Walks in London, vol. 2

Hare, Augustus J. C.
1878

Chapter IX: Lambeth.

Chapter IX: Lambeth.

 

On crossing we are in , originally a swamp, traversed by the great to Newhaven, now densely populated, and covered with a labyrinth of featureless streets and poverty-stricken courts. The name, by doubtful etymology, is derived from Lamb-hithe, a landing-place for sheep.

[The Road-well known from [n.404.1]  for horsemanship-leads to , the King's Town, where a royal manor existed from the time of the Anglo-Saxon Kings to that of the Stuarts, when Charles I. was its last inhabitant. It was here that () Hardicanute died suddenly at a wedding-feast-

with a tremendous struggle

--while he was drinking. Nothing remains now of the palace.

At the junction of and is the new , best known as . It was called Bedlam even by Sir Thomas More,[n.404.2]  in whose time it was already a lunatic asylum. The Hospital was only

405

transported to its present site from near Bishopsgate in -. Till

Bedlam

was of the regular

sights

of London, and the public were allowed to divert themselves with a sight of the unfortunate lunatics for the sum of penny. The patients, both male and female, were chained to the walls till , when the death of a man named Norris, who had lived for years rationally conversing and reading, yet chained to the wall by a ring round his neck and iron bars pinioning his arms and waist, led to an inquiry in Parliament, which resulted in their better treatment: now nothing is left to be desired.

In the entrance-hall are preserved the famous statues of Melancholy and Madness, by , which stood over the gates of old Bedlam, and were there attacked by Pope in his satire on Colley Gibber, the son of Caius Gabriel.

Where o'er the gates by his famed father's hand

Great Cibber's brazen brainless brothers.stand.

Many others have abused the statues, but, in this case, public opinion has outweighed all individual prejudices.

These are the earliest indications of the appearance of a distinct and natural spirit in sculpture, and stand first in conception and only second in execution among all the productions of the island. Those who see them for the first time are fixed to the spot with terror and awe; an impression is made on the heart never to be removed; nor is the impression of a vulgar kind. The poetry of those terrible infirmities is embodied; from the degradation of the actual madhouse we turn overpowered and disgusted, but from those magnificent creations we retire in mingled awe and admiration.-Allan Cunningham.

Facing the eastern wing of the Hospital is , the Roman Catholic Cathedral, a beautiful work of . It was opened . Cardinal

406

Wiseman was enthroned here, . It is curious that the most important Roman Catholic church in England should have been raised on the very spot where the

No Popery

? rioters were summoned to meet Lord George Gordon in , and, distinguished by the blue cockades in their hats, to attend him to . The scene, says Gibbon, was

as if

forty thousand

Puritans, such as they might have been in the days of Cromwell, had started out of their graves.

[n.406.1] 

(now Park) became famous in from the great revolutionary meeting of Chartists under Feargus O'Connor, which was such a ludicrous failure. It was here that

Jemmy Dawson,

commemorated in Shenstone's ballad, was hung, drawn, and quartered () for the rebellion of . Whitefield sometimes preached here to congregations of people, and here he delivered his farewell sermon before leaving for America.

Friday, August 3, 1739.-Having spent the day in completing my affairs and taking leave of dear friends, I preached in the evening to near 20,000 people at Kennington Common. I chose to discourse on St. Paul's parting speech to the elders of Ephesus; at which the people were exceedingly affected, and almost prevented my making any application. Many tears were shed when I talked of leaving them. I concluded with a suitable hymn, but could scarce get to the coach for the people thronging me, to take me by the hand, and give me a parting blessing.-George Whitefield's Diary.

]

From , runs to the right with a beautiful stone terrace along the river. The frightful row of semi-detached brick buildings belongs to , removed hither (-) from ; their

407

chief ornament is thoroughly English--a row of hideous urns upon the parapet, which seem waiting for the ashes of the patients inside. The Hospital originated in an Almshouse founded by the Prior of in . It was bought by the City of London at the Dissolution, and was refounded by Edward VI. In the court in front of the present building is a statue of Edward VI. by , set up by Charles Joyce in : in the court is a statue of Sir Robert Clayton, a benefactor of the hospital-

the fanatic Lord Mayor

of Dryden's -in his Lord Mayor's robes.

Passing under the wall of the Archbishop's garden, and beneath the Lollard's Tower, with its niche for a figure of St. Thomas, we reach and Church. It was beneath this church tower that Queen Mary Beatrice took refuge on the night of .

The party stole down the back stairs (of Whitehall), and embarked in an open skiff. It was a miserable voyage. The night was bleak; the rain fell: the wind roared: the water was rough: at length the boat reached Lambeth; and the fugitives landed near an inn, where a coach and horses were in waiting. Sometime elapsed before the horses could be harnessed. Mary, afraid that her face might be known, would not enter the house. She remained with her child, cowering for shelter from the storm under the tower of Lambeth Church, and distracted by terror whenever the ostler approached her with his lantern. Two of her women attended her, one who gave suck to the Prince, and one whose office was to work his cradle; but they could be of little use to their mistress; for both were foreigners who could hardly speak the English language, and who shuddered at the rigour of the English climate. The only consolatory circumstance was that the little boy was well, and uttered not a single cry. At length the coach was ready. The fugitives reached Gravesend safely, and embarked in the yacht which waited for them.-Macaulay.

The , was formerly of the most interesting churches in London, being, next to

408

Canterbury Cathedral, the great burial-place of its archbishops, but falling under the ruthless hand of

restorers,

it was rebuilt (except its tower of ) in - by , and its interest has been totally destroyed, its monuments huddled away anywhere, for the most part close under the roof, where their inscriptions are of course wholly illegible I High up in the south porch, behind a hideous wooden screen, are the curious bust and tablet of Robert Scott of Bowerie, , who

invented a leather ordnance.

In the chancel are the tombs of Hubert Peyntwin, auditor to Archbishops Moreton and Wareham, and Dr. Monpesson, Master of the Prerogative for the Archbishop of Canterbury; in the north transept are tablets to Archbishop Matthew Hutton, , and Archbishop Frederick Cornwallis, , and near these the brass of a Knight (Thomas Clerc, ?). At the northern entrance of the chancel is the brass of a lady of the Howard family, to which, before the

restoration

there were many interesting memorials here. No other monuments of importance are now to be distinguished. Amongst those commemorated here before the

restoration

were Archbishop Bancroft, (within the altar-rails); Archbishop Tenison, (in the middle of the chancel); Archbishop Secker, ; Archbishop Moore, ; Alderman Goodbehere; Madame Storace, the singer; John Dollond, , the discoverer of the laws of the dispersion of light and inventor of the achromatic telescope; Edward Moore, , author of the successful tragedy of which is still a favourite; Thomas Cooke, the translator of Hesiod, ; and Elias Ashmole, the antiquary, , founder of the Ashmolean Museum and author of the History of the Order

409

of the Garter-

the greatest virtuoso and curioso that ever was known or read of in England before his time.

[n.409.1] 

In digging the grave of Bishop Cornwallis, the body of Thomas Thirleby, and last Bishop of , was found entire, dressed like the pictures of Archbishop Juxon He died in an honourable captivity as the guest of Arch. bishop Parker in .

The Register records the burial here of Simon Forman, the astrologer, . Here also was buried Cuthbert Tunstall, the Catholic Bishop of Durham, deprived by Elizabeth for refusing the oath of supremacy. He was given to the charge of Archbishop Parker in , and died as his honoured guest in on the in the same year. He is described by Erasmus as excelling all his contemporaries in the knowledge of the learned languages, and by Sir Thomas More as

surpassed by no man in erudition, virtue, and amiability.

He was a papist only by profession; no way influenced by the spirit of Popery: but he was a good Catholic, and had true notions of the genius of Christianity. He considered a good life as the end, and faith as the means.William Gilpin, Life of Bernard Gilpin (Tunstall's nephew).

Almost the only interesting feature retained in this cruelly abused building is the figure of a pedlar with his pack and dog (on the window of the north aisle) who left

Pedlar's Acre

to the parish, on condition of his figure being always preserved on of the church windows. The figure was existing here as early as .

In the churchyard, at the east end of the church, is an altar tomb, with the angles sculptured like trees, spreading

410

over a strange confusion of obelisks, pyramids, crocodiles, shells, &c., and, at end, a hydra. It is the monument of John Tradescant () and his son, of the earliest British naturalists. The elder was so enthusiastic a botanist that he joined an expedition against Algerine corsairs on purpose to get a new apricot from the African coast, which was thenceforth known as

the Algier Apricot.

His quaint medley of curiosities, known in his own time as

Tradeskin's Ark,

was afterwards incorporated with the Ashmolean Museum.

Lambeth envy of each band and gown (Pope)

has been for more than years the residence of the Archbishops of Canterbury, though the site of the present palace was only obtained by Archbishop Baldwin in , when

411

he exchanged some lands in Kent for it with Glanville, Bishop of Rochester, to whose see it had been granted by the Countess Goda, sister of the Confessor. The former proprietorship of the Bishops of Rochester is still commemorated in , on the site of a house which was retained when the exchange was made, for their use when they came to attend Parliament. The is full of beauty in itself and intensely interesting from its
associations. It is approached by a noble of red brick with stone dressings, built by Cardinal Moreton in . It is here that the poor of have received

the Archbishops' Dole

for hundreds of years. In ancient times a farthing loaf was given twice a week to people.

Adjoining the Porter's Lodge is.a room evidently once used as a prison. On passing the gate we are in the outer

412

court, at the end of which rises the picturesque Lollards' Tower built by Archbishop Chicheley, -: on the right is the Hall. A gateway leads to the inner court, containing the modern (Tudor) palace, built by Archbishop Howley (-), who spent the whole of his private fortune upon it rather than let Blore the architect be ruined by exceeding his contract to the amount of ,. On the left, between the buttresses of the hall, are the descendants of some famous fig-trees which were planted by Cardinal Pole.

The was built by Archbishop Juxon in the reign of Charles II., on the site of the hall built by Archbishop Boniface (), which was pulled down by Scot and Hardyng the regicides, who purchased the palace when it was sold under the Commonwealth. Juxon's arms and the date are over the door leading to the palace. The stained window opposite contains the arms of many of the archbishops, and a portrait of Archbishop Chicheley.[n.412.1]  Archbishop Bancroft, whose arms appear at the east end, turned the hall into a , and the collection of books which it contains has been enlarged by his successors, especially by Archbishop Seeker, whose arms appear at the west end, and who bequeathed his library to . Upon the death of Laud, the books were saved from dispersion through being claimed by the University of Cambridge, under the will of Bancroft, which provided that they should go to the University if alienated from the see: they were restored by Cambridge to Archbishop Sheldon. The library contains a number of valuable MSS., the greatest treasure being a copy of Lord Rivers's

413

translation of the with an illumination of the Earl presenting Caxton on his knees to Edward IV. Beside the King stand Elizabeth Woodville and her eldest son, and this, the only known portrait of Edward V., is engraved by Vertue in his Kings of England.

A glass-case contains--the Gospels in Irish, a volume which belonged to King Athelstan, and was given by him to the city of Canterbury; a copy of the Koran written by Sultan Allaruddeen Siljuky in the century, taken in the Library of Tippoo Saib at Seringapatam ; the Lumley Chronicle of St. Alban's Abbey; Queen Elizabeth's Prayer-Book, with illuminations from Holbein's Dance of Death destroyed in Old St. Pauls; an illuminated copy of the Apocalypse, of the century; the Mazarine Testament, century; and the rosary of Cardinal Pole.

A staircase, lined with portraits of the Walpole family, leads from the Library to the , now the Dining Hall. It is surrounded by an interesting series of portraits of the archbishops from the beginning of the century.[n.413.1] 

William Warham (1504-1533); translated from London; Lord Chancellor. The picture, by Holbein, was presented to the archbishop by the artist, together with a small portrait of Erasmus, which is now lost. This portrait belonged to Archbishop Parker, and is appraised at £ 5 in the inventory of his goods.

Thomas Cranmer (1533-1555-6); Archdeacon of Taunton, first Protestant Archbishop of Canterbury. Here (May 28, 1533) he declared and confirmed the marriage of Henry VIII. and Anne Boleyn, and here, three years later, having God alone before his eyes, he said the marriage was and always had been null and void, in consequence of impediments unknown at the time of the union. On the accession of Mary, he was found guilty of high treason, for having declared for Lady Jane Grey: he was pardoned the treason, but was burnt for heresy at Oxford, March 21, 1555. His palace at Lambeth, says Gilpin, might be called a seminary of learned men; the greater part of whom persecution had banished from home. Here, among other reformers, Martyr, Bucer, Aless, and Phage, found sanctuary.

Reginald Pole (1556-1559); Dean of Exeter, Cardinal. Mary I. refurnished Lambeth for Cardinal Pole, who was her cousin and whom she frequently visited here: he died a few hours after her. Fuller narrates that he was chosen by a night council to succeed Paul III. as Pope, but that he refused to accept a deed of darkness, and the next day the cardinal's had changed their minds, and elected Julius III.

His youthful books were full of the flowers of rhetoric, whilst the withered stalks are only found in the writings of his old age, so dry their style, and dull their conceit.-Fullers Worthies.

Matthew Parker (1559-1575); Dean of Lincoln. A Parker indeed, says Fuller, careful to keep the fences and shut the gates of discipline against all such night-stealers as would invade the same.

Edmund Grindal (1575-1583); translated from York. He was a great favourer of the Puritans and fell into disgrace with Elizabeth, by his opposition to her commands with regard to the restriction of preachers, which he considered an infringement of his office.

John Whitgift (1583-1604); translated from Worcester. A strong opponent of Puritanism, though, says Hooker, he always governed with that moderation, which useth by patience to suppress boldness.

Richard Bancroft (1604-1611); translated from London. A great statesman he was, and grand champion of Church discipline, having well hardened the hands of his soul, which was no more than needed for him who was to meddle with nettles and briars, and met with much opposition. No wonder if those who were silenced by him in the church were loud against him in other places. David speaketh of poison under men's lips. This bishop tasted plentifully thereof from the mouths of his enemies, till at last (as Mithridates) he was so habited to poisons, they became food to him. Once a gentleman, coming to visit him, presented him a lyebell, which he found pasted on his dore, who, nothing moved thereat, Cast it, said he, to a hundred more which lye here on a heap in my chamber. --Fuller's Worthies.

George Abbot (1611-1633); translated from London. His fine portrait, of 1610, represents a man of very morose manners and sour aspect which in that time was called gravity (Clarendon). He owed his advancement to his atrocious flattery of James I. and caused terrible scandal to the church by accidentally shooting dead a keeper when he was hunting in Bramshill Park (1621). He lived chiefly at Croydon.

William Laud (1633-1644); translated from London. The evil genius of Charles I., whose foolish religious conceits, mingled with his severities in the Star Chamber, contributed more than anything else to stir up Puritanism. He was unjustly beheaded by the vengeance of the Commons in his seventieth year, and the heroism of his death has almost caused the follies of his life to be forgotten. The portrait is by Vandyke.

William Juxon (1660-1663); translated from London. As Bishop of London he accompanied Charles I. to the scaffold, and received his last mysterious word-Remember. He was consecrated Archbishop in the Chapel of Henry VII., where, besides a great confluence of orthodox clergy, many persons of honour, and gentry, gave God thanks for the mercies of that day, as being touched at the sight of that good man, whom they esteemed a person of primitive sanctity, of great wisdom, piety, learning, patience, charity, and all apostolical virtues.-Wood's Athen. Oxon. iv. 819.

Gilbert Sheldon (1663-1678); translated from London. Founder of the Theatre at Oxford.

William Sancroft (1678-1691); Dean of St. Paul's. He attended Charles II. on his death-bed and was one of the seven bishops sent to the Tower for refusing to order the reading of the Declaration of Indulgence in 1688; he was suspended, and eventually displaced by Tillotson for refusing to take the oaths to William and Mary.

John Tillotson (1691-1694); Dean of St. Paul's, the beloved friend of Mary II., who was considered to have taught by his sermons more ministers to preach well, and more people to read well, than any man since the apostles' days. Wilford's Memorials. Tillotson was the first bishop who wore a wig, but a wig was then unpowdered and like natural hair. The portrait is by Mrs. Beale. He was not only the best preacher of the age, but seemed to have brought preaching to perfection: his sermons were so well heard and liked, and so much read, that all the nation proposed him as a pattern and studied to copy after him.-Burnet's Own Times. The sermons of Tillotson were for half a century more read than any in our language. They are now bought almost as waste paper, and hardly read at all. Such is the fickleness of religious taste.-Hallam, Lit. Hist. of Europe.

Thomas Tenison (1694-1716); translated from Lincoln. As Vicar of St. Martin's he attended the Duke of Monmouth upon the scaffold, and as Archbishop he was present at the death-bed of Mary II.

William Wake (1716-1737); translated from Lincoln. The last archbishop who went to Parliament by water, author of many theological works.

John Potter (1737-1747); translated from Oxford. Author of the Archaeologia Graeca and other works.

Thomas Herring (1747-1757); translated from York. Portrait by Hogarth.

Matthew Button (1757-1758); translated from York. Portrait by Hudson.

Thomas Secker (1758-1768); translated from Oxford. Portrait by Reynolds. Celebrated as a preacher- When Seeker preaches, or when Murray pleads, The church is crowded, and the bar is thronged.

Frederick Cornwallis (1768-1783); translated from Lichfield. Portrait by Dance.This and several other of these fine portraits are completely ruined by restoration.

John Moore (1783-1805); translated from Bangor.

Charles Manners Sutton (1805-1828); translated from Norwich. Portrait by Beechey.

William Howley (1828-1848); translated from London.

John Bird Sumner (1848-1862); translated from Chester. Portrait by Mrs. Carpenter.

Charles Thomas Longley (1862-1868); translated from York.

Archibald Campbell Tait, translated from London in 1868.

The Small Dining Room contains portraits of-

Queen Katharine Parr.

Cardinal Pole.

Bishop Burnet, 1689, Chancellor of the Garter.

417

 

Patrick, Bishop of Ely, .

Pearce, Bishop of Bangor, .

Berkeley, the American Bishop.

Luther and Caterina Bora?

Through the panelled room called we enter-

The , which stands upon a supposed to belong to the manor-house built by Archbishop Herbert Fitzwalter, . . Its pillars have been buried nearly up to their capitals, to prevent the rising of the river tides within its walls. The chapel itself, though greatly modernised, is older than any other part of the palace, having been built by Archbishop Boniface, -. Its lancet windows were found by Laud-

shameful to look at, all diversely patched like a poor beggar's coat,

and he filled them with stained glass, which he proved that he collected from ancient existing fragments, though his insertion of

Popish images and pictures made by their like in a mass book

was of the articles in the impeachment against him. The glass collected by Laud was entirely smashed by the Puritans: the present windows were put in by Archbishop Howley.

In this chapel most of the archbishops have been consecrated since the time of Boniface. Archbishop Parker's consecration here, , according to the

duly appointed ordinal of the Church of England,

is recorded in Parker's Register at and in the Library of Corpus Christi College at Cambridge, thus falsifying the Romanist calumny of his consecration at the Nag's Head Tavern in , .[n.417.1] 

418

 

Here Parker erected his tomb in his lifetime

by the spot where he used to pray,

and here he was buried, but his tomb was broken up, with every insult that could be shown, by Scot, of the Puritan possessors of , while the other, Hardyng, not to b.e outdone, exhumed the Archbishop's body, sold its leaden coffin, and buried it in a dunghill. His remains were found by Sir William Dugdale at the Restoration, and honourably reinterred in front of the altar, with the epitaph,

Corpus Matthaei Archiepiscopi

tandem

hic quiescit.

His tomb, in the ante-chapel, was reerected by Archbishop Sancroft, but the brass inscription which encircled it is gone.

Parker's apostolical virtues were not incompatible with the love of learning: and while he exercised the arduous office, not of governing, but of founding the Church of England, he strenuously applied himself to the study of the Saxon tongue and of English antiquities.-Gibbon, Posthumous Works, iii. 566.

The screen, erected by Laud, was suffered to survive the Commonwealth. At the west end of the chapel, high on the wall, projects a Gothic confessional, erected by Archbishop Chicheley. It was formerly approached by steps. The beautiful western door of the chapel opens into the curious , which takes its name from the central wooden pillar, supposed to have been used as a whipping-post for the Lollards. The ornamented flat ceiling which we see here is extremely rare. The door at the north-east corner, by which the Lollards were brought in, was walled up c. .

Hence we ascend the , built by Chicheley

419

--the lower story of which is now given up by the Archbishop for the use of Bishops who have no fixed residence in London. The winding staircase, of rude slabs of unplaned oak, on which the bark in many cases remains, is of Chicheley's time. In a room at the top is a trap-door, through which as the tide rose prisoners, secretly condemned, could be let down unseen into the river.
Hard by is the famous ( feet long, broad, high), boarded all over walls, ceiling, and floor. The rough-hewn boards bear many fragments of inscriptions which show that others besides Lollards were immured here. Some of them, especially his motto

Nosce te ipsum,

are attributed to Cranmer. The most legible inscription is

IHS cyppe me out of all al company. Amen.

Other boards bear the notches cut by prisoners to mark the lapse of time. The

420

rings remain to which the prisoners were secured: feels that his companions must have envied the by the window. Above some of the rings the boards are burnt with the hot-iron used in torture. The door has a wooden lock, and is fastened by the wooden pegs which preceded the use of nails; it is a relic of Archbishop Sudbury's palace facing the river, which was pulled down by Chicheley. From the roof of the chapel there is a noble view up the river, with the quaint tourelle of the Lollards' Tower in the foreground.

 

The gardens of are vast and delightful. Their terrace is called

Clarendon's Walk

from a conference which there took place between Laud and the Earl of

421

Clarendon. The

summer-house of exquisite workmanship,

built by Cranmer, has disappeared. A picturesque view may be obtained of Cranmer's Tower, with the Chapel and the Lollards' Tower behind it.

The worldly glory of the Archbishops has paled of late.

Let us look, for instance, at the list of the officers of Cranmer's household. It comprised a steward, treasurer, comptroller, gamators, clerk of the kitchen, caterer, clerk of the spicery, yeoman of the ewery, bakers, panthers, yeoman of the horse, yeomen ushers, butlers of wine and ale, larderers, squillaries, ushers of the hall, porters, ushers of the chamber, daily waiters in the great chamber, gentlemen ushers, yeomen of the chambers, marshal, groom ushers, almoners, cooks, chandlers, butchers, master of the horse, yeoman of the wardrobe, and harbingers. The state observed of course corresponded with such a retinue. There were generally three tables spread in the hall, and served at the same time, at the first of which sat the archbishop, surrounded by peers of the realm, privy-councillors, and gentlemen of the greatest quality; at the second, called the Almoner's table, sat the chaplains and all the other clerical guests below the rank of diocesan bishops and abbots; and at the third, or Steward's table, sat all the other gentlemen invited. Cardinal Pole had a patent from Philip and Mary to retain one hundred servants. . . An interesting passage descriptive of the order observed in dining here in Archbishop Parker's time relates-- In the daily eating this was the custom: the steward, with the servants that were gentlemen of the better rank, sat down at the table in the hall on the right hand; and the almoners, with the clergy, and the other servants, sat on the other side, where there was plenty of all sorts of provision, both for eating and drinking. The daily fragments thereof did suffice to fill the bellies of a great number of poor hungry people that waited at the gate; and so constant and unfailing was this provision at my Lord's table, that whosoever came in either at dinner or supper, being not above the degree of a knight, might here be entertained worthy of his quality, either at the steward's or almoner's table. And moreover, it was the Archbishop's command to all his servants, that all strangers should be received and treated with all manner of civility and respect, and that places at the table should be assigned them according to their dignity and quality, which abounded much to the praise and commendation of the Archbishop. The discourse and conversation at meals was void of all brawls and loud talking, and for the most part consisted in framing men's manners to religion, or to some other honest and beseeming subject. There was a monitor of the hall; and if it happened that any spoke too loud, or concerning things less decent, it was presently hushed by one that cried silence. The Archbishop loved hospitality, and no man showed it so much, or with better order, though he himself was very abstemious. -Saunders in C. Knight's London.

The grand hospitalities of

Lambeth

have perished,

as Douglas Jerrold observes,

but its charities live.

A quarter of a mile above is , built in the Venetian- Gothic style: the peculiar red bricks having been made at Rowland's Castle in Hampshire and all the ornamental parts of the building having been executed in terra-cotta by Messrs. Doulton themselves. The chimney shaft for carrying off the smoke from the kilns has the effect of a campanile.

On the bank of the river above is The name dates from the marriage of Isabella de Fortibus, Countess of Albemarle, sister of Archbishop Baldwin, with Foukes de Brent, after which the place was called Foukeshall. It was given by the Black Prince to the Church of Canterbury. In the old manor-house, then called Copped Hall, Arabella Stuart was confined before her removal to the Tower.

were long a place of popular resort. They were laid out in , and were at known as the New at Fox Hall, to distinguish them from the Old at . They were finally closed in , and the site is now built over; but they will always be remembered from Sir Roger de Coverley's visit

423

to them in the ,[n.423.1]  and from the descriptions in Walpole's Letters and Fielding's and many will have pleasant recollections of

the windings and turnings in little wildernesses so intricate, that the most experienced mothers often lost themselves in looking for their daughters.

[n.423.2] 

 
 
Footnotes:

[n.404.1] Named from the handsome Philip Astley, builder of nineteen theatres, who died at Paris, 1814.

[n.404.2] De Quattuor Novissimis.

[n.406.1] Misc. Works, p. 299, ed. 1837.

[n.409.1] Wood, Athen. Oxon.

[n.412.1] The motto which surrounds it is misplaced, and belongs to Cranmer.

[n.413.1] Unfortunately not hung:in their order.

[n.417.1] See Timbs's Curiosities of London.

[n.423.1] No. 383.

[n.423.2] Tom Brown's Amusements