Walks in London, vol. 2

Hare, Augustus J. C.
1878

Chapter III: Regent Street and Regent's Park.

Chapter III: Regent Street and Regent's Park.

 

In front of the Duke of York's Column, where the ridiculous statue, nicknamed the

Quoit Player,

disgraces , leads to the north from . Nearly a mile in length, it was built by John Nash, and takes its name from the Prince Regent, afterwards George IV. The portion known as the Quadrant originally had colonnades advancing the whole width of the pavement: these were removed in , to the great injury of its effect.

[From , (on the right) leads into . , to the north, commemorates the rural state of this district as late as , when a windmill here gave its name to the

Windmill Fields.

Nollekens the sculptor, who died in , narrates that when he was a little boy his mother used to take him to walk by a long pond near this windmill, and every paid a halfpenny at the miller's hatch for the privilege of walking in his grounds. In the house of his brother William in , the famous Dr. John Hunter died saying,

If I had strength enough to hold a pen, I would write how easy and pleasant a thing it is to die.

Ever since the Edict of Nantes, when exiled gentility began to congregate here, as exiled industry in Spitalfields, has been the most popular resort of foreigners of the middle classes, especially of French visitors to London. Few spots in the metropolis have undergone more changes from fashion than this. Even to the present century the square was known as

Leicester Fields,

and until the time of Charles II. it continued to be unenclosed country. On what is the north side of the square, Leicester House, which appears in Faithorne's map of as the only house in this neighbourhood, was then built for Robert Sidney, Earl of Leicester,[n.125.1]  from whom it was rented by Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia-

the Queen of Hearts

--who died there . To this house, in , Pepys went to visit Colbert, the French Ambassador; and here Prince Eugene was residing in . The house continued to be the property of the Sidneys till the end of the last century, when it was sold to the Tulk family for , which sum the Sidneys employed in freeing Penshurst from its encumbrances. Meantime, the Sidneys had not lived here, and Leicester House had become habitually

the pouting-place of princes.

[n.125.2]  George II. resided there as Prince of Wales from to , after he had been turned out of St. James's by his father, for too freely exhibiting his indignation at the cruel treatment of his mother, Sophia Dorothea, condemned to a lifelong imprisonment in the castle of Zell. William, Duke of Cumberland, the hero of Culloden, was born there in . Frederick, Prince of Wales, when he, in his

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turn, quarrelled with his father in , came to reside in with his wife and children. It was there that he died (), suddenly exclaiming,

Je sens la mort,

and falling into the arms of Desnoyers, the dancing-master, who was performing upon the violin,[n.126.1]  while the royal family were playing at cards in the next room; an event which so little affected George II., that when he received the news as he was playing at cards with the Countess of Walmoden, he said simply,

Fritz ist todt,

[n.126.2]  and went on with the game.

As Leicester House was insufficient to contain his numerous family, the Prince of Wales knocked through a communication with Savile House, which adjoined it on the west. Here George III. passed his boyhood, and used to act plays (of which the handbills still exist) with his little brothers and sisters. It was in front of this house that he was proclaimed as king. Savile House continued to be the residence of Augusta, the Princess-Dowager, till her removal to Carlton House in , and Frederick William, youngest brother of George III., died there () at the age of . At an earlier period Savile House was the place where the Marquis of Carmarthen entertained Peter the Great, and where the Czar would demolish bottles of sack in an evening, besides a pint of brandy spiced with pepper, and a bottle of sherry. The house was completely pillaged during Lord George Gordon's riots, when the people tore up the rails of the square and used them as weapons.

In the last century was the especial

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square of painters. Sir James Thornhill lived there and died there (), and his far more illustrious son-in-law, William Hogarth, came up almost at the same.time from Chiswick to die in his London house, which was at the south-east corner where Archbishop Tenison's school now stands.

Here closed in death the attentive eyes

That saw the manners in the face. From the epitaph by Dr. Johnson preserved by Mrs. Piozzi.

Hogarth's house was afterwards inhabited by the Polish patriot, Thaddeus Kosciusko, and Byron's Countess Guiccioli lived in it during her stay in England. In the next house (that adjoining the Alhambra), John Hunter, the famous surgeon, began to collect () his Museum, now at the Surgeons' Hall.

In No. , on the west side of the square, Sir Joshua Reynolds lived from to .

His study was octagonal, some twenty feet long by sixteen broad, and about fifteen feet high. The window was small and square, and the sill nine feet from the floor. His sitter's chair moved on casters, and stood above the floor about a foot and a half. He held his palettes by the handle, and the sticks of his brushes were eighteen inches long. He wrought standing, and with great celerity; he rose early, breakfasted at nine, entered his study at ten, examined designs or touted unfinished portraits till eleven brought a sitter, painted till four, then dressed, and gavel the evening to company.-Allan Cunningham, Lives of the Painters.

His dinner parties,

of a cordial intercourse between persons of distinguished pretensions of all kinds: poets, physicians, lawyers, deans, historians, actors, temporal and spiritual peers, House of Commons men, men of science, men of letters, painters, philosophers, and lovers of the arts, meeting on a ground of hearty ease, good-humour, and pleasantry, exalt my respect for the memory of Reynolds. It was no prim fine table he set them down to. Often the dinner-board prepared for seven or eight required to accommodate itself to fifteen or sixteen; for often, on the very eve of dinner, would Sir Joshua tempt afternoon visitors with intimation that Johnson, or Garrick, or Goldsmith, was to dine there.-Forster's Life of Goldsmith.

It was on the steps of this house that Sir Joshua morning found the child who was painted by him in the charming picture of

Puck,

cheered at the auction when it was sold to Rogers the poet. The mushroom and fawn's ears were added in deference to the wish of Alderman Boydell, who wished to introduce the beautiful portrait of the boy into his Shakspeare. The near neighbourhood of Hogarth and Reynolds was not conducive to their harmony.

Never were two great painters of the same age and country so unlike each other; and their unlikeness as artists was the result of their unlikeness as men; their only resemblance consisting in their honesty arid earnestness of purpose. It was not to be expected that they should do each other justice, and they did not.... Study the great works of the great masters for ever, said Reynolds. There is only one school, cried Hogarth, and that is kept by Nature. What was uttered on one side of Leicester Square was pretty sure to be contradicted on the other, and neither would make the advance that might have reconciled the views of both.-Leslie and Taylor's Life of Sir J. Reynolds.

On the south of is the opening of an ugly court-St. Martin's Court--of many associations. On the left is the chapel--built by subscription in for the use of the French Protestants, who, after long sufferings in their own country, took refuge in England on the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. Within its walls they prayed for the prince by whom they had been forbidden to follow their trades and professions, forbidden Christian burial, and exiled, and whom yet they respected as

the Almighty's scourge.

The adjoining house, ugly and poverty-stricken as it looks now, was that in which Sir Isaac Newton passed the latter years of his life, in an honoured old age, from to , years before his death at Kensington. He had been made Master of the Mint under Anne, and in became President of the Royal Society. Always frugal in his own habits, he devoted his wealth to the poor, especially to the French refugees in his neighbourhood. In the observatory on the top of his house he was wont to say that the happiest years of his life were spent. This observatory, once used as a Sunday school, was kept up till for the inspection of the foreign visitors who came by thousands to visit it, and who now, when they come to seek it, turn away disgusted at the treatment which the shrines of their illustrious dead meet with at the hands of Englishmen, for it was sold some years since to supply some pews for the chapel next door.

The house was afterwards inhabited by Dr. Burney, whose celebrated daughter wrote her here. John Opie, the artist, who died in , lived close by; and Thomas Holcroft, the novelist and dramatist, was born in in , being the son of a shoemaker.

was formerly decorated by a statue of George I., brought from the seat of the Duke of Buckingham at Canons: in . After the square was railed in, it became a favourite site for duels, and the duel between Captain French and Captain Coote was fought here in , in which the latter was killed. In his , Thackeray, true to his picture of the times, narrates how Lord Mohun and Lord Castlewood-having seen Mrs.

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Bracegirdle act, and having supped at the. Greyhound at Charing Cross-quarrelled, and took chairs to fight it out in .

From the beginning of the present century began to decline, and gradually presented that aspect of ruin which is said to have given rise to Ledru Rollin's work on the decadence of England. In its area was leased, and its miseries were concealed by the erection of Wyld's Globe, while the neighbouring houses were given up to taverns, exhibitions of waxworks, acrobatic feats, or panoramas. After the Globe was cleared away, the area remained uncared for, and the statue perished slowly under generations of practical jokes, till Mr. Albert Grant took pity upon the square in , decorated it in the centre with a statue of Shakspeare (a copy of that in ), and at the corners with busts of of the most famous residents-Hogarth, Newton, Hunter, and Reynolds, and opened it to the public.

From , and Wardour Street-beloved by collectors of old furniture-lead in a direct line to . On the right opens , which derives its name from the house facing , which was built by Gerard, Earl of Macclesfield, who died in . The profligate Lord Mohun lived in this house, and hither his body was brought home when he was killed in a duel by the Duke of Hamilton. In No. of this street, in a house looking on the gardens of Leicester House [n.130.1] -

the

fifth

door on the left hand coming from

Newport Street

,

as he wrote to his friend Elmes Steward-lived Dryden, with his wife, Lady

131

Elizabeth Howard; here he died, , and here, if it took place at all, occurred the extraordinary scene after his death described by Johnson,[n.131.1]  with the heartless practical joke played at his funeral by Lord Jefferies. The poet

used most commonly to write in the ground-room next the street.

[n.131.2] 

Dryden may be properly considered as the father of English criticism, as the writer who first taught us to determine upon principles the merits of composition.-Dr. Johnson.

The matchless prose of Dryden, rich, various, natural, animated, pointed, lending itself to the logical and the narrative, as well as the narrative and picturesque; never balking, never cloying, never wearying. The vigour, freedom, variety, copiousness, that speaks an exhaustless fountain from its source: nothing can surpass Dryden.-Lord Brougham.

I may venture to say in general terms, that no man hath written in our language so much, and so various matters, and in so various manners, so well . . . His prose had all the clearness imaginable, together with all the nobleness of expression, all the graces and ornaments proper and peculiar to it, without deviating into the language or diction of poetry .... His versification and his numbers he could learn of nobody, for he first possessed those talents in perfection in our own tongue; and they who have succeeded in them since his time have been indebted to his example; and the more they have been able to imitate him, the better they have succeeded.-Congreve.

Edmund Burke was living in Gerard Street at the time of the trial of Warren, Hastings, and at the

Turk's Head

in this street he united with Johnson and Reynolds in in founding the

Literary Club,

to which the clever men of the day usually thought it the greatest honour to belong.[n.131.3] 

I believe Mr. Fox will allow me to say, remarked the Bishop of St. Asaph, that the honour of being elected into the Turk's Head Club is not inferior to that of being the representative of Westminster or Surrey. -Forster.

132

It was to this society that Goldsmith was admitted by the friendship of Johnson, before his more important works were published, but came unwillingly, feeling that he sacrificed something for the sake of good company, and shut himself out of several places where he

used to play the fool very agreeably;

and here he would entertain and astonish literary supper parties with his favourite song about

an old woman tossed in a blanket

seventeen

times as high as the moon.

In is the , consecrated by Bishop Compton in , and dedicated to the mother of the Virgin out of compliment to the Princess Anne: its tower is said to have been made as Danish as possible to flatter her Danish husband. Against the outer wall is a tablet erected by Horace Walpole, and inscribed-

Near this place is interred Theodore, King of Corsica, who died in this parish, Dec. 11, 1756, immediately after leaving the King's Bench Prison, by the benefit of the Act of Insolvency, in consequence of which he registered his kingdom of Corsica for the use of his creditors. The grave, great teacher to a level brings Heroes and beggars, galley-slaves and kings. But Theodore this moral learned e'er dead: Fate pour'd its lessons on his living head, Bestow'd a kingdom, and denied him bread.

This unfortunate king was a Prussian-Stephen Theodore, Baron de Neuhoff. While in the service of Charles XII. of Sweden, the protection which he afforded to the inhabitants of Corsica induced them, in , to offer him their crown. He ruled disinterestedly, but the embarrassments to which he was reduced by want of funds for the payment of his army forced him to come to seek them in London,

133

where he was arrested for debt. Horace Walpole tried to raise a subscription for him, but only were obtainable. In Voltaire's Theodore tells his story-

Je suis Théodore; on m'a appelé roi en Corse; on m'a appelé votre majesté; et à present à peine m'appelle-t--on monsieur; j'ai fait frapper de la monnaie, et je ne possède pas un denier; j'ai eu deux secrétaires d'état, et j'ai a peine un valet; je me suis vu sur un trône, et j'ai longtemps été à Londres en prison sur la paille.--Ch. XXVI.

King Theodore recovered his liberty only by giving up his effects to his creditors .under the Act of Insolvency; all the effects, however, that he had to give up were his right, such as it was, to the throne of Corsica, which was registered accordingly in due form for the benefit of his credifbrs. As soon as Theodore was set at liberty, he took a chair and went to the Portuguese minister; but not finding him at home, and not having a sixpence to pay, he desired the chairmen to carry him to a tailor in Soho, whom he prevailed upon to harbour him; but he fell sick the next day, and died in three more.-Horace Walpole.

The man who allowed King Theodore to die in his house was too poor to pay for his funeral, and the expense was undertaken by John Wright, an oilman in , who said that he was

willing

for once

to pay the funeral expenses of a king.

of the seat-holders in the church was Catherine Sedley, mistress of James II. In the vault beneath is buried Lord Camelford, killed in a duel at Kensington in . William Hazlitt the essayist () rests in the churchyard.[n.133.1] 

In critical disquisitions on the leading characters and works of the drama, he is not surpassed in the whole range of English literature.-Sir A. Alison's Hist. of Europe.

The brick wall of St. Anne's Churchyard may recall the familiar figure of Sir Joshua Reynolds, who bought

134

therefrom a collection of ballads hanging against the wall-a rude woodcut, the chiaro-oscuro of which he used in his picture of Lord Ligonier on horseback.

From the north-east corner of , , so called from the title of the Cecils, leads into , which, as far back as , was the especial domain of coach-builders. It derives its name from a narrow strip of ground which belonged to the Abbey of . Here Oliver Cromwell is proved by the rate-books (in which he is called

Captain Cromwell

) to have lived (on the south side) from to .

Dryden lived here, in a house lacing (No. ) from to , and was attacked and wounded opposite his own house by the

Rose-Alley

Ambuscade

myrmidons hired by Wilmot, Earl of Rochester, to punish. him for having assisted Lord Mulgrave in his John Taylor, the voluminous

Water Poet,

who published no less than volumes in the reigns of James I. and Charles I., also lived in , where he kept a tavern. Being forced to change its sign during the Commonwealth from the

Morning Crown,

he changed it to that of his own head. Whitefield preached, in , at the chapel in amidst many petty persecutions and interruptions.

The sons of Jubal and Cain continue to serenade me at

Long Acre

Chapel,

he wrote to Lady Huntingdon.

The wife of a cobbler in became celebrated as the Chloe of Prior, described by Pope as being only

a poor mean creature,

with whom

he used to bury himself for whole days and nights together,

though of Prior's poems begins-

135

When Chloe's picture was to Venus shown,

Surprised, the goddess took it for her own.

, commemorates the mansion of Lord Newport in the time of Charles I.

From the junction of Cranbourne Street and , leads towards Covent Garden. Here (right) is the , founded ,

for the general patronage of the Drama; for the purpose of combining a club on economical principles with the advantages of a Literary Society; for the promotion of a Theatrical Library; and for bringing together the patrons of the Drama.

The interesting may be seen on Wednesdays (except in September) from to , on the personal introduction of a member. We may especially notice-

Mrs. Yates-Cotes.

Mrs. Siddons-Harlowe.

Venice Preserved -Garrick and Mrs. Cibber-Zoffany.

Sheridan- Tredcroft.

Foote-Sir J. Reynolds.

Barton Booth- Vanderbank.

Garrick and Mrs. Pritchard in Macbeth -Zoffany.

Mrs. Pope-Sir M. A. Shee.

Woodward as Petrucchio - Vandergucht.

Mrs. Clive as Fine Lady --Hoogarth.

Lock and Key-Munden, E. Knight, Mrs. Orger, and Miss Cubitt-Clint.

Mrs. Pritchard, the Inspired Idiot of Dr. Johnson-Hayman.

Nathaniel Lee-Dobson.

Colley Cibber as Lord Foppington -Grisoni.

Garrick-Pine.

Quin--Hogarth (?).

Love, Law, and Physic -Mathews, Liston, Blanchard, and Emery-Clint.

Charles Bannister-Zoffany.

Quin-Hogarth.

Smoking Room.

Lugger coming out of Monnikendam-Stanfield.

Exterior and Interior of a Flemish Inn-Louis Haghe.

Halt of a Caravan at Baalbec-D. Roberts.

A number of Water-colour portraits by Dewilde, and original sketches by John Leech.

Staircase.

Mrs. Bracegirdle.

Charles Kemble as Macbeth -Morton.

Henderson and Wilson as Hamlet and Polonius

The Arch of Ancona-Stanfield.

Miss O'Neil--G. F. yoseph.

Madame Catalani-Lonsdale.

Henderson as Macbeth -Romney (?).

Henry Johnston as Norval -Sir W. Allan.

Charles Kean as Louis XI.-H. W. Philips.

Mrs. Hartley-Angelica Kautfmann.

Master Betty as Douglas --Opie.

Miss Lydia Kelly-Harlowe.

Kemble as Cato -Sir T. Lawrence,

Mrs. Stirling as Peg Woffington -H. W. Phillips.

Garrick-Zoffany.

Weston as Billy Button -Zoffany.

Pope-Sir M A. Shee.

King and Mrs. Baddeley in the Clandestine Marriage -Zoffany.

T. King- Wilson.

Mathews as Monsieur Malet -Clint.

Mrs. Oldfield-Sir G. Kneller.

Bannister (honest Jack, whom even footpads could not find in their hearts to injure )Sir W. Scott in the Quarterly. and Parsons in The Village Lawyer -Dewilde.

Mrs. Woffington-Mercier.

Mrs. Abington as Lady Bab -Hickey.

Mrs. Woffington-Hogarth.

Miss Farren-Gainsborough (?).

Rich and Family-Hogarth.

King as Touchstone --Zoffany.

W. M. Thackeray--John Gilbert.

Garrick and Mrs. Pritchard in the Suspicious Husband- Layman.

Macklin at ninety-three-Opie.

Young as King John--Landseer.

Mathews in various characters-Harlowe.]

Returning to , a little to the right from the Quadrant,

not exactly in anybody's way, to or from anywhere,

is , immortalised in and It contains a statue of George II. brought from Canons. Lord Bolingbroke lived in this square while Secretary of War, -, and here the artist Angelica Kauffmann married a valet under the belief that he was his master, Count Horn.

is now in a thickly populated district, though it was here,

as in a place far from the haunts of men,

that in the reign of Charles II.,

when the great Plague was raging, a pit was dug into which the dead carts had nightly shot corpses by scores. No foundations were laid there till

two

generations had passed without any return of the pestilence, and till the ghastly spot had long been surrounded by buildings. It may be added that the pestfield may still be seen marked in the maps of London as late as the end of the reign of George III.

[n.137.1] 

At No. , , on the right of , James Northcote the painter died, . Haydon, in

138

his gives a most comical account of a visit to him here.

On the left, leads into , which received its name instead of that of , as was intended, in the days of the early popularity of George I. The square was built about , when the place for executions was removed from Tyburn, lest the inhabitants of

the new square

should be annoyed by them. The bronze on the south side of the square is by , and was set up in .

When convinced of the propriety of anything in his works, Chantrey was not to be moved, and he resisted all admonitions, criticisms, and even threats. He persisted in raising the statue of Pitt in Hanover Square, on a high pedestal, against the wish of the Committee; but he respectfully volunteered to relinquish the commission, rather than his intention of placing the figure in its present lofty position.Jones's Recollections of Chantrey.

The neighbouring church of , is well known as a Temple of Hymen (also named in honour of George I.), and as the goal of fashionable novelists, from its almost monopoly of marriages in high life. It was built by in ; being of Queen Anne's new churches. Its portico and tower are handsome. Its marriage registers are a perfect library of the autographs of illustrious persons, amid which the bold signature of

Wellington

frequently appears. In the beginning of the present century from to couples were sometimes united here in.the course of a year. Nelson's Lady Hamilton was married here, .

The portion of after is

139

crossed ends in the , .

Of all the mad freaks which ever entered the brain of architect or man to devise, this church far out-Herods all the rest. It is in the form of a circular temple of the Ionic order, over which is placed a smaller kind of temple, also circular, with fourteen Corinthian pillars; from this latter rises a steeple of considerable height, similar to those which we see upon the towers of village churches in Germany. John Nash was the author of this specimen of architecture.-Passavant. A German Artist in England.

Beyond this, some trees on the right mark what was once the garden of Foley House, which was made a freehold by the Duke of Portland in exchange for the permission to build north of it, such building on the Portland estate having been expressly forbidden by the stipulations of the lease. The turn of the street here, which places and on a different line, was made to spite Sir James Langham, who had quarrelled with Nash as the architect of his house.[n.139.1]  The wide and handsome (built by the brothers Adam of the , and named, with Bentinck, Duke, and Duchess Streets, from the ground landlord, William, Duke of Portland, and his duchess, Henrietta Cavendish Holles) leads to the , having at its extremity a by

The , the largest of the lungs of London, occupies acres. It was laid out, during the Regency, from designs of John Nash (the architect of ), who designed most of the ugly terraces which surround it, and exhibit all the worst follies of the Grecian architectural mania which disgraced the beginning of this

140

century. The outer and inner drive are delightful in early summer when the thorns and lilacs are in bloom, and much more countrified than anything in the other parks.

On the east side of the. Park, near , is for needy gentlemen and gentlewomen, removed from the neighbourhood of the Tower, when St. Katherine's Docks were erected. There it was founded by Matilda of Boulogne, the half-Saxon princess who, being niece of Matilda the Good, stole the hearts of the English people from the Norman Matilda for her husband, King Stephen. Its inmates were perpetually to pray for the souls of her dead eldest children, Baldwin and Maud. Eleanor, wife of Edward I., and Philippa, wife of Edward III., did much to enrich the hospital. The. patronage has always rested with the Queens of England, and the presentations are usually given to those who have been connected with the Court. There are brethren and sisters, who are supplied here with incomes, houses, and small gardens of their own. The modern chapel contains some of the fittings of the old (in which Katherine the Fair, widow of Henry V., lay in state before her burial at ), the stalls, and a pulpit of wood given by Sir Julius Caesar, who was Master of the Hospital, and inscribed

Ezra the Scribe stood upon a pulpit of wood, which he had made for the preachin. Neh. viii.

7

.

Over the altar is a copy from the Nativity of Rubens. A noble canopied tomb on the left bears the effigies of John Holland, Duke of Exeter, Lord High Admiral in the reign of Henry VI., with his wife, Anne, daughter of Edmond,

Earl Stafford, and his sister Constance, Lady Grey de Ruthyn.[n.141.1]  It was the son of this duke who married the sister of Edward IV.

On the north-west of the Park are the , founded in (admission is.: on Mondays and holidays )

Beyond the Park, on the north, rises the turfy eminence called ( feet high), at the foot of which the Tye Bourne formerly rose, and where the body of Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey, murdered near , was found in a ditch, Oct , . When the wind and smoke allow, there is a fine view of London from the summit of the hill, where there are seats and gravel walks.

Chalk Farm, on , commemorated by a tavern, was the popular place for duels in the part of the present century. Here () the duel was fought between Colonel Montgomery and Captain Macnamara, in which the former was killed; here () Tom Moore and Francis Jeffrey were interrupted in that duel of which Lord Byron made fun in his and here another lamentable literary duel, which grew out of articles in resulted in the death of the Editor of the . The last fatal duel at Chalk Farm was that between Lieutenant Monro and Colonel Fawcett, .

On the west of the Park is , a vast colony of -rate villas. The district belonged to the Prior of , Clerkenwell, who had his country manor at Tollentun (Tollington Road), Highbury. The rural state

142

of the neighbourhood is commemorated in (formerly Listen) , whose public-house is the

Nightingale.

At Wood is (admission , or, when a -class match is played, ). The great gathering here is for the Eton and Harrow match in July.

Before leaving the we may notice that at St. Dunstan's Villa are preserved the giants noticed by Cowper, which struck the hours on the old clock of St. Dunstan's in (see Ch. III.), and which were purchased by the Marquis of Hertford on the demolition of the church.

The land now called the was once Marylebone Park, a royal hunting ground from the time of Elizabeth to the Protectorate, when Cromwell sold the deer and cut down the timber. A little to the south of the present Park the now leads towards the hideous and populous district of . It passes the , which about gave the name Mary at the Bourne to a village previously called Tyborne, from the brook which flowed through it towards , &c. The interior of the old church is shown in the marriage picture of Hogarth's It was rebuilt in . The burials here include Gibbs the architect, Rysbrach the sculptor, and Allan Ramsay the portrait painter.

Behind the manor-house of Marylebone, which stood on the site of , , was the bowling-green which was the

Prince's

of the last century. Here John Sheffield, Duke of Buckingham, loved to besport himself, and led Lady Mary Wortley Montagu to write-

Some Dukes at Marylebone bowl time away.

It was in Marylebone Gardens that Mrs. Fountain, the famous beauty of the day, was saluted by Dick Turpin, who said,

Don't be alarmed; you may now boast that you have been kissed by Turpin.

miles and a half beyond Paddington, on the , is , whither most of the funerals, which are so unnecessarily dismal a London sight, are wending their way. Here, in the labyrinths of monuments, we notice those of the Duke of Sussex, , Princess Sophia, ; Rev. Sydney Smith, ; Allan Cunningham, ; Sir Augustus Callcott the artist, , John Liston the actor, ; and Sir Charles Eastlake, . In the Roman Catholic Cemetery beyond is the tomb of Cardinal Wiseman.

On the east the falls into the or , where we may notice the , built by Sir John Soane, who is described by Fergusson as

one

of the earliest and most successful architects of the revival.

In this case, however, his work is an utter failure, though it cost . The slight portico is quite crushed by a ludicrous tower which presents copies of the Temple of the Winds at Athens, the smaller on the top of the larger. The interior is taken from the Erechtheion. The side porticos are adorned with Canephoras from the Pandroseion.

On the north of the road leading from to Kentish Town is the old ,[n.143.1]  built c. . The of says,

Pancras Church standeth all alone, utterly forsaken, old and

wetherbeten, which for the antiquitie thereof, is thought not to yield to Paul's in London. About this church have bin manie buildings, now decaied, leaving poore Pancras without companie or comfort.

It is understood that this church was the last whose bell tolled in England for mass, and in which any rites of the Roman Catholic religion were celebrated before the Reformation.[n.144.1]  The church, which was like the humble church of a country village, is now hemmed in by railways, and was for the most part rebuilt in , though it has still a look of antiquity. Its churchyard was deeply interesting, but its interest and its picturesqueness have been alike annihilated in -, many of its graves being covered up by hideous asphalt walks, and as many as gravestones being torn from their graves and either made away with altogether, or set up in meaningless rows against the railway wall, their places being occupied by silly rockwork. Other monuments, some very handsome, have been robbed of all but the flat stones which covered them, which have been laid upon the earth. The ground itself has been levelled where it was possible, instead of having advantage taken of its undulations; and the new walks, instead of being made to wind the tombs, are arranged in stupid symmetrical lines, everything in the way being sacrificed and cut away for them. In fact, the whole place is desecrated and ruined.

Entering the church, we may notice on the north wall, under the gallery, an unknown monument of Purbeck marble, with recesses for brasses. In the north gallery is a monument to Thomas Doughty, , owner of the Doughty estate, of which the name became so familiar in

145

the Tichborne trial. On the south wall is a tablet to Samuel Cooper, the miniature-painter, the

Apelles of England

. Near the chancel door is a monument to William Platt and his wife, , removed from Highgate.

The neighbourhood of was peopled at the end of the last century by noble fugitives from the great French Revolution, and for the most part they are buried in this churchyard, which is crowded with remarkable memorials of the dead. On the right of the church door is the gravestone of William Woollett, the famous engraver (), which bore the lines-

Here Woollett rests, expecting to be sav'd:

He graved well, but is not well engraved :

an inscription which is supposed to have led to the after erection of a tablet in the cloisters of . On the north of the churchyard is the tomb of William Godwin (), described on his tombstone as

Author of Political Justice,

known chiefly by his novel of

the cream of his mind, while the rest (of his works) are the skimmed milk.

[n.145.1]  With him rest his wives, of whom the was the notorious Mary Wolstonecraft, author of the [n.145.2]  whose daughter Mary promised to become the wife of the poet Shelley by her mother's grave. Close by once lay the remains of Pasquale Paoli, the Corsican patriot, with a eulogistic.Latin epitaph upon his gravestone.

Amongst the other graves of interest we may notice those of the exiled Archbishop Dillon of Narbonne; of Grabe

146

(), trained a Lutheran, but who took orders in the Church of England, and espoused the cause of the non-jurors; of Jeremy Collier (), the famous non-juring bishop, who is simply described in the register as

Jeremiah Collier, clerk;

of Francis Danby the musician, famed

by playful catch, by serious glee;

of Abraham Woodhead, the Roman Catholic controversialist (), who did not allow his name to be affixed to any of his books--

quos permultos et utilissimos et piissimos doctissimosque edidit,

erected by Cuthbert Constable of Yorkshire, who shared his faith. Near Woodhead, to whom he was united in friendship

per bonam famam et infamiam,

lies Obadiah Walker (), the ejected Master of University College at Oxford, a native of Yorkshire, and also a convert to Roman Catholicism in the reign of Charles II.: his initials appear in an anagram. Dr. Bonaventura Giffard, Bishop of Madura , the Vicar Apostolic of the district of London after England had been partitioned into ecclesiastical districts by Innocent XI., was buried here in . The tomb of Arthur O'Leary (), the Irish Franciscan monk who wrote against Wesley, who

prayed, wept, and felt for all,

was erected by Lord Moira. The epitaph of Charles Butler (), the learned Roman Catholic lawyer, who was the antagonist of Southey, is a mere dry chronicle of his age and death.[n.146.1]  This is the burial-ground where Norden said that a corpse lay

as secure against the day of resurrection as in stately

St. Paul's

,

yet Parliament has lately allowed the engineers of the Midland Railway to make a cutting through it, and to build a viaduct over it.

In a further cemetery adjoining, which belongs to in the Fields is the tomb erected by Sir John Soane, the architect and founder of the Soane Museum, to his wife, whose loss

left him nothing but the dregs of lingering time.

He was himself laid beside her in . The tomb is a kind of temple, with an odd railing decorated with Cupids mourning over their extinguished torches. Near the centre of the burial-ground are the massy tombs of John Flaxman (), his wife, and his sister Mary Anne. The great sculptor's epitaph truly tells that

his life was a constant preparation for a blessed immortality.

Flaxman was one of the few--the very few--who confer real and permanent glory on the country to which they belong. . . . Not even in Raffaelle have the gentler feelings and sorrows of human nature been traced with more touching pathos than in the various designs and models of this estimable man.-Sir Thomas Lawrence.

The greatest of modern sculptors was our illustrious countryman, John Flaxman. Though Canova was his superior in the manual part, high finishing, yet in the higher qualities, poetical feeling and invention; Flaxman was as superior to Canova as Shakspeare to the dramatists of his day.-Sir R. Westmacott.

Canova nobly coincided with this opinion when he said-

If you come to Rome to admire my works, while you possess, in your own country, in Flaxman, an artist whose designs excel in classical grace all that I am acquainted with in modern art.

 
 
Footnotes:

[n.125.1] Sidney Alley still exists. Queen Street, Blue Street, and Orange Street record the distinguishing colours of the Earl's stables.

[n.125.2] Pennant.

[n.126.1] Horace Walpole says of Pavonarius, his German valet de chambre.

[n.126.2] Walpole.

[n.130.1] Dedication of Don Sebastian to the Earl of Leicester.

[n.131.1] Lives of the Poets, vol. 1.

[n.131.2] Pope in Spence's Anecdotes.

[n.131.3] The club still exists, but is called the Johnson.

[n.133.1] His tombstone has been moved from his grave, and stuck against the wall near that of King Theodore.

[n.137.1] Macaulay, History of England.

[n.139.1] See Timbs, Romances of London.

[n.141.1] The Duke's second wife, Anne, daughter of John Montacute, Earl of Salisbury, was buried in the same tomb, but without an effigy.

[n.143.1] It is best reached by turning to the left immediately before entering the Midland Railway Station.

[n.144.1] Timbs, Curiosities of London.

[n.145.1] Allan Cunningham, Biog. and Crit. Hist.

[n.145.2] Their remains are said to have been removed to Bournemouth.

[n.146.1] For further details see Epitaphs of the Ancient Church and Burial Grounds of St. Pancras, by Frederick Teague Carsick.