Walks in London, vol. 2Hare, Augustus J. C.
Chapter VIII: Westminster
Chapter VIII: Westminster
Immediately facing us as we emerge from is New , backed by Hall and the New Houses of Parliament. They occupy the site of the palace inhabited by the ancient sovereigns of England from early Anglo-Saxon times till Henry VIII. went to reside at . Here they lived in security under the shadow of the great neighbouring sanctuary, and after another saw arise, within the walls of their Palace, those Houses of Parliament which have now swallowed up the whole. It was here that Edward the Confessor entertained the Norman cousin who was to succeed him, and here he died on the . The palace was frequently enlarged and beautified afterwards, especially by William Rufus, who built the hall; by Stephen, who built the chapel, to which the finishing touches were given by Edward III.; and by Henry VIII., who built the Star Chamber. Edward I. was born, and Edward IV. died, within the walls of the palace. The most interesting parts of the ancient building were Chapel, the Painted Chamber, and the Star Chamber.
Chapel was a beautiful specimen of rich
|Decorated Gothic, its inner walls being covered with ancient frescoes relating to the Old and New Testament history; it was used as the from till , and its, walls resounded to the eloquence of Chatham, Pitt, Fox, Burke, Grattan, and Canning.|
The walls of the Painted Chamber were pointed out by tradition as those of the bedroom where the Confessor died. It was called St. Edward's Chamber, and took its name from the frescoes (arranged round the walls in bands like the Bayeux tapestry) with which it was adorned by Henry III., and which were chiefly illustrative of the History of the Maccabees and the Legendary life of the Confessor.[n.375.1] Here conferences between the Lords and Commons took place; here the High Court of Justice sate for the trial of Charles I.; and here the king's death-warrant was signed in the disgraceful scene when Cromwell and Henry Marten inked each other's faces. It was here also that Cromwell's daughter Elizabeth Claypole lay in state, and, long afterwards, Lord Chatham and William Pitt.
The Star Chamber, which was rebuilt by Henry VIII., took its name from the gilt stars upon its ceiling. It was the terrible Court in which the functions of Prosecutor and Judge were confounded, and where every punishment except death could be inflicted-imprisonment, pillory, branding, whipping, &c. It was there that William, Bishop of Lincoln, was fined for calling Laud
and that John Lilburn, after being fined , was sentenced to the pillory, and to he whipped from to . On the south side of the
|palace was the Chapel of Our Lady de la Pieu (des Puits?) where Richard II. offered to the Virgin before going to meet Wat Tyler. It was burnt in , but rebuilt by the brother of Elizabeth Woodville, Anthony, Earl Rivers, who left his heart to be buried there.|
At the end of the old Palace, opening upon Old , was the Prince's Chamber, built upon foundations of the Confessor's time, with walls feet thick. The upper part had lancet windows of the time of Henry III., and beneath them the quaintest of tapestry represented the birth of Elizabeth. Beyond was the ancient Court of Requests, hung with very curious tapestry representing the defeat of the Armada, woven at Haarlem, from designs of Cornelius Vroom for Lord Howard of Effingham. This was the till . Its interior is shown in Copley's Picture of the who was attacked by his last illness () while declaiming against the disgrace of the proposed motion
Beneath was the cellar where Guy Fawkes concealed () the barrels of gunpowder by which the king, queen, and peers were to be blown up. Hither, on the day before the opening of Parliament, Lady Aveland, as Hereditary Lord High Chamberlain, comes annually, by her deputy, with torches, to hunt for the successors of Guy Fawkes. On the night of , occurred the great conflagration which was painted by Turner, and the ancient Palace of , with Chapel, and the old were entirely gutted by fire.[n.376.1]
, containing the , was built -, from designs of Sir Charles Barry, R.A., in the Tudor style of Henry VIII. It is twice the size of the old palace, and is of the largest Gothic buildings in the world. The exterior is constructed of magnesian lime-stone from the Yorkshire quarries of Anston; the interior is of Caen stone. The details of many of the Belgian town halls are introduced in the exterior, which is, however, so wanting in bold lines and characteristic features that no would think of comparing it for beauty with the halls of Brussels, Ypres, or Louvain, though its towers group well at a distance, and especially from the river. Of these towers it has -the over the octagon hall; the ( feet high, occupying nearly the same site as the ancient clock-tower of Edward I., where the ancient Great Tom of for years sounded the hours to the judges of England);[n.377.1] and the ( feet square, and feet high), being the gateway by which the Queen is intended to approach the . Over the arch of the gate is the statue of Queen Victoria, supported by figures of Justice and Mercy; at the sides her parents, the Duke and Duchess of Kent, are commemorated, and other members of her family. The statues of the kings and queens of England from Saxon times are the principal external ornaments of the rest of the building.
New was formerly entered by gateways, the finest being the
on the west, built by Richard II., and only destroyed under Anne. On the left, where the Star Chamber stood, is now the House of the Speaker, an office which dates from the reign of Edward III.: the Speaker being Sir W. T. Hungerford, elected . On its south side, Hall faces us with its great door and window between square towers, and above, the high gable of the roof, upon which the heads of Oliver Cromwell, Ireton, and Bradshaw were set up on the Restoration. The head of Cromwell still exists in the possession of Mr. Horace Wilkinson, Sevenoaks, Kent.
It was in the yard in front of Hall that Edward I. (), when leaving for Flanders, publicly recommended his son Edward to the love of his people. Here Perkin Warbeck () was set a whole day in the stocks. On the same spot Thomas Lovelace () was pilloried by an order from the Star Chamber, and had of his ears cut off. Here () Alexander Leighton (the father of the archbishop) was not only pilloried, but publicly whipped, for a libel on the queen and the bishops. Here also William Prynne (), for writing the which was supposed to reflect upon Henrietta Maria, was put in the pillory, branded on both cheeks with the letters S. L. (seditious libeller), and lost of his ears. And here the Duke of Hamilton, Lord Capel, and Henry Rich, Earl of Holland, were beheaded for the cause of Charles I. The wool market established by Edward III.
| in , when the wearing of woollen cloths was introduced into England by John Kempe, was moved by Richard II. from Staple Inn to New , where a portion of the trade was still carried on in the century. For many years, before the porch where we are standing, daily, in term time, used to be seen the mule of Cardinal Wolsey (who rode hither from ), |
, built by William Rufus, was almost rebuilt by Richard II., who added the noble roof of cobwebless beams of Irish oak
which we now see. On the frieze beneath the Gothic windows his badge, the White Hart couchant, is repeated over and over again. The Hall, which is feet long and feet broad, forms a glorious vestibule to the modern Houses of Parliament, and its southern extremity with the fine staircase was added when they were built. In its long existence the Hall has witnessed more tragic scenes than any building in England except the . Sir William Wallace was condemned to death here in , and Sir John Oldcastle the Wickliffite in . In queens-Katherine of Arragon, Margaret of Scotland, and Mary of France --
Edward Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, was tried here and condemned in , and, on hearing his sentence, pronounced the touching speech which is familiar to thousands in the words of
|Shakspeare.[n.381.1] Here, , Sir Thomas More was condemned to death, when his son, breaking through the guards and flinging himself on his breast, implored to share his fate. Here Fisher, Bishop of Rochester (); the Protector Somerset (); Sir Thomas Wyatt (); Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk (for the sake of Mary of Scotland, ); Philip, Earl of Arundel (); Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, and Henry Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton () were condemned to the block. Here sentence was passed upon the Conspirators of the Gunpowder Plot in , and on the Duke and Duchess of Somerset for the murder of Sir Thomas Overbury in . Here, concealed behind the tapestry of a dark cabinet (), Charles I. and Henrietta Maria were present through the eighteen days' trial of Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford. In the same place Charles himself appeared as a prisoner on , with the banners taken at the Battle of Naseby hanging over his head.[n.381.2]|
The sentence against the King was pronounced on the :--
In Viscount Stafford was condemned in Hall for alleged participation in the Roman Catholic plot of Titus Oates. On June IS, , the Hall witnessed the memorable scene which ended in the triumphant acquittal of the Bishops. In Edward, Earl of Warwick, was tried here for manslaughter. Lords Kenmure and Derwentwater, Carnwath and Nithsdale, Widdrington and Nairn were condemned here for rebellion in , and
|Cromartie, Balmerino, and Kilmarnock in , their trial being followed months later by that of the aged Lord Lovat. In Lawrence Shirley, Earl Ferrers, was condemned here to be hung for the murder of his servant. In Lord Byron was tried here for the murder of Mr. Chaworth; and in Elizabeth Chudleigh, Duchess of Kingston, was tried here for bigamy. The last great trial in the Hall was that of Warren Hastings (in ), so eloquently described by Macaulay.|
But Hall has other associations besides those of its great Trials. It was here that Henry III. saw the Archbishop and bishops hurl their lighted torches upon the ground, and call down terrific anathemas upon those who should break the charter he had sworn to observe. Here Edward III. received the Black Prince when he returned to England with King John of France as a prisoner after the Battle of Poitiers. Hither came the English barons with the Duke of Gloucester to denounce Robert de Vere, Duke of Ireland, to Richard II.; and here, when Richard abdicated, Henry Bolingbroke claimed the realm of England as descended by right line of blood from Henry III.[n.383.1]
Hall was the scene of all the Coronation banquets from the time of William Rufus to that of George IV. On these occasions, ever since the reign of Richard II., the gates have been suddenly flung open, and, amid a blare of trumpets, the Royal Champion (always a Dymok or Dymoke of Scrivelsby) rides into the hall in full armour, and, hurling his mailed gauntlet upon the
|ground, defies to single combat any person who shall gain. say the rights of the sovereign. This ceremony having been thrice repeated as the champion advances up the hall, the sovereign pledges him in a silver cup, which he afterwards sends to him.|
On ordinary days-
is almost given up to the Lawyers. Nothing in England astonished Peter the Great more than the number of lawyers he saw here.
The Law Courts, of which Sir E. Coke says,
have occupied buildings, from the designs of Sir John Soane, on the west side of the Hall, but will be removed when the New Law Courts at are completed. They are the Court of Queen's Bench, presided over by the Lord Chief Justice and used by the Masters in Chancery, so called from the , open screens, which separated it from the Hall, the Court of Wards and Liveries, the Court of Requests, the Bail Court, and the Court of Common Pleas, presided over by the Chief Justice, where the great Tichborne case was tried -. Up to the reign of Mary I. the Judges rode to the Courts of upon mules. Men used to walk about in the Hall to seek employment as hired witnesses, and shamelessly drew attention to their calling by a straw in their shoes. In the time when Sir Thomas More
|was presiding in the Court of Chancery, his father, Sir John More, was sitting in the Court of King's Bench, and daily, before commencing his duties, he used to cross the Hall, to ask his father's blessing. The Exchequer Court at was formerly divided by the Hall, the being on side, the on the other.|
The Hall of William Rufus is now merged in the huge palace of Barry. A door on the east side of the Hall forms the Members' approach to the . It leads into the fan-roofed galleries which represent the restored cloisters of . A beautiful little oratory projects into the courtyard and the enclosure. Here it is believed that several of the signatures were affixed to the death-warrant of Charles I. The ancient door of the oratory has only recently been removed. Hence we enter the original of Chapel (
), which dates from , and has escaped the
|fires which have since consumed the chapel above. While it was being restored as the Chapel of the , an embalmed body of a priest holding a pastoral staff was found. It was supposed to be that of William Lyndwoode, Bishop of St. David's (), who founded a chantry here. The chapel is now gorgeous and gaudy, gilt and painted, a blaze of modern glass and polished glazed tiles.|
The staircase at the south end of Hall leads to ( ft. by , and high), which occupies the site of the old . It is decorated with statues:
It was by the door near Burke's statue that John Bellingham the disappointed Russia merchant waited, May ii, , to murder Spencer Perceval.
Hence we enter the , an octagon feet square adorned with statues of kings and queens. On the left opens the , adorned with frescoes by , viz.:
Alice Lisle helping fugitives to escape after the Battle of Sedgemoor.
Hence we enter the . On the left, facing the river, are the luxurious rooms of the , where members write their letters and- concoct their speeches.
[n.387.1] only measures ft. by , the smallest size possible for the sake of hearing, its architectural beauty as originally designed by Barry having been entirely sacrificed to sound. At the north end is the Speaker's chair, beneath which is the clerk's table, at the south end of which on brackets lies the mace, which was made at the Restoration in the place of
which Cromwell ordered to be taken away. The Ministerial benches are on the right of the Speaker, and the leaders of the Opposition sit opposite. Behind the Speaker is the Gallery for the Reporters of the Press,
[n.387.2] On either side of the House are the division lobbies, the
on the west, the
on the east.
Returning to the Central Hall, the stairs on the left, adorned with a statue of Barry (-), lead to the
|, decorated with frescoes of the English poets.
On the right is the used for conferences between the Houses of Lords and Commons. It contains the beautiful fresco of
by . Its execution occupied years, in compliance with the theory of the artist,
The ( ft. by ), overladen with painting and gilding, has a flat roof and stained glass windows filled with portraits of kings and queens. The seats for the peers (for ) are arranged longitudinally, the Government side being to the right of the throne, and the bishops nearest the throne. At the north end, below the Strangers' Gallery, is the dwarf screen of the bar, where witnesses are examined and culprits tried. Here the Speaker and Members of the appear with a tumultuous rush, when they are summoned to hear the Queen's speech. Near the centre of the House is the Woolsack covered with crimson cloth, with cushions whence the Lord Chancellor reads prayers at the opening
|of the debates. The Princess of Wales sits here at the opening of Parliament, facing the throne.|
The Queen enters from the Prince's Chamber preceded by heralds and takes her seat here, the Mistress of the Robes and the Lady of the Bedchamber standing behind her, when the Lord Chancellor, kneeling, presents the Speech. The Throne is so placed, at the of the House, that, if all the doors were open, the Speaker of the would be seen from it.
The frescoes above the throne are-
On the south of the is the , containing a very fine statue of Queen Victoria supported by Judgment and Mercy, by . This is approached from the Victoria Gate by the , containing frescoes of the Death of Nelson and meeting of Blucher and Wellington. When the Queen consents to arrive by the Victoria Gate, this gallery is
|crowded with ladies to see the procession pass. At its south end is the , lined with frescoes from the Story of King Arthur by , left unfinished by the death of the artist. This room is the best in the palace both in proportion and decoration. In a small room adjoining, used for committees, is a painted copy off lost tapestry from the Painted Chamber, representing the English fleet pursuing the Spanish fleet at Fowey.|
The Victoria Tower is approached by the open space known as , where Chaucer lived and probably died in a house the site of which is now occupied by Henry VII.'s Chapel. Ben Jonson also died in a house here. It was here that the conspirators of the Gunpowder Plot suffered death, opposite to the windows of the house through which they carried the gunpowder into the vaults under the .
Here, , being Lord Mayor's Day, Sir Walter Raleigh was led to execution at o'clock in the morning and said as he playfully touched the axe,
Sir Walter's head was preserved by Lady Raleigh in a glass-case during the years through which she survived him, and afterwards by her son Carew: with him it is believed to be buried at Horsley in Surrey.
In front of the Palace stands the equestrian statue of Richard Coeur de Lion by --a poor work, the action of the figure being quite inconsistent with that of the horse.
The , is the especial church of the , and, except the Abbey
|and , has the oldest foundation in London, having been founded by the Confessor and dedicated to Margaret, the martyr of Antioch, partly to divert to another building the crowds who inundated the Abbey church, and partly for the benefit of the multitudes of refugees in Sanctuary.|
The church was rebuilt by Edward I., again was re-edified in the time of Edward IV. by Sir Thomas Billing and his wife Lady Mary, and it has been greatly modernised in the last century. Here the Fast Day Sermons were preached in the reign of Charles I.; and here both Houses of Parliament, with the Assembly of Divines and the Scots Commissioners, met , and were prepared by prayer for taking the Covenant.
Here Hugh Peters,
denounced Charles as
and urged Parliament to bring the King
Amongst the Puritans who preached here were
In later times the rival divines Burnet and Sprat preached here before Parliament in the same morning.
Sir John Jekyl told Speaker Onslow in proof of Burnet's popularity that day when he was present the Bishop preached out his hourglass before exhausting his subject.
It was in that Dr. Sacheverell preached his sermon after his suspension, on Palm Sunday, .
The most important feature of the church is the east window, justly cited by Winston, the great authority on stained glass, as the most beautiful work as regards harmonious arrangement of colouring with which he is acquainted. It was ordered by Ferdinand and Isabella to
| be executed at Gouda in Holland, and was intended as a gift to the new chapel which Henry VII. was building, upon the marriage of their daughter Catherine with his eldest son Arthur. But the execution of the window occupied years, and before it was finished Prince Arthur was dead, and the chapel was finished. Henry VIII. presented the window to Waltham Abbey, and thence, on the Dissolution, the last abbot sent it for safety to his private chapel at New Hall, an estate which was afterwards purchased by Sir Thomas Boleyn, father of Queen Anne. The window remained at New Hall till the place became the property of General Monk, who took down the window and buried it, to preserve it from the Puritans, but replaced it in his chapel at the Restoration. After his death the chapel was pulled down, but the window was preserved and was eventually purchased by Mr. Conyers of Copt Hall in Essex, by whose son it was sold in to the churchwardens of for .[n.394.1] Even then the window was not suffered to rest in peace, as the Dean and Chapter of looked upon it as |
and brought a lawsuit for its removal, which, after having been fought for years, happily failed in the end.[n.394.2]
The window represents--on a deep blue backgroundthe Crucifixion, in which, as in many old Italian pictures, angels are catching the blood which flows from the Saviour's wounds, the soul of the penitent thief is received by an angel, while the soul of the bad thief is carried off by a
|demon. At the foot of the cross kneels on side Arthur, Prince of Wales, with his patron St. George and the red and white roses of his parents over his head; on the other Katherine of Arragon, with St. Cecilia above her, and the pomegranate of Granada.|
Over the altar is the Supper at Emmaus, executed in lime-wood in by from the Titian in the Louvre. In the porch near the north-western entrance is a beautiful carved -century seat where a loaf of bread and sixpence are given every Sunday to poor widows in accordance with the will of Mrs. Joyce Goddard, . Close by is the mural monument of Mrs, Elizabeth Corbett (who died of cancer) with Pope's famous epitaph--
In the same western porch are the monuments , , and , , founders of the Almshouses which are called by their names. In the north aisle is the curious but much injured Flemish monument and bust of of Breda, , builder of the almshouses in -
Another monument, with quaint verses, commemorates
Near the north-east door is the monument of , , who sold oatmeal cakes by the church door, and left money for a sermon and the maintenance of poor widows. In the north-eastern porch are many monuments with effigies offering interesting examples of costume of the time of James I., and that to , , whose mother Ursula was daughter of the famous Countess of Salisbury, the only daughter of George, Duke of Clarence, brother of King Edward the :--
A tablet, with a relief of his death, commemorates , .
In the chancel is buried , , the satirical poet laureate called by Erasmus
who died in Sanctuary, to which he was driven by the enmity of Wolsey, excited by his squibs on bad customs and bad clergy. Near him (not in the porch)
| rests another court poet of Henry VIII. and Elizabeth-
, , whose adventurous life was long romance. His best work was his |
[n.397.1] Camden gives his epitaph, which has disappeared.[n.397.2] Near these graves is that of a poet of the Commonwealth, , , author of the republican romance called Here also was buried Milton's beloved wife, (), who died in childbirth a year after her marriage to the poet.
In the south-eastern porch is the stately tomb of , :--
She married Edward Sutton, Lord Dudley, and secondly Richard Mountpesson, who is represented kneeling beside her. A tablet by , erected in , commemorates , the printer, , who long worked in the neighbouring and is buried in the churchyard. A brass plate was put up here in to , beheaded close by, and buried beneath the altar.
Exiled to the vestry, but preserved there, are the
put up in the church under the Puritan rule, but a crown has been added. After the Restoration, the church authorities rushed into the opposite extreme of loyal display, and a triumphal arch used to be erected inside the church annually in commemoration of the time of the king's return, till it fell and killed a carpenter in the beginning of the last century. The churchwardens for a years have held with their office the possession of a very curious , inside the lid of which is a head of the Duke Cumberland engraved by Hogarth in , to commemorate the Battle of Culloden. Successive churchwardens have enclosed it in a succession of silver cases, beautifully engraved with representations of the historical events which have occurred when they held office, so that it has become a really valuable curiosity, Before leaving this church may notice the marriage, at its altar, of Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon, grandfather of Mary II. and Anne, with Frances, daughter of Sir Thomas Aylesbury; and the baptism, at its font (), of Barbara Villiers, the notorious Duchess of Cleveland. The restoration of the church is contemplated, which, it is to be hoped may conduce to the preservation, not (as is so often the case in London) to the ruin, of its monuments, which afford so many quiet glimpses of Elizabethan and Jacobean History.
The of is closely paved with tombstones. Wenceslaus Hollar, the engraver (), is said to lie near the north-west angle of the tower. Here also are buried Sir William Waller, the Parliamentary general (), and Thomas Blood, celebrated for his
|attempt to steal the regalia (). The bodies of the mother of Oliver Cromwell; of Admiral Blake (who had been honoured with a public funeral); of Sir Thomas Constable and Dr. Dorislaus, concerned in the trial of Charles I.; of Thomas May, the poet and historian of the Commonwealth, and others famous under the Protectorate, when exhumed from the Abbey, were carelessly interred here. cannot leave the churchyard without recalling its association with the poet Cowper, while he was a boy.|
On the south and west of the Abbey and the precincts of School is a labyrinth of poor streets. commemorated the vineyard of the Abbey. Many of the old signs are historical-the , a record of the Crusades; the , the badge of Richard II.; the , the badge of the Tudors. In the poverty-stricken quarter, not far from the river, is , the of Queen Anne's churches, built () from designs of , a pupil of Vanbrugh. It has semi-circular apses on the east and west, and at each of the corners of the towers which made Lord Chesterfield compare it to an elephant on its back with its feet in the air. The effect at a distance is miserable, but the details of the church are good
| when you approach them. Churchill, the poet, was curate and lecturer here (), and how utterly unsuited for the office we learn from his own lines:--
, near this, leads to , erected in on the site of the horse-ferry, where Mary of Modena crossed the river in her flight from (), her passage being
At the same spot James II. crossed days after in a little boat with a single pair of oars, and dropped the great seal of England into the river on his passage. The large open space called is used as a playground by the Scholars. In , on the north of the square, is , built by Miss Burdett Coutts in , and opposite this of . At the end of towards is the , a quaint building of , with statues in front in the costume of the children for whom it was founded. In the narrow streets near this is , built . The gate of the earlier prison here, called , is preserved in the garden.
At the end of , opposite the entrance to , is a very picturesque , by , in memory of the old boys killed in the Crimean war; and at the corner of is a
|(by and ), erected in by Mr. Charles Buxton, in honour of those who effected the abolition of the Slave trade. With its pretty coloured marbles and the trees behind, it is of the most picturesque things in London. Near this is a by , erected in . It was in the|
| drawing-room of the opposite house, No. , , that the body of Lord Byron lay in state, , when it arrived from Missolonghi before its removal to Newstead. ends at , so called from Edward Storey, |
(in ) to Charles II. Parallel with the Park on this side runs , with many houses bearing the
|comfortable solid look of her date, and with porches and doorways of admirable design carved in wood: a statue of Queen Anne stands at an angle.|
leads into , named after Frederick, Duke of York, son of George III., but formerly called , from the number of French Protestants who took refuge there in . Here No. , destroyed in (without a voice being raised to save it), was Milton's
marked on the garden side by a tablet erected by Jeremy Bentham (who lived and died close by in ) inscribed
It was here that he became blind, and that Andrew Marvell lived as his secretary. His wife, Mary Powell, died here, leaving little girls motherless, and here he married his wife, Catherine Woodcocke, who died in childbirth a year after, and is commemorated in the beautiful sonnet beginning-
Hazlitt lived here in Milton's house, and here he received Haydon,
We may turn down [n.402.2] to , opened , but rebuilt -. It is now nearly twice as broad as any of the other bridges on the river. Hence we see the stately river front of the Houses of Parliament,
| and the ancient towers of on the opposite bank.[n.403.1]
It is interesting to remember how many generations have |
by the great river highway.
Few visit the bridge early enough to see the view towards the City as it is described by Wordsworth-
[n.375.1] They are engraved in J. T. Smith's Vetusta Monumenta.
[n.376.1] The fire began in the rooms adjacent to the House of Lords, amid the piles of tallies which were preserved there-pieces of stick upon which the primitive accounts of the House were kept by notches.
[n.377.1] It was this clock which once struck thirteen at midnight with the effect of saving a man's life. John Hatfield, guard on the terrace at Windsor in the reign of William and Mary, being accused of having fallen asleep at his post, and tried by court-martial, solemnly denied the charge, declaring as proof of his being awake, that he heard Great Tom strike thirteen, which was doubted on account of the great distance. But while he was under sentence of death, an affidavit was made by several persons that the clock actually did strike thirteen instead of twelve, whereupon he received the king's pardon.
[n.381.1] Henry VIII. Act. ii. sc. i.
[n.381.2] Westminster Hall, by Edward Foss.
[n.383.1] Shakspeare in his Richard II. makes the King pronounce his abdication at this scene.
[n.387.1] Quarterly Review, clxxxix.
[n.387.2] Quarterly Review, clxxxix.
[n.392.1] Examination of Beaver in the trial of Hugh Peters
[n.393.1] Walcott's Westminster.
[n.394.1] Timbs's Curiosities of London.
[n.394.2] In memory of this triumph the then churchwarden presented to the parish the beautiful Loving Cup of St. Margaret.
[n.397.1] D'Israeli, Calamities of Authors.
[n.397.2] Come, Alecto, lend a torch, To find a Churchyard in a church porch; Poverty and poetry this torch doth enclose, Therefore gentlemen be merry in prose.
[n.402.1] Haydon's Autobiography, i. 211.
[n.402.2] William Godwin, author of Caleb Williams, died (1836) in a house (now destroyed) on the left. At the angle on the left is St. Stephen's Club, erected 1874, from an admirable design of J. Whichcord.
[n.403.1] Artists should find their way to the banks amongst the oats and warehouses on the Westminster shore opposite Lambeth and farther still.