1662 (April 19). Okey, Barkstead, and Corbett, regicides.

1676 (March 16). Thomas Sadler, for stealing the purse and mace of the Lord Chancellor from his house in Great Queen Street.

1681. Oliver Plunkett, Archbishop of Armagh, on a ridiculous accusation of plotting to bring over a French army against the Irish Protestants.

1684 (June 20). Sir Thomas Armstrong, for the Rye House Plot. His head was set over Temple Bar.

1705 (Dec. 12). John Smith, who, a reprieve arriving when he had hung for a quarter of an hour, was cut down, when he came to life, to the great admiration of the spectators.

1724 (Nov. 16). The notorious Jack Sheppard--in the presence of 200,000 spectators.

1725 (May 24). Jonathan Wild, who, at his execution, picked the parson's pocket of his corkscrew, which he carried out of the world in his hand.

1726. Katherine Hayes, for the murder of her husband-burnt alive by the fury of the people.

1753 (June 7). Dr. Archibald Cameron, for his part at Preston-Pans.

1760 (May 5). Earl Ferrers, for the murder of his steward. A drop was first used on this occasion. By his own wish the condemned wore his wedding dress, and came from Newgate in his landau with six horses. He was hanged with a silken rope, for which the executioners afterwards fought.

1761 (Sept. 16). Mrs. Brownrigg, for whipping her female apprentice to death in Fetter Lane.

1772. The two Perreaus, for forgery.

1774 (Nov. 30). John Rann, alias Sixteen-Stringed Jack, a noted highwayman, for robbing the Princess Amelia's chaplain in Gunners. bury Lane. He suffered in a pea-green coat, with an immense nosegay in his hand.

1777 (June 27). The Rev. Dr. Dodd, for a forgery on the Earl of Chesterfield for £ 4,zoo.

1779 (April 19). The Rev. J. Hackman, for the murder of Miss Reay in the Piazza at Covent Garden. He was brought from Newgate in a mourning-coach instead of a cart.

1783 (August 29). Ryland the engraver, for a forgery on the East India Company.

1783 (Nov. 7). John Austen, the last person hung at Tyburn.

[Tyburn still gives a name to the white streets and squares of , which are wholly devoid of interest or beauty. Farther west, Westbourne Park and take their name from the West Bourne, as the Tye Bourne was called in its later existence. The district called was Bayard's Watering Place, connected with Bainardus, a Norman follower of the Conqueror, also commemorated in Baynard's Castle. In a burial-ground facing (belonging to , ) was buried Laurence Sterne, author of &c., .

Sterne, after being long the idol of the town, died in a mean lodging, without a single friend who felt interest in his fate, except Becket, his bookseller, who was the only person who attended his interment. He was buried in a graveyard near Tyburn, in the parish of Marylebone, and the corpse, having been marked by some of the resurrection-men (as they are called), was taken up soon afterwards, and carried to an anatomy professor of Cambridge. A gentleman who was present at the dissection told me (Malone) he recognised Sterne's face the moment he saw the body.-Sir James Prior's Life of Edmund Malone, 1860.

Sterne was a great jester, not a great humourist.-Thackeray. The English Humourists.

Sir Thomas Picton, killed at Waterloo, was buried here in his family vault, and in the vaults under the chapel was

105

laid Mrs. Anne Radcliffe, authoress of the

Mrs. Radcliffe has a title to be considered as the first poetess of romantic fiction. ... She has taken the lead in a line of composition appealing to those powerful and general sources of interest, a latent sense of supernatural awe, and curiosity concerning whatever is hidden and mysterious; and if she has been ever nearly approached in this walk, it is at least certain that she has never been excelled, or even equalled.-Sir W. Scott. Life of Mrs. Radclife

.

in Bayswater commemorates the

Elms

where Holinshed says that Roger Mortimer was drawn and hanged-

at the Elms, now Tilborne.

To the north of Kensington Gardens stood the Bayswater Conduit House (commemorated in and , Paddington), at the back of the houses in , which take their name from the Earl of Craven, once Lord of the Manor. This conduit was granted to the citizens of London by Gilbert Sanford in , and was used to supply the famous conduit in . Its picturesque building, shaded by an old pollard elm, was in existence in , when people still came to drink of its waters. Soon afterwards it was destroyed when the estate was parcelled out, and its stream was diverted into the , which flows under the centre of the roadway by Kensington .]

(open to carriages, not to cabs), the principal recreation ground of London, takes its name from the manor of Hyde, which belonged to the Abbey of . The Park was enclosed by Henry VIII., and the French ambassador hunted there in . In the time of Charles I. the Park was thrown open to the public, but it was sold under the Commonwealth, when Evelyn

106

complained that

every coach was made to pay a shilling, and horse sixpence, by the sordid fellow who had purchas'd it of the State as they were cal'd.

Cromwell was run away with here, as he was ostentatiously driving horses which the Duke of Oldenburgh had given him, and as he was thrown from the box of his carriage, his pistol went off in his pocket, but without hurting him. has been much used of late years for radical meetings, and on
Sundays numerous open-air congregations on the turf near the make the air resound with

revival

melodies, and recall the days of Wesley and Whitefield.

In descending the Park from Cuimberland Gate to , we pass on the left (Earl of Dudley), which contains a fine collection of pictures. Then, beyond Grosvenor House and its garden, rises the beautiful Italian palace known as (R. S. Holford,

107

Esq.), and built by Lewis Vulliamy in -. It is bolder in design than any other building in London, is an imitation, not, like most English buildings, a caricature, of the best Italian models, and has a noble play of light and shadow from its roof and projecting stones, feet inches square. The staircase is stately and beautiful, and leads to broad galleries with open arcades and gilt backgrounds like those which are familiar in the works of Paul Veronese. The upper rooms contain many fine pictures, chiefly Italian.

Opposite , apparently in the act of threatening Apsley House, stands a by , erected in in honour of the Duke of Wellington and his companion heroes, from cannon taken at Salamanca, Vittoria, Toulouse, and Waterloo. It is partially a copy (though much altered) of of the statues on the Monte Cavallo at Rome.

Between this statue and the open screen erected by Decimus Burton in is the entrance to , the fashionable of London, a mile and a half in length. The fragment of the walk on its southern side is the fashionable promenade during the season from to , as the corresponding walk towards the is from to . At these hours the walks are thronged, and the chairs () and arm-chairs () along the edge of the garden are amply filled. was already a fashionable promenade centuries ago, the

season

then being considered to begin with the . for , remarks-

Now, at Hyde Park, if fair it be,

A show of ladies you may see.

People seldom suspect that the odd term is a corruption of , yet so it is. The old royal route from the palace of the Plantagenet kings at to the royal hunting forests was by what are now called

Birdcage Walk

,

Constitution Hill

,

and

Rotten Row

,

and this road was kept sacred to royalty, the only other person allowed to use it being (from its association with the hunting grounds) the Grand Falconer of England. This privilege exists still, and every year the Duke of St. Alban's, as Hereditary Grand Falconer, keeps up his rights by once down .

A little to the north of is the , an artificial lake of acres, much frequented for bathing in summer and for skating in winter. There is a delightful drive along its northern bank. Near this are the oldest trees in the Park, some of them oaks said to have been planted by Charles II. In this part of the Park was the

Ring,

now destroyed, the fashionable drive of the last century. The most celebrated of the many duels in , that between Lord Mohun and the Duke of Hamilton, in which both were killed, was fought () near

Price's Lodge

at the north-western angle of the Park, where it is merged in Kensington Gardens.

[South of is the now populous and popular district of , wholly devoid of interest, and which none would think of visiting unless drawn thither by the claims of society. Its existence only dates from , before which Mrs. Gascoigne describes it as-

A marshy spot, where not one patch of green,

No stunted shrub, nor sickly flower is seen.

It occupies, in great part, the Ebury Farm in ,

109

which belonged to the Davies family till , when Alexander Davies, the last male of the family, died, leaving it to his only daughter Mary, who married Sir Thomas Grosvenor in . George III. foresaw, when Buckingham Palace was acquired for the Crown, that it would make the locality fashionable, and that people would wish to follow royalty, and he was desirous of buying the fields at the back of the palace grounds, but George Grenville, the then prime minister, would not sanction the expenditure of for the purpose. The result was the building of in , which overlooks the gardens of the palace.

But the

Five

Fields

behind , mentioned in the and as places where robbers lay in wait, remained vacant till , when their marshy ground was made into a firm basis by soil brought from the excavations for St. Katherine's Docks, and Messrs. Cubitt and Smith built Belgravia. Lord Grosvenor gave for the

Five

Fields.

Lord Cowper also wished to buy them, and sent his agent for the purpose, but he came back without doing so, and when his master upbraided him said,

Really, my lord, I could not find it in my heart to give

£ 200

more than they were worth.

Cubitt afterwards offered a ground rent of !

The only tolerable feature of this wearily ugly part of London is (measuring feet by ), designed by George Basevi, and named from the village of Belgrave in Leicestershire, which belongs to the Duke of .

Close to rises the pillared front of (Duke of Wellington), over which, on fine

110

afternoons, the sun throws a spirit-like shadow from the statue of the great Duke upon the opposite gateway.[n.110.1]  The house, which was built for Charles Bathurst, Lord Apsley, by the brothers Adam, was bought by the Marquis Wellesley in : it will always excite interest, from its associations as the residence of Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington, who died . [n.110.2] 

The peculiar characteristic of this great man, and which, though far less dazzling than his exalted genius and his marvellous fortune, is incomparably more useful for the contemplation of the statesman, as well as the moralist, is that constant abnegation of all selfish feelings, that habitual sacrifice of every personal, every party, consideration, to the single object of strict duty-duty rigorously performed in what station soever he might be called on to act.-Lord Brougham. Statesmen of George III.

On the right of the Entrance Hall is a room appropriated as a kind of It is surrounded by glass cases containing--an enormous plateau, candelabra, &c., given by the Spanish and Portuguese Courts after the Peninsular War; a magnificent shield bearing the victories of the Duke in relief, presented, with candelabra, by the Merchants and Bankers of London in ; and services of china given by the Russian, Prussian, and French Courts. In a number of table-cases are preserved the swords, batons, and orders (including the extinct order of the Saint Esprit) which belonged to the Duke; his field-glasses; the cloak which he wore at Waterloo; the sword of Napoleon I.; the dress worn by Tippoo Saib at his capture; and the magnificent George set with emeralds, originally given by Anne to the Duke of

111

Marlborough, and presented by George IV. to the Duke of Wellington.

At the foot of the stairs is a colossal statue of Napoleon I. by , presented by the Prince Regent in . The collection of pictures includes-

In the

D. Teniers, 1655. A Peasant's Wedding-containing a number of small figures, most carefully finished.

Teniers. His own Country House of Perck.

In the (so called from an ugly picture of the lion-tamer by

Landseer. Highland Whiskey Still.

Ward. Napoleon in Prison in his youth.

Wilkie. Chelsea Pensioners reading the Gazette of Waterloo, painted in 1822, under the superintendence of the great Duke.

Burnet. Greenwich Pensioners receiving the news of the Battle of Trafalgar.

Hoppner. Portrait of William Pitt.

In the (a magnificent room used for the Wellington Banquets on the till the death of the great Duke).

Vandyke. Charles I. A replica of the picture at Windsor.

Wouvermans. The Return from.the Chase.

Sir Antonio More. Two noble Portraits.

* Correggio. Christ on the Mount of Olives-one of the most powerful miniature pictures in England, full of intense expression. Vasari speaks of this work of the master as la piu bella cosa che si possa vedere di suo. It is said to have been given by the painter to an apothecary, in payment of a debt of four scudi. Having been taken in the carriage of Joseph Buonaparte, it was restored to Ferdinand VII., by whom it was given back to the Duke.

Here, as in the Nolte, the light proceeds from the Saviour, who kneels at the left of the picture. Thus Christ and the angel above him appear in a bright light, while the sleeping disciples, and the soldiers who approach with Judas, are thrown into dark shadow; but it is the clear obscure of the coming dawn, and exquisite in colour. The expression of heavenly grief and resignation in the countenance of Christ is indescribably beautiful and touching; it is impossible to conceive an expression more deep and fervent.-Kugler.

Velazquez. El Aguador-the Water-seller. A very powerful picture.

In the

Le Fevre. Napoleon I.

Wilkie (1833). William IV.

Guardabella. The Great Duke of Wellington.

Sir W. Allan. The Battle of Waterloo.

Wilkie. George IV. in a Highland dress.

Portraits of the Allied Sovereigns.

Statuettes of Napoleon I. and the Duke of Wellington by Count D'Orsay.

Close to Apsley House was the public-house known as the

Pillars of Hercules,

whither Squire Western is represented as coming to seek for Sophia. Part of the ground on which the house is built was purchased from the representatives of Allen, who, when recognised by George II. while holding an apple-stall at the entrance of the Park, as an old soldier of the Battle of Dettingen, was asked by the king what he would wish to have granted him, and demanded and received

the permission to hold a permanent apple-stall at

Hyde Park Corner

.

and the were once united by the piece of land now cut off as the gardens behind Apsley House and Terrace. Their being divided dates from the time of the Civil Wars, when the royal forces had advanced as far as Brentford, and London was arming for its defence. The great bulwark of was then erected just where now divides the Parks, which were

113

never again united: it was a fort with bastions: all classes worked at it-

From ladies down to oyster-wenches, Laboured like pioneers in trenches, Fell to their pickaxes and tools, And helped the men to dig like moles. Butler. Hudibras.

The Corinthian Arch opposite Apsley House, built. by in , supports an ugly equestrian statue of the Duke of Wellington by (). It was between this gate and that of that Charles II., on foot, attended only by the Duke of Leeds and Lord Cromarty, met the Duke of York returning from hunting. The latter alighted, and expressed his disquietude at seeing the king walking with gentlemen only in attendance.

No kind of danger, James,

said the king,

for I am sure no man in England will take away my life to make you king.

[n.113.1] 

The road which passes beneath the arch leads into the (of acres), and skirts the gardens of Buckingham Palace by , where no less than attempts have been made upon the life of Queen Victoria: the by a lunatic named Oxford, ; the by Francis, another lunatic, ; and the by an idiot named Hamilton, . It was at the top of the hill that Sir Robert Peel was thrown from his horse, ; , and received the injuries from which he died on the . The principal houses on the opposite side of the Park are, Stafford House, Bridgewater House, and Spencer House.

leads into close to , of which the gardens occupy acres. The northern part was the famous

Mulberry Garden,

planned by James I. in , mentioned by [n.114.1]  and Wycherley [n.114.2]  as a popular place of entertainment, whither Dryden came to eat tarts with his mistress, Mrs. Anne Reeve,[n.114.3]  and which Evelyn () speaks of as

the only place of refreshment about town for persons of the best quality to be exceedingly cheated at.

On this site Goring House was built, called Arlington House after its sale to Bennet, Earl of Arlington, in . It was Lord Arlington, says Timbs,[n.114.4]  who brought from Holland for the of tea introduced into England, so that probably tea was drunk on the site of Buckingham Palace. Arlington House was sold to John Sheffield, Duke of Buckingham, in , and was rebuilt for him in by a Dutch architect of Bergen under the name of Buckingham House, when it was adorned with mottoes without, and frescoes within. Defoe [n.114.5]  calls it

one

of the great beauties of London, both by reason of its situation and its building.

It was here that Horace Walpole describes the Duke's wife, daughter of James II. by Catherine Sedley, as receiving her company on the anniversary of

the martyrdom of her grandfather (Charles I.) seated in a chair of state, in deep mourning, attended by her women in like weeds, in memory of the royal martyr.

[n.114.6]  George II., as Prince of Wales, wished to buy the house from this duchess in her widowhood, but the price she

115

asked was too high, and it was left for George II. to purchase it from Sir Charles Sheffield, in , for . In it was settled upon Queen Charlotte instead of , and was called the Queen's House. In - it was rebuilt by Nash for George IV. (being always immediately over the Tye Brook, now a sewer), and in the east front ( feet long) was added by Blore. It is imposing-only by its size. The of the palace contains little that is worthy of notice beyond some of the collection of pictures formed by George IV., chiefly of the Dutch school. The white marble staircase is very handsome. In the former are Vandyke's portraits of Charles I. and Henrietta Maria, and Winterhalter's portraits of the Queen and Prince Consort. In the State Dining Room is Lawrence's full-length portrait of George IV. The contain many royal portraits of great interest.

In the Gardens is a of acres. A is adorned with scenes from by Eastlake, Maclise, Landseer, Dyce, Stanfield, Uwins, Leslie, and Ross. In the (visible by an order from the Master of the Horse) the Queen's State Coach may be seen.

( acres) was a bare, undrained field belonging to the hospital, afterwards , till it was enclosed by Henry VIII. Charles II., on his return from his exile, came back imbued with the Dutch taste for gardening, and laid it out with a long straight canal and regular avenues of elms and limes, such as were the or Duke Humphrey's Walk, the Long Lime Walk, and the Close Walk or Jacobite's Walk. Evelyn mentions the elms in branchywalk as

intermingling their reverend tresses.

116

The laying-out was probably due to Le Notre, who was employed at Wrest, the best of the trees which had existed before his time having been blown down in the great storm which marked the night of Oliver Cromwell's death. Near the south-west corner was Rosamund's Pond, the

Rosamund's Lake

of Pope, painted by Hogarth, and mentioned by
Otway, Congreve, Addison, Colley Gibber, and many other authors: it was filled up in . In - the whole plan of the Park was modernised, and both water and walks were made to wind and twist under George IV.: their rural character was, however, still sufficient to give application to the title of Wycherley's comedy--

St. James's is far the prettiest of the London parks, and the most frequented by the lower orders. On Sundays they come by thousands to sit upon the seats mentioned by Goldsmith,[n.117.1]  where,

if a man be splenetic, he may every day meet companions, with whose groans he may mix his own, and pathetically talk of the weather,

and they bring bread to feed the water-fowl, which are the direct descendants of those introduced and fed by Charles II. Hither Pepys came () to gaze at

the great variety of fowle

which he never saw before; and here Charles II. increased his popularity by coming unattended to look after his favourite ducks.

Even his indolent amusement of playing with his dogs, and feeding his ducks in St. James's Park (which I have seen him do), made the common people adore him, and consequently overlook in him what in a prince of a different temper they might have been out of humour at. --Colley Cibber's Apology. 1740.

At the time the water-fowl were introduced, became also a kind of Zoological Garden for London.

9 February, 1664-5. I went to St. James's Park, where I saw various animals. .. The Parke was at this time stored with numerous flocks of severall sorts of ordinary and extraordinary wild fowle, breeding about the Decoy, which, for being neere so grette a City, and among such a concourse of souldiers and people, is a singular and diverting thing. There were! also deere of severall countries,--white; spotted like leopards; antelopes; an elk; red deere; roebucks; staggs; Guinea goates; Arabian sheepe, &c. There were withy-potts or nests for the wild fowle to lay their eggs in, a little above ye surface of ye water.-Evelyn.

The exiled Cavaliers had brought back with them the habit of skating, and to Evelyn went

118

() to see them skate

after the manner of Hollanders;

and Pepys () followed the Duke of York into the Park,

where, though the ice was broken and dangerous, yet he would go slide upon his scates.

The exercise, however, seems to have passed out of fashion, for in Swift wrote to Stella of

delicious walking weather, and the canal and Rosamund's Pond full of rabble sliding, and with skaitts, if you know what it is.

The artificial water is now crossed by an ugly iron bridge, from which, however, there is a noble view of the new . On the peace of , a Chinese bridge and pagoda were erected here, and illuminated at night. It was this which caused Canova, when asked what struck him most in England, to answer,

that the trumpery Chinese bridge in

St. James's Park

should be the production of the Government, while that of Waterloo was the work of a private company.

[n.118.1]  of the most remarkable sinecures ever known was that of the salaried Governor of Duck Island, which once adorned the water near this point, an appointment which was bestowed by Charles II. upon St. Evremond, and by Queen Caroline upon Stephen Duck,

the thresher poet,

ridiculed by Swift. It was while walking in on , that Charles II. received the intimation of the so-called

Popish Plot.

Kirby, a chemist, came up to him and said,

Sir, keep within company; your enemies have a design upon your life, and you may be shot in this very walk.

[n.118.2]  Prior and Swift used constantly to walk round the Park together.

Mr. Prior,

said Swift,

walks to make himself fat, and I to keep myself down.

When he laid out the Park, Charles II. removed , for the game of Palle Malle, from the other side of to the straight walk on its north side, upon which the gardens of Stafford House, the Palace, Marlborough House, and now look down. Here the fashionable game of striking a ball with a mallet through an iron ring down a straight walk strewn with powdered cockle-shells was played by the cavaliers of the Court. Pepys () mentions coming to see the Duke of York play, and Charles himself was fond of the game. The flatterer Waller [n.119.1]  says-

Here a well-polished Mall gives us the joy

To see our Prince his matchless force employ.

Till the present century, the Mall continued to be the most fashionable promenade of London, but the trees were then ancient and picturesquely grouped, and the company did not appear as they do now by , for the ladies were in full dress, and gentlemen carried their hats under their arms.

The ladies, gaily dress'd, the Mall adorn With various dyes, and paint the sunny morn. Gay. Trivia.

My spirits sunk, and a tear started into my eyes, as I brought to mind those crowds of beauty, rank, and fashion, which, till within these few years, used to be displayed in the centre Mall of this Park on Sunday evenings during the spring and summer. Here used to promenade, for one or two hours after dinner, the whole British world of gaiety, beauty, and splendour. Here could be seen in one moving mass, extending the whole length of the Mall, 5000 of the most lovely women in this country of female beauty, all splendidly attired, and accompanied by as many well-dressed men.-Sir Richard Phillips. Morning Walk from London to Kew, 1807.

While he played at Palle Malle here in his prosperity, James Duke of York must often have remembered his escape by this way in his year, when, while all the young people in the palace were engaged late at night in playing at hide-and-seek, he slipped up to the room of his sister Elizabeth, shut up there the favourite little dog which was sure to have betrayed him, and gliding down the back stairs and through the dark garden, let himself out of a postern door into the Park, and so to the river.

It was by this road also that Charles I. (-) walked to his execution.

About 10 o'clock Colonel Hacker knocked at the King's chamber door (in St. James's Palace), and, having been admitted, came in trembling, and announced to the King that it was time to go to Whitehall; and soon afterwards the King, taking the Bishop (Juxon) by the hand, proposed to go. Charles then walked out through the garden of. the palace into the Park, where several companies of foot waited as his guard; and, attended by the Bishop on one side, and Colonel Tomlinson on the other, both bare-headed, he walked fast down the Park, sometimes cheerfully calling on the guard to march apace. As he went along, he said he now went to strive for a heavenly crown, with less solicitude than he had often encouraged his soldiers to fight for an earthly diadem. Trial of Charles Family Library, xxxi.

Till a very few years ago, when it was blown down, there existed in Sir John Lefevre's garden, at the corner of , a tree, which the king on this his last walk lingered to point out, saying,

That tree was planted by my brother Henry.

And there still remains, at this corner of the Park, a remnant of old days coeval with the king's execution, in , as the pretty cow-stalls which still exist under the elm-trees used to be called. The milk-vendors are proud of the number of generations through which the stalls have been held in their families. We

121

learn from Gay's that asses' milk was formerly sold here-

Before proud gates attending asses bray,

Or arrogate with solemn pace the way;

These grave physicians with their milky cheer

,

The love-sick maid and dwindling beau repair.

The houses behind Milk Fair stand in , the Spring (Fountain) Garden of Palace, which

formerly had its archery butts; bathing pond, and bowling-green. Milton lived in a house at which

overlooked the Spring Garden

before he went to reside in .

Upon the east end of the Park--on the site formerly occupied by the vast buildings of Whitehall--the Admiralty, the , the Treasury, and the now look down. The wide open space in front of the Horse

122

Guards was once the Tilt Yard of the palace. The centre of this space is the only position in London in which the Alexandrian Obelisk could be placed with advantage. Here stands the mortar cast at Seville for Napoleon, used by Soult at Cadiz, and captured after the retreat of Salamanca.

 

The south side of the Park is bounded by , where an aviary was erected by James I. In the time of Charles II., who had a passion for birds, it was lined with cages, and the

Keeper of the King's Birds

was a regular office. Till as late as no , except the Duke of St. Alban's, as Hereditary Grand Falconer, was permitted to drive down the carriage way on this side the Park, except the royal family.

In former days the Park gave sanctuary. Timbs mentions how serious an offence it was to draw a sword there. Congreve in his makes Bluffe say,

My blood rises at that fellow. I can't stay where he is; and I must not draw in the Park.

The Park has been open to the public ever since the days of Charles II. Caroline, wife of George II,, wished to make it once more a private appurtenance of the palace, and asked Sir Robert Walpole what it would cost.

Only

three

crowns,

was his reply.[n.123.1] 

 
 
Footnotes:

[n.43.1] Curious details as to the game are given in Le Jen de Mail, par Joseph Lanthier, 1717. It was played with balls made from the root of box, which were gradually attuned to the stroke of the mallet, and were always rubbed with pellitory before being put away after use.

[n.44.1] The genial wit, of whom Curran said, Die when you will, Charles, you will die in your youth.

[n.45.1] Pepys, Jan 14, 1667-8.

[n.45.2] Feb. 15, 1668-9.

[n.45.3] Built 1681. Called after Sir Philip Warwick.

[n.45.4] Lord Brougham.

[n.51.1] Lettres an Roi de Danemark, par Jean Pay en de la Fouleresse, 1688-1692.

[n.54.1] Holinshed.

[n.59.1] Theodore Hook.

[n.61.1] Art. Whiston, Biog. Brit., vi. 4214.

[n.61.2] Mary II. was married in her bedchamber.

[n.63.1] Hazlitt asserts that the join may be detected, on careful inspection, passing through the body of the Child, and only just missing the forehead of the Virgin.

[n.69.1] Whites Chocolate House and St. James's Palace are represented in Plate IV of Hogarth's Rake's Progress.

[n.70.1] His arms are over the south entrance of St. James's Church. It was his nephew who gave a name to Dover Street.

[] Memorials to London, i. 6.

[n.72.1] Removed to Kensall Green: his monument is on the outside of the church.

[n.73.1] Hogarth's print of Taste represents the Gate of Burlington House surmounted by his favourite Kent, with Lord Burlington on a ladder carrying up materials, and Pope whitewashing the gate and splashing the passers-by.

[n.78.1] Blanchard Jerrold's Life of Napoleon III., vol. II.

[n.80.1] Devonshire House is only shown on presentation of a special order from the family.

[n.80.2] History of the Westminster Election, by Lovers of Truth and Justice, 1718

[n.82.1] Leigh Hunt.

[n.82.2] See Notes and Queries, and series, i. 9

[n.83.1] Monographs.

[n.90.1] The name was foolishly changed to Homer Street to obliterate the recollection of the conspiracy.

[n.98.1] Wigmore Street and Wimpole Street derive their names from country-seats of the Earls of Oxford.

[n.99.1] The neighbouring Welbeck Street and Bolsover Street are named from country-houses of the Portland family; but the great mass of streets in this neighbourhood--Bentinck Street, Holles Street, Vere Street, Margaret Street, Cavendish Street, Harley Street, Foley Place, Weymouth Street-commemorate the junction of the great Bloomsbury and Marylebone estates by the marriage of William Bentinck, Duke of Portland, with Margaret Cavendish Harley in 1734.

[n.100.1] Strype.

[n.101.2] The scene is depicted in Hogarth's Idle Apprentice executed at Tyburn.

[n.102.1] Timbs, Curiosities of London.

[n.102.2] Footnote to the engraving of Tyburn Gallows, by William Capon, 1783.

[n.110.1] See Quarterly Review, clxxxiv.

[n.110.2] Apsley House is not shown to the public.

[n.113.1] Dr. King's Anecdotes of his Own Times.

[n.114.1] The Humourists.

[n.114.2] Love in a Wood.

[n.114.3] Gentleman's Magazine, 1745, P. 99.

[n.114.4] Curiosities of London.

[n.114.5] Journey through England, 1722.

[n.114.6] Walpole's Reminiscences.

[n.117.1] Essays.

[n.118.1] Quarterly Review

[n.118.2] Hume.

[n.119.1] Poem on St. James's Park, 1661.

[n.123.1] Walpoliana, i.9.