Old and New London, A Narrative of its History, its People and its Places. Illustrated with Numerous Engravings from the Most Authentic Sources. vol 4

Thornbury, Walter
1872-78

Pall Mall.

Pall Mall.

 

Oh, bear me to the paths of fair Pall Mall! Safe are thy pavements, grateful is thy smell; At distance rolls along the gilded coach, Nor sturdy carmen on thy walks encroach; No lets would bar thy ways were chairs denied- The soft supports of laziness and pride: Shops breathe perfumes, through sashes ribbons glow, The mutual arms of ladies and the beaux.--Gay's Trivia, Book ii.

 

is described by Strype, in his edition of Stow, as

a fine long street,

adorned with gardens on the south side, many with raised mounds and fine views of the royal gardens and beyond; nevertheless, centuries ago, the whole of the space between and was only a tract of fields. In the time of Charles II. it was sometimes styled Catharine Street, out of compliment to the king's unhappy and neglected consort, Catharine of Braganza. We know that at a far later period it was the favourite haunt of the beaux and dandies of the Regency in a summer afternoon; and few will have forgotten the popularity of the song of the jovial and genial Captain Morris-

Oh! give me the sweet shady side of

Pall Mall

In the days of Pepys, had really a

sweet shady side,

as there grew along it a row of elm-trees, a in number,

in a very decent and regular manner on both sides of the walk;

and the few houses which stood on the south side of it were

fair mansions enclosed with gardens.

The north side was entirely open, and or hay-stacks might be seen on the spot now occupied, as has already been mentioned, by the Junior Carlton Club. At that time was the fashionable walk of the

upper

ten thousand

,

who afterwards transferred their affections, when the trees were cut down, to the in Kensington Gardens.

Some celebrated characters have been remarkable for their fondness for London, and especially for the West-end. The reader may possibly remember that when Charles Lamb was invited by Wordsworth to come down and stay with him by the side of the Westmoreland Lakes, he sighed for the silversmiths' shops about , and the

sweet shady side of

Pall Mall

.

On the south side, in a house which overlooked the Park and its gardens, resided George Bubb Dodington, afterwards Lord Melcombe, whom Pope immortalised as

Bubo.

Lord Hervey tells us in his

Memoirs,

that his house

stood close to the garden which the Prince (Frederick, Prince of Wales) had bought of Lord Chesterfield,

and that

during Dodington's favour, the Prince had suffered him to make a door out of his house into his garden, which, upon the

first

decay of his interest, the Prince shut up-building and planting before Dodington's house, and changing every lock to his own house, to which he had formerly given Dodington keys.

Dodington was a witty, generous, ostentatious, and, in a political sense, unprincipled man; but he was the kind patron of James Thomson (who dedicated to him his

Summer

), and also the early friend of Richard Cumberland. To him Dr. Young inscribed his Satire, and Lord Lyttelton his Eclogue. The unwarrantable publication of his

Diary

by a person to whom he had left his papers on condition of his printing such only as would do credit to his memory, reveals him to the light as politically the type of profligacy, though probably he was not worse than many of his cotemporaries, who were wise enough not to commit their thoughts to paper. Dodington is thus portrayed by Walpole :--

A man of more wit and more unsteadiness than Pulteney; as ambitious, but less acrimonious; no formidable enemy, no sure political, but an agreeable private friend. Lord Melcombe's speeches were as daring and pointed as Lord Bath's were copious and wandering from the subject. Ostentatious in his person, houses, and furniture, he wanted in his expense the taste which he never wanted in his conversation. Pope and Churchill treated him more severely than he deserved--a fate that may attend a man of the greatest wit, when his parts are

more suited to society than to composition. The verse remains; the

bon mots

and sallies are forgotten.

Soon after the arrival of Frederick, Prince of Wales, in England,

says his biographer,

Dodington became a favourite, and submitted to the Prince's childish horse-play, being once rolled up in a blanket, and tumbled down stairs; nor was he negligent in paying more solid court, by lending his Royal Highness money.

This is a strange country, this England,

said his Royal Highness once;

I am told Dodington is reckoned a clever man; yet I got £ 5,000 out of him this morning, and he has no chance of ever seeing it again.

In

1761

he was advanced to the peerage, under the title of Lord Melcombe Regis; and in the following year he died, at the age of

seventy-one

.

Poor Lord Melcombe,

writes Lady Hervey,

an old friend, and a most entertaining and agreeable companion, has lately been subtracted from the friends I had left. He is really a great loss to me; I saw him often; and he kept his liveliness and his wit to the last.

A good anecdote is told of Lord Melcombe; when his name was Bubb, he was appointed ambassador to Spain. Lord Chesterfield told him it would not do, as the Spaniards could not suppose a man to possess any dignity whose name was a monosyllable.

You must make an addition to it.

But how?

answered Lord Melcombe.

Oh,

replied Lord Chesterfield,

I can help you to

one

: suppose you make it

Silly

Bubb.

As nearly as possible on the site of what is now , stood as lately as , if not much later, Cumberland House. It was a large brick mansion, retiring from the street. According to Thornton's

,Survey of London,

it was built for Edward, Duke of York, but afterwards became the residence of his brother, whose name it bore. Thornton describes it as

a lofty and regular building, with a back-front commanding a beautiful prospect of the Park.

The house fell into a neglected state after the duke's death, in . When the union of England and Ireland was in agitation, it was resolved to establish a club in honour of the event; a number of gentlemen then purchased the house and fitted it up for an hotel. It bore the name of the

Albion.

The houses Nos. and formed originally mansion, known as Schomberg House, which was built during the Commonwealth. Like the adjoining house of Nell Gwynne, it had in its rear a garden with a handsome raised terrace commanding a view of the royal gardens and of the Park beyond. At the Restoration it was tenanted by Edward Griffin, of the high officers of the court of Charles II. Here afterwards lived the [extra_illustrations.4.124.1] , of the Dutch generals brought over in his train by William, Prince of Orange, and who fell at the battle of the Boyne: the house was named after him. It was beautified for Frederick, the and last duke, for whom Peter Berchett painted the grand staircase with landscapes in lunettes. The rest of the history of the mansion shall be told in the words of the author of

Curiosities of London :

In

1699

the house was near being demolished by a body of disbanded soldiers; and in the Gordon Riots of

1780

attempts were made to sack and burn it. William, Duke of Cumberland, the hero of Culloden, became tenant of the house in

1760

. John Astley, the painter and the

beau,

who lived here many years, divided the mansion into

three

, and placed the bas-relief of

Painting

above the middle doorway. Astley built also on the roof a large painting-room-his country-house, as he called it-overlooking the Park, to which and to some other apartments he had a private staircase. After Astley's death, Conway the portrait-painter became the tenant of the central portion. Gainsborough occupied the west wing from

1777

to

1788

, when he died in a

second

-floor room. He sent for Sir Joshua Reynolds and was reconciled to him; and then exclaiming,

We are all going to heaven, and Van Dyke is of our number,

he immediately expired. Part of the house was subsequently occupied by Robert Bowyer for his

Historic Gallery,

and by Dr. Graham, the empiric, for his

Celestial Bed,

and other impostures, advertised by

two

gigantic porters stationed at the entrance, with gold-lace cocked hats and liveries. The house was a good specimen of the red-brick mansion of the

seventeenth

century. It was partly occupied by Messrs. Payne and Foss, with their valuable stock of old books, until

1850

, soon after which the eastern wing was taken down and rebuilt in the Italian style, though incongruously, for the War Department.

The house is still remarkable for its foreign design, with wings, pediment, and caryatide porticos.

Many years after the duke's death it was bought from the Earl of Holdernesse, who then owned it, by a portrait painter named John Astley, who, as stated above, divided it into houses. Gainsborough and his works of art .have made of these houses known far and wide. Astley himself occupied the central house, and raised it by a storey. During the latter part of the eighteenth century it was hired by various speculators in succession as a gallery for the exhibition of

p.125

pictures, &c., and it is said that more shillings were taken at its doors than at any other house in the time of George III. Early in the present century it was converted to more strictly literary uses, becoming the bookshop of Mr. Thomas Payne, whose father,

honest Tom Payne of immortal memory,

had been for years a bookseller at Gate. . It was here that was concocted the dramatic scheme of the . It was originally proposed to Swift to be named the , as the thought of writing such a gross and immoral drama originated with him. Swift also, who was an ardent admirer of the poetic talents of Gay, delighted to quote his Devonshire pastorals, they being very characteristic of low, rustic life, and congenial to his taste; for the pen of the Dean revelled in vulgarity. Under the influence of such notions, he proposed to Gay to bestow his thoughts upon the subject, which he felt assured he would turn to good account, namely, that of writing a work to be entitled

A Newgate Pastoral;

adding,

and I will,

sub rosa

, afford you my best assistance.

This scheme was talked over at Queensberry House, and Gay commenced it, but soon dropped it, with something of disgust. It was ultimately determined that he should commence upon the . This proposal was approved, and the opera written forthwith, under the auspices of the Duchess of Queensberry, and performed at the theatre in , under the immediate influence of her Grace, who, to induce the manager, Rich, to bring it upon his stage, agreed to indemnify him all the expenses he might incur, providing that the speculation should fail.

No. , adjoining Schomberg House, was for very many years the head-quarters of the venerable Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, prior to its removal, about the year , to , . The house has been identified as that occupied by Nell Gwynne during the heyday of her career as the favourite of King Charles II. To the south side of it was attached a garden, adjoining that of the King; and we have already told our readers how Evelyn was a witness on this spot to

a familiar discourse between the King and Mrs. Nelly, as they call an impudent comedian; she looking out of her garden on a terrace on the top of the wall, the King standing on a green walk under it.

According to Mr. John Timbs, part of this

terrace,

or raised mound of earth, is still to be seen

under the Park wall of Marlborough House,

and the same authority tells us that a bill for erecting this very mound was found among Nell Gwynne's papers. It is interesting to learn that whilst basking in the sunshine of the royal favour Nelly did not forget her poor mother, and that the same doctor's bill which mentions the medicine sent for her own use and that of her little son, includes also

a cordial for old Mrs. Gwynne.

Maintained in decent comfort after the King's death, whose last words were

Do not let poor Nelly starve,

she died in in , and was buried in the church of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, the vicar, Dr. Tenison, preaching her funeral sermon.

With respect to this residence of Nell Gwynne, Mr. Peter Cunningham writes:--

Nelly at

first

had only a lease of her house, which as soon as she discovered, she returned the conveyance to the King, with a remark characteristic alike of her wit and of the monarch to whom it was addressed. The King enjoyed the joke, and perhaps admitted its truth; so the house in

Pall Mall

was conveyed

free

to Nell and her representatives for ever. The truth of the story,

he adds,

is confirmed by the fact that the house which occupies the site of the

one

inhabited by her, No.

79

, is the only freehold on the southern or Park side of

Pall Mall

. No entry, however, of the grant is to be found in the Land Revenue Record Office.

The house rebuilt upon the site of that given by Charles II. to Nell Gwynne was some years since occupied by Dr. Heberden.

Previously to living on this side of , Nell Gwynne had occupied a house on the north side, whither she had removed in , soon after the birth of her eldest son by Charles II. That house is described by Pennant as the good on the left hand of , as we enter from . Its site is now covered by the Army and Navy Club. When Pennant wrote, it belonged to Mr. Thomas Brand, afterwards Lord Dacre; it subsequently was the town residence of Lord De Mauley. Pennant says,

The back room on the ground floor was, within memory, entirely of looking-glass, as also was said to have been the ceiling. Over the chimney was her picture, and that of her sister was in a

third

room.

Mr. John Timbs adds the fact that in Lord De Mauley's house was a relic of Nell Gwynne-namely, her looking-glass;

this,

he tells us,

was bought with the house, and is now in the Visitors' Room of the Club.

Bishop Burnet calls Nell Gwynne the indiscreetest and wildest creature that was ever in a king's court, and says she was maintained at a great expense. The Duke of Buckingham, he says, told him that at she asked only a year;

p.126

but at the end of the year she had received from the King . Throughout her whole life she continued negligent in her dress, but that might have arisen from the acknowledged fact that whatever she wore became her. Her eldest son, by Charles II., was born in , and the tradition of his elevation to the peerage is as follows:--Charles day going to see Nell Gwynne, and the little boy being in the room, the King wanted to speak to him.

Come hither, you little bastard, and speak to your father.

Nay, Nelly,

said the King,

do not give the child such a name.

Your Majesty,

replied Nelly,

has given me no other name by which I may call him!

Upon this the King conferred upon him
the name of Beauclerk, and created him Earl of Burford; and shortly before his death made him Duke of St. Albans. In the next house west to Schomberg House lived Mrs. Fitzherbert, of whom we have already spoken.

is styled by Malcolm, in , a

handsome street, but subject to the endless rattle of coaches, and the lounging place of strings-or rather links, or chains--of men of fashion, and their humble imitators, during the months in which London is tolerable, that is, from December to June.

It could not at this time have been well kept or watered, for he complains that

it becomes a desert when the pavements are dry and the carriage way is fit for crossing.

He enumerates

p.127

p.128

as its chief attractions, Carlton House, Kelly's Opera Saloon, or rather music shop-

made fashionable by an odd set of lattices, distributed over the west front,

--and lastly by Christie's Auction Room, which then stood on the south side, next to Schomberg House.

The late Mr. Christie,

observes Malcolm,

was perhaps the most eminent auctioneer in the world

--George Robins, it may be observed by us in passing, was not then known to fame--

and the value of property which waited the tap of his hammer would almost baffle the powers of calculation. The manors, estates, jewels, plate, and collections of pictures which he sold, were situated in or collected from all parts of the kingdom; and he had the singular fortune to dispose of the rich articles and paintings of but too many noble fugitives from France, Italy, and Holland during the French Revolution. This house was and is,

he adds,

the exhibition of everything curious in the arts, under his son and successor, who to his father's abilities adds a rich stock of classical attainments.

It may be added that the auction in London is said to have been held in .

Among the other various relics which here passed under the hammer of Messrs. Christie, was the famous Shakspeare Cup, which is thus described by Mr. J. T. Smith:--

The much-famed cup, carved from Shakespeare's mulberry-tree, lined with and standing on a base of silver, with a cover surmounted by a branch of mulberry leaves and fruit, also of silver-gilt, which was presented to Mr. Garrick on the occasion of the Jubilee at Stratfordupon-Avon.

It was sold early in the present century by Mr. Christie, who addressed the assembly, adjuring them

by the united names of Shakespeare and Garrick

to offer biddings worthy of the occasion. The bid was guineas; and it was knocked down ultimately for guineas, the purchaser being Mr. J. Johnson, of , Covent Garden.

How thoroughly these rooms held their position not merely as a mart and market, but also as a criterion of the arts, may be inferred from the stanza of a poem by Mr. Richard Fenton, published just a century ago :

As Painting and Sculpture now bending with years Proclaimed an assembly at Christie's great room, For adopting an heir, and reflected with tears On the days when they boasted their vigour and bloom; The doors were scarce opened, when thronging the space With different pretensions the candidates pressed.

And so on. What happened does not much matter; but the lines certainly imply that there was at that time no other

repository

in London where the special works of at least of the Muses would be likely to find competent critics. [extra_illustrations.4.128.1]  was removed in the year to , .

It is mentioned incidentally by Miss Meteyard, in her

Life of Wedgwood,

that in the great master of pottery was in treaty for some premises in , which had been formerly used as auction rooms, but were then occupied as an

Artists' Exhibition Gallery;

and she gives a print of the house as it then stood. The negotiation, however, passed off.

On the south side also, nearly opposite to the entrance leading to the west side of , is a mansion of the last century, built by Sir John Soane, formerly belonging to Lord Temple, and afterwards to his son, the Marquis of Buckingham, and sometimes therefore called Buckingham House. night, if we may believe Sir N. W. Wraxall, Mr. (afterwards Lord) Nugent was at a party at Lord Temple's, when, in a foolish frolic, he laid a bet with his host that he would spit in Lord Bristol's hat. He coolly did so, then pretended to apologise for the indecorum, and asked to be allowed to wipe off the affront with his pocket-handkerchief. With a coolness and high breeding which marks the perfect gentleman, Lord Bristol took out his own handkerchief, and performed that office for himself, and then sat down to a rubber of whist. Next morning, however, Lord Bristol addressed him a note demanding an apology or instant satisfaction. Mr. Nugent, finding the matter serious, and not wishing to be made the laughing-stock of the town by fighting a duel for so silly a freak, found himself obliged to tender an apology, to which Lord Temple also was forced to subscribe, both asking his pardon at White's Club. Lord Bristol declared himself satisfied, and there the matter happily ended without blood being shed. This Lord Bristol was George, the eldest son of the famous Lord Hervey, whom Pope has most unjustly handed down to posterity as

Sporus

and

Lord Fanny,

and like his father, he had an effeminate manner, which led Mr. Nugent to take the liberty of insulting him-^ with what result we have seen.

Mr. Nugent is the same individual of whom the same writer tells us another capital story. When he was a member of the , in the early part of the reign of George III., a bill was introduced for the better watching of the streets of London and . of the clauses proposed that watchmen should be made to go to sleep in the day-time, so as to make them the more active

p.129

at night. Mr. Nugent, with admirable humour, got up, and in his usual Irish accent, begged the Ministers to include him personally in the provisions of the bill, as he was frequently so tormented with the gout that he could sleep neither by day nor by night. Glover, in speaking of this Mr. Nugent, describes him in very just terms, as

a jovial and voluptuous Irishman, who had left Popery for the Protestant religion, widows, and money.

Singularly enough, a great part of his wealth in the end came to the son of this same Lord Temple, afterwards Marquis of Buckingham, by his marriage with Lord Nugent's daughter and heiress. [extra_illustrations.4.129.1] [extra_illustrations.4.129.2] 

Buckingham House was the head-quarters of the Tory party in the eventful days of the struggles between Pitt and Fox. Accordingly it suffered some indignities from the mob who marched from Covent Garden to , carrying Mr. Fox in triumph on their shoulders as member for , in . years later, the mansion of Lord Buckingham was tenanted by the [extra_illustrations.4.129.3] , whom Pitt and Dundas put forward as the Tory

Queen of Society,

in opposition to the Duchess of Devonshire. With her unmarried daughters she brought together here the leaders of the

constitutional

party, both Lords and Commons, summoning doubtful members to her receptions, questioning and remonstrating with them, and using all other feminine arts for confirming their allegiance to Pitt.

Buckingham House now forms part of the [extra_illustrations.4.129.4] , having been purchased by the [extra_illustrations.4.129.5] . The department of the Secretary for War, the duties of which were formerly performed at , was established in the year . Up to that time, as we learn from

Murray's Official Handbook,

the business had formed part of the duty of the Secretary of State; but the consolidation of the finance of the army in his department had become so inconvenient, that this separate office was then created. Since the remodelling of the administration of our military department after the Crimean war, the Secretary of State for War has been really the supreme controller of the army, assuming and exercising a power which essentially minimises that of the Commander-in-Chief.

Not a soldier can be moved,

writes the author of the

Personal History of

the Horse Guards

,

not an alteration effected, or a comfort administered which involves the expenditure of a shilling, unless it pleases the Secretary for War; he is the prime originator, the Commander-in-Chief the instrument; the

one

pulls the strings, the other is the puppet.

Before the War Office is a statue of [extra_illustrations.4.129.6] , its pedestal inscribed with the name by which he is better known,

Sidney Herbert.

It stands,

observes the writer above quoted,

in front of the office which he had dignified by his labours and accomplishments.

At the western end of , and on the south side, almost completely shut out from view by the walls and out-buildings which partially enclose it, and also by the buildings forming the southern side of the street, stands [extra_illustrations.4.129.7] , the town residence of the Prince of Wales. Built in -, by Sir Christopher Wren for John, Duke of Marlborough, on ground leased on easy terms to his Duchess by Queen Anne; it occupies the site of the old pheasantry of , and of the garden of Mr. Secretary Boyle, the latter of which was taken out of . The supplement to the of , says:--

Her Majesty having been pleased to grant to his Grace the Duke of Marlborough the Friary next

St. James's Palace

, in which lately dwelt the Countess du Roy, the same is pulling down in order to rebuild the house for his Grace; and about a

third

of the garden lately in the occupation of the Right Hon. Henry Boyle, her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State, is marked out in order to be annexed to the house of his Grace the Duke of Marlborough.

The lease of the site was for years, at a low rental; and this was nearly the only boon which the haughty and grasping Duchess of Marlborough obtained from her royal mistress, as she boasts in a letter of Vindication which was published in her name. How true this statement is will be seen presently.

Marlborough House is thus described by Defoe in his

Journey through England

in :--

The palace of the Duke of Marlborough is in every way answerable to the grandeur of its master. Its situation is more confined than that of the Duke of Buckinghamshire, but the body of the house is much nobler, more compact, and the apartments better composed. It is situated at the west end of the King's Garden on the Park side, and fronts the Park, but with no other prospect but that view. Its court is very spacious and finely paved; the offices are large, and on each side as you enter; the stairs, mounting to the gate, are very noble.

The building is a stately red-brick edifice, ornamented with Stone. The front is very extensive; and the wings on each side are decorated at the corners with stone rustic-work. A small colonnade

p.130

extends on the side of the area next the wings; the opposite side of the area is occupied by sundry offices. The top of the house was originally finished with a balustrade, but that was subsequently altered, and the storey crowned by an attic raised above the cornice. The front towards the Park resembles the other; only instead of there being wings, there are niches for statues; and instead of the area as in front, there is a descent by a flight of steps into the gardens. The vestibule was painted with a representation of the battle of Hochstet, in which the most remarkable incident was the taking of Marshal Tallart, the French general, and several other officers of distinction, prisoners; the long series of battles in which the illustrious duke was engaged, including of course those of Malplaquet and Blenheim, were painted by La Guerre as ornaments for the house.

If Marlborough House, even now, is quiet and retired, what must it have been when it was built, when it was shut in upon sides by a grove of chestnut-trees, its west front open to the gardens of the Palace, its south to the Park, then private?

Here, and at Blenheim,

observes Malcolm,

it might have been supposed that the conqueror of so many battles would have enjoyed the honours lavished on him; but party, ambition, and pecalation stepped in, and prevented him from enjoying repose. Had he fallen in battle on the day of his last victory, his memory would have been more gratefully remembered by his countrymen.

It is well known to readers of history that the Duke of Marlborough outlived not only his fame but his reason, and during his latter years was reduced to a state of imbecility, of which he was so conscious that he never liked to be seen by strangers, becoming, as it has been said, a

driveller and a show;

though Archdeacon Coxe, in his

Life

of the duke--the substance of which was inspired by the family-appears to represent him as having retained his powers to the last. day the witty Dr. Monsey being at Marlborough House, and wishing to get slily a view of the duke, hid himself behind a door in the hall, but did not manage to escape detection. Taylor tells us in his

Recollections

that

the duke, all the while that he was getting into his (sedan) chair, and when he was seated, kept his eye fixed on the doctor, and at the moment when the chairmen were carrying him away, the doctor saw the duke's features gather into a whimper like those of a child, and the tears start into his eyes.

Lord Sackville used to say that of his earliest memories was that of being carried, when a child of years old, to the gate of , in order to see the great Duke of Marlborough, as he came away from court.

He was then (

1721

) in a state of caducity, but he still retained the vestiges of a most graceful figure, though he was obliged to be supported by a servant on either side, whilst the tears ran down his cheeks, just as he is drawn by Dr. Johnson. The populace cheered him as he passed through the crowd to enter his carriage. I have, however, heard my father say,

adds Lord Sackville,

that the duke by no means fell into settled or irrecoverable dotage, as is commonly supposed, but manifested at times a sound understanding till within a very short period of his decease, occasionally attending the Privy Council, and sometimes speaking in his official capacity on matters of business with his former ability.

For the Duke of Marlborough's step on the ladder of advancement, as Macaulay hints in his

History of England,

he was perhaps indebted to the fact of his sister Arabella Churchill being the mistress of James II., as this led to his introduction to the gay scenes of court life. Of the duke in his early days, Macaulay tells a story to the effect that he was day nearly surprised by the King in the chamber of the Duchess of Cleveland, but effected his escape by leaping out of the window in time to shield his paramour. The duchess rewarded her youthful lover with a present of , which the prudent young officer laid out in the purchase of a well-secured annuity. Pope adds, it is to be hoped untruly, though we know that the duke grew very avaricious in his old age:--

The gallant, too, to whom she paid it down,

Lived to refuse his mistress half-a-crown.

So intense was the avarice of the old duke, who at his death in left a million and a half behind him, that he would walk home from the Palace or from his neighbour's house, however cold the night, in order to save sixpence in the hire of a sedan chair.

Pope often satirised the Duke of Marlborough. In the early editions of the

Moral Essays

the following lines were inserted, though subsequently suppressed:--

Triumphant leaders at an army's head,

Hemm'd round with glories, pilfer cloth, or bread

As meanly plunder as they bravely fought,

Now save a people, and now save a groat.

The satire here is general as respects the army --and nothing could be more lax or extravagant than the system of military accounts and

p.131

suppliesbut the poet evidently points to Marlborough, whose avarice he frequently condemns. The general did not , but he had taken presents from army contractors. of the most striking illustrations of his penurious habits, and the best comment on Pope's verses, is an anecdote related by Warton, on the authority of Colonel Selwyn. The night before the battle of Blenheim, after a council of war had been held in Marlborough's tent, at which Prince Louis of Baden and Prince Eugene assisted, the latter, after the council had broken up, stepped back to the tent to communicate something he had forgotten, when he found the duke giving orders to his aide-de-camp at the table, on which there was now only a single light burning, all the others having been extinguished the moment the council was over.

What a man is this,

said Prince Eugene,

who at such a time can think of saving the ends of candles!

After her husband's death his widow, Sarah, continued to live here, and, as we know from the diaries of the time, delighted to speak of

neighbour George,

as she styled the Hanoverian King who lived in St. James's.

The readers of English history, and of Mr. Harrison Ainsworth's historical romance of

St. James's,

will not need to be reminded of the character of this imperious and ambitious woman, who kept Queen Anne, as well as her court, in awe of her power. It may be well, however, to say that, from the day of that Queen's accession, she lost no opportunity of aggrandising her husband's family and her own at the cost of the patient and long-enduring public. She quickly obtained from the personage whom she styled

her royal mistress,

besides large pensions, the posts of Groom of the Stole, Keeper of the Great and Home Parks, and of the Privy Purse, and Mistress of the Robes, whilst she extended her female influence by uniting her eldest daughter, Lady Henrietta Churchill, to the eldest son of the Earl of Godolphin, the Lord High Treasurer; her daughter, Lady Anne, to the Earl of Sunderland; her , Lady Elizabeth, to the Earl of Bridgewater; and her youngest, Lady Mary, to the Marquis of Monthermoer, afterwards by her interest created Duke of Montagu. Hence the Marlborough and Godolphin party, having almost a monopoly of court influence and favour, were called by their opponents

The Family.

The duchess was accustomed to give here an annual feast, to which she invited all her relations, many of whom were expectant legatees in case of her demise. At of these family gatherings, she exclaimed,

What a glorious sight it is to see such a number of branches flourishing from the same root!

Alas!

sighed Jack Spencer to a cousin next him,

the branches would flourish far better if the root were under ground.

Here, too, in , having survived all her children but , and her husband by more than years, the duke's haughty and imperious widow died at the age of . The youngest of the daughters of a plain country gentleman, Mr. Richard Jennings, of Holywell, on the outskirts of the town of St. Albans, she was sent to London at years old, to become the playmate of the Princess Anne at the court of James II., in each of whose wives she found a patroness in succession. At she married Colonel John Churchill,

the handsome Englishman,

whose merits Turenne had even then acknowledged. Though fond of her husband almost to a fault, she became so intimate a friend of the Princess that they agreed to call each other

Mrs. Freeman

and

Mrs. Morley

respectively. She had apartments in the

Cock-pit

at before the abdication of James, and so played her cards as to become a necessary adjunct to the courts of Mary and of Anne, in both of which successively she reigned as

Queen Sarah,

at once a beauty and a wit. For the years of Anne's reign she governed the Queen herself without a rival, her husband's successes in war serving to consolidate her power. The accession of Harley and the Tory and High Church party to place and power to some extent shook her influence at Court, which was still further imperilled by her opposition to Queen Anne's wish to exclude the Hanoverian succession. She now became head of the opposition, and exerted in this capacity a really formidable power. She was attacked by Swift, and waged war to the knife with Sir John Vanbrugh, all the years during which he was building Blenheim, and also with Sir Robert Walpole, in spite of his Whig principles. To attempt to give an outline of her career, however, would be to write the history of reigns, which would be foreign to our purpose here.

Many anecdotes of the Duchess of Marlborough are to be gleaned from books of cotemporary memoirs; none, however, show her character more forcibly than the following:--After the death of her husband, the great Duke of Marlborough, her hand was solicited-partly, no doubt, on account of her wealth-by Charles Seymour, the

Proud

[extra_illustrations.4.132.1] , whose wife had been the heiress of the Percies, and who thought that he honoured her by making the offer of his hand.

The widow of Marlborough shall never become

the wife of any other man,

was her haughty reply. Whilst she filled the of Marlborough House with the leaders of the Whig party, the

queen

of the Jacobite Tory circles was the Duchess of Buckingham, a natural daughter of James II. For her rival she felt both contempt and aversion. Her Grace of Buckingham, on being left a widow, made for him a funeral just as splendid as that with which

Queen

Sarah had honoured her lord; and when her son died, she even sent to Marlborough House to borrow the funeral car on which the hero of Blenheim had been conveyed to his tomb.

It carried my Lord of Marlborough,

cried the duchess fiercely,

and it never shall carry any other.

It is of no consequence,

retorted her Grace of Buckingham;

since I made the request, I have seen the undertaker, who tells me that he can make as good a

one

for

twenty pounds

.

Many good stories, as may easily be imagined, are current respecting the Duchess of Marlborough. It is said she once pressed the duke to take a medicine, adding, with her usual warmth,

I'll be hanged if it do not prove serviceable.

Dr. Garth, who was present, exclaimed,

Do take it, then, my lord duke, for it must be of service

one

way or the other.

Among the duchess's constant guests was Bishop Burnet, whose absence of mind was notorious. Dining with her Grace after her husband's fall, he compared that great general to

p.133

Belisarius.

But,

said the duchess, eagerly,

how came it that such a man was so miserable, and universally deserted?

Oh, madam,

exclaimed the prelate,

he had such a brimstone of a wife!

Horace Walpole tells an amusing anecdote about the haughty duchess in her last days. He writes:--

Old Marlborough is dying; but who can tell?, Last year she had lain a great while ill, without speaking. Her physician said,

that she must be blistered, or she will die.

She called out,

I won't be blistered, and I won't die!

And she kept her word; at all events, she recovered for a time.

Many Londoners, no doubt, have often wondered why the houses between Marlborough House and , which so obstruct the view, have

never been removed. The reason is given by Thornton in his

Survey of London and

Westminster

:

When this noble structure was

first

finished, the late Duchess of Marlborough intended to have opened a way to it from

Pall Mall

, directly in the front, as appears from the manner in which the court-yard is formed. But she reckoned without her host: Sir Robert Walpole having purchased the house before it, and not being on good terms with the duchess, she was prevented from executing her design.

The mansion was bought by the Crown, in the year , for the Princess Charlotte and Prince Leopold, but the Princess died before the purchase was actually completed. Her widower, however (afterwards King of the Belgians), lived in it for several years.

p.134

 

In there was a talk, but only a talk, as we learn from the Correspondence of the Duke of Wellington, about pulling down Marlborough House and building a street upon its site. The question appears to have been discussed among the Lords of the Treasury on financial grounds, and then to have died away; probably their decision, if any was arrived at, was based on the experience gained at Carlton House.

In the mansion was thoroughly repaired, decorated, and furnished, and settled by Act of Parliament on [extra_illustrations.4.134.1]  as a Dowager house. She occupied it till her death in .

Considering that Marlborough House has been the residence of the Prince and Princess of Wales ever since their marriage in , having been settled in on the Prince on his coming of age, it seems strange to find the following paragraph in the of :--

The Duke of Marlborough has presented his house to the Prince and Princess of Wales; and it is said a terrace walk will be erected, to join the same to St. James's House (

sic

).

The mansion then lent to the Prince of Wales is now the property of the other.

Shortly after the settlement of Marlborough House upon the Prince of Wales, the lower part of the building was appropriated to the accommodation of the Vernon collection of pictures, and others of the English school, until they could be fitly hung in the . The upper rooms were set apart for the use of the Department of Practical Art, for a library, museum of manufactures, the ornamental casts of the School of Design, a lecture-room, &c. Here, in , was designed the Duke of Wellington's funeral car, which was subsequently exhibited to the public in a temporary building in the court-yard.

A few of the literary associations of in the last century are thus briefly recorded by Mr. John Timbs in his

Curiosities of London :

--

In gay bachelor's chambers in this street lived

Beau Fielding

--Steele's

Orlando the Fair;

here he was married to a supposed lady of fortune, brought to him in a mourning coach and dressed in widow's weeds, which led to his trial for bigamy. Fielding's namesake places Nightingale and Tom Jones in

Pall Mall

, when they leave the lodgings of Mrs. Miller in

Bond Street

. Letitia Pilkington for a short time kept here a pamphlet and print shop. At the sign of

Tully's Head,

Robert Dodsley, formerly a footman, opened a shop in

1735

, with the profits of a volume of his poems and of a comedy, published through the kindness of Pope; and this soon afterwards was followed by the

Economy of Human Life,

and Sterne's

Tristram Shandy.

Robert Dodsley retired in

1759

, but his brother James, his partner, continued the business until his death in

1797

; he is buried at St. James's,

Piccadilly

.

The

Tully's Head

was the resort of Pope, Chesterfield, Lyttelton, Shenstone, Johnson, and Glover, as also of Horace Walpole, the Wartons, and [extra_illustrations.4.134.2] .

The sign of Dodsley's house-which, by the way, was in an age before shops were designated by numbers--was set up out of his regard for Cicero. It is thus mentioned in a newspaper of the time :

Where Tully's bust and honour'd name.

Point out the venal page,

There Dodsley consecrates to fame

The classics of the age.

Persist to grace this humble post

Be Tully's head the sign,

Till future booksellers shall boast,

To sell their tomes as thine.

At Dodsley's, in the winter of -, was held a meeting at which Warton, Moore, Garrick, Goldsmith, Dr. Johnson, and other literary men were present: on this occasion the title of the then newly intended periodical, the discussed.

Garrick,

says Boswell,

proposed that it should be called the

Salad,

on account of the variety of its ingredients

--a name which, by a curious coincidence, was afterwards applied to himself by Goldsmith :--

Our Garrick's a salad, for in him we see

Oil, vinegar, sugar, and saltness agree!

Dodsley proposed that it should be called the , and at last the company parted without any suggestion of which they all approved being offered. Johnson, it is well known, the same night sat down by his bedside, and resolved that he would not go to sleep till he had fixed a title.

The

Rambler

seemed to me the best,

he says,

and so I took it.

At Dodsley's shop was published in the volume of the , planned and prepared by Edmund Burke, whose name had recently become known to the world by his

Essay on the Sublime and Beautiful.

To it Burke contributed for many years the department entitled

The Historical Chronicle,

as well as some philosophical and other essays. The result was to, establish the reputation of the as a standard work of reference and general information, and for a century and more a fit companion for our library shelves to the

Dodsley's shop, as already remarked, was the

p.135

recognised rendezvous and centre of all who were learned or who cultivated a literary taste. Hence when Burke anonymously published his

Vindication of Natural Society

as a satire on and imitation of Lord Bolingbroke, we read that the poet David Mallet rushed into Mr. Dodsley's when it was most crowded, and made an open disclaimer of its authorship on behalf of both Bolingbroke and himself.

In , Mr. H. Payne, whose shop, as we learn from his title-pages, stood

opposite Marlborough House in

Pall Mall

,

published for an unknown and unbefriended writer named [extra_illustrations.4.135.1] ,

The Candidate; a Poetical Epistle to the Authors of the

Monthly Review

.

Crabbe was poor; within a few weeks his publisher failed; and the young poet was plunged into great perplexity, which led him to seek aid-but in vain--in high circles, where afterwards, when he no longer needed it, he found ready assistance and support. So selfish and blind is human nature.

of the literary character or reputation of this locality in former times, it may be stated that has given a name to more than newspaper, all of which perhaps have almost passed clean out of memory. In was commenced the evening paper bearing the title of the ; this, however, has little or nothing to do with , except that it is supposed to retail much of Club talk and gossip. There was published in the reign of George II. a collection of loose tales and biographical sketches, mainly taken from West-end life, and named the

Pall Mall

Miscellany.

It went through several editions.

As a proof of the rural character of this part of the town, it may be mentioned that in the reign of Charles II. there was in Pall Mall--as at a later time in Piccadilly--an inn rejoicing in the name of the

Hercules' Pillars,

denoting, of course, the very westernmost extremity of what then was the metropolis.

The Feathers

is, of course, the symbol of the Prince of Wales; and there can be no doubt that, considering the fact of the Prince and Princess of Wales being resident at Marlborough House, the sign of

The Feathers

would be by far the most popular now-a-days, if it were still the fashion to denote the houses in and elsewhere by signs instead of numbers.

There was a sign of

The Feathers

in during the time of the Great Plague, as is clear from the following advertisement in of the newspapers published at that time :--

The late Countess of Kent's powder has been lately experimented upon divers infected persons with admirable success. The virtues of it against the plague and all malignant distempers are sufficiently known to all the physicians of Christendom, and the powder itself, prepared by the only person living that has the true receipt, is to be had at the

third

part of the ordinary price at Mr. Calvert's, at

The Feathers,

in the old

Pall Mall

, near St. James's,

&c.

On the north side of , a little to the east of , stood formerly the Shakespeare Gallery, the creation of that real and true patron of art, and especially of historical painting and engraving, Alderman Boydell, whose name is far less well known than it deserves to be among artists and men of taste. Beginning life as an engraver, he spent a larger sum than any nobleman had done up to that time in encouraging a British school of engraving; for, as he tells us in of his appeals,

when he commenced business nearly all the fine engravings sold in England were imported from abroad, and more especially from France.

The outbreak of the French Revolution seriously embarrassed his venture in this artistic business, and in he was obliged to make arrangements for disposing of his Gallery. He brought out, however, a costly edition of the works of Shakespeare, the profits of which, together with a Shakesperian lottery, saved him from bankruptcy. After his death, however, the Gallery was for some years vacant, and Malcolm in I speaks of it as

a melancholy memento of the irretrievable ruin of the arts in England.

When Alderman Boydell proposed, in the interest of the fine arts, to issue his superb edition of Shakespeare, an envious cotemporary imputed his patriotism to sheer vanity, and the following lines appeared in at least of the journals :

Old Father Time, as Ovid sings,

Is a great eater up of things,

And without salt or mustard

Will gulp down e'en a castle wall

As easily as at Guildhall

An alderman eats custard.

But Boydell, careful of his fame,

By grafting it on Shakespeare's name,

Shall beat his neighbours hollow:

For to the Bard of Avon's stream

Old Time has said, with Polypheme, You'll be the last I'll swallow.

In the last century, the pillory was occasionally set up here, as well as at ; of the last sufferers from this punishment in was a notorious lady, of the stamp of Mrs. Cornelys, who was pelted with rotten eggs by the gentry as well as by the rabble, and, if tradition may be

p.136

believed, by the soldiery as well. She had probably been plying her trade in the neighbourhood of St. James's.

John Timbs reminds us that had at an early date its notable sights and amusements.

In

1701

were shown here models of William III.'s palaces at Loo and Hunstaerdike,

brought over by outlandish men,

with curiosities disposed of

on public raffling days.

In

1733

a holland smock, a cap, checked stockings, and laced shoes,

were run for by

four

women in the afternoon, in

Pall Mall

; and

one

of its residents, the High Constable of

Westminster

, gave a prize laced hat to be run for by

five

men, which created so much riot and mischief that the magistrates issued precepts to prevent future runs to the very man most active in promoting them!

In the old

Star and Garter

house, westward of Carlton House, was exhibited, in , the Waterloo Museum of portraits and battle scenes, cuirasses, helmets, sabres, firearms, and trophies of Waterloo; besides a large picture of the battle painted by a Flemish artist. At No. Campanani exhibited his Etruscan and Greek Antiquities, in rooms fitted up as the

Chambers of Tombs.

At No. , on the north side, now the Marlborough Club, the [extra_illustrations.4.136.1]  was founded as far back as for the encouragement of native art, by affording to English artists facilities for the exhibition and sale of their productions. The Institution had exhibitions every year; the former from February to May for the works of living artists, and the latter from June to the end of the summer for the works of old masters, lent by their owners for the occasion. Here was exhibited West's large picture of

Christ healing the Sick in the Temple,

bought by the British Institution for guineas, and presented to the . has always been a place for exhibitions, especially of pictures. In the present year () here are or galleries devoted to the fine arts:--No. is the Institute of Painters in Water Colours; the British Gallery of Art is at No. ; and No. , further eastward, is the French Gallery.

On the site of the British Institution, in the early part of the reign of George III. (-), was

Almack's Club.

It was celebrated as the home of Macaronis and high play. It was afterwards known as

Goose-tree's

Club, and [extra_illustrations.4.136.2]  was of its frequenters. It was here that he made the acquaintance of Wilberforce. Of the association so long known as

Almack's

we shall have more to say when we come to . Mr. Timbs mentions here a club called the

Je ne sais quoi

Club, of which he says that the Prince of Wales, the Dukes of York, Clarence, Orleans, Norfolk, and Bedford, were members; but details of its history are known to exist.

Among the of , in the days of the Regency, was [extra_illustrations.4.136.3] , the eccentric

Lord Coleraine.

Mr. C. Redding says in his

Recollections:

--

He might be seen in

Pall Mall

riding his grey pony without a servant; then dismounting at a bookseller's shop, he would get a boy to hold his horse, and sit upon the counter for an hour, talking to Burdett, Bosville, or Major James, who used to haunt that shop, Budd and Calkin's then or afterwards. He was a very rough, subject, but honest to the backbone, and plain speaking. He carried a short, thick shillelagh, and now and then took his quid. A favourite of the Prince of Wales, he administered a well-merited reproof to the Prince and the Duke of York

one

day at Carlton House for the grossness of their language. His name in consequence became no longer on the list of guests there. Upon this, as, often related by others, he advertised himself as a coal merchant. Meeting the Prince

one

day on horseback afterwards, the former addressed him,

Well, George, how go coals now?

Black as ever, please your Royal Highness,

was the quick reply.

In this street was living [extra_illustrations.4.136.4] , when Secretary of State for the American department in ; and here Sir N. W. Wraxall, Lord Walsingham, and a large party were dining in the November of that year, when a messenger arrived announcing the defeat and surrender of the forces in America under Lord Cornwallis. The tidings sent on to the King at Kew, Wraxall tells us, never disturbed the King's dignity nor affected his self-command, deeply as it grieved his heart.

At her residence in , in at the age of , died the celebrated [extra_illustrations.4.136.5] , the actress who played the part of in the

School for Scandal.

Of all the theatrical ungovernable ladies under Mr. Garrick's management,

says Mr. Raikes, in his

Book for a Rainy Day,

Mrs. Abington, with her capriciousness, inconsistency, injustice, and unkindness, perplexed him the most. She was not unlike the miller's mare, for ever looking for a white stone to shy at And though no

one

has charged her with malignant mischief, she was never more delighted than when in a state of hostility, often arising from most trivial circumstances, discovered in mazes of her own ingenious construction. Mrs. Abington, in order to keep up her card-parties, of which she was very fond, and which were attended by many ladies.

of the highest rank, absented herself from her abode to live

incog

. For this purpose she generally took a small lodging in

one

of the passages leading from

Stafford Row

,

Pimlico

, where plants are so placed at the windows as nearly to shut out the light, at all events, to render the apartments impervious to the inquisitive eye of such characters as Liston represented in

Paul Pry.

Now and then, she would take a small house at the end of

Mount Street

, and there live with her servant in the kitchen, till it was time to reappear; and then some of her friends would compliment her on the effects of her summer's excursion.

About the year a gentleman named Backwell, of the partners in the banking-house of Messrs. Child, of , started on his own account a bank in , arid named it

The Grasshopper.

It dragged on its existence, in anything but prosperity, for something less than years, when it closed its accounts, and its business was absorbed into other establishments. The exact site of the bank, however, is not known.

As of the leading thoroughfares in the neighbourhood of the Court and the aristocracy, is very naturally associated in our minds with the coaches and sedan chairs of our grandfathers' days. Nor will the English reader probably have forgotten how Gay alludes to the latter an his

Trivia :

For who the footman's arrogance can quell,

Whose flambeau gilds the sashes of Pall Mall,

When in long ranks a train of torches flame,

To light the midnight visits of the dame?

But of these we have already spoken in our chapter on .

In this street was an old and fashionable hotel, now long forgotten, named the

Star and Garter

.

Here, as we learn from the title-page of a small publication on the rules of that English game, were

The Laws of Cricket revised on

February 25, 1174

, by a committee of noblemen and gentlemen.

The

Rules

are prefaced by a woodcut of the bat then in use, which appears to have been curved, and with a face perfectly flat, whereas the modern bat is quite straight, and has a face slightly convex. Perhaps the best information about the early history of the game is to be found in

The Young Cricketer's Tutor, by John Nyren,

who was for many years a celebrated member of the Hambledon Club.

In of the public rooms of the

Star and Garter

,

in , was fought the fatal duel between William, Lord Byron, and his neighbour in Nottinghamshire, old Mr. Chaworth. The ground of the quarrel was a trivial , arising out of a heated argument over a dinner-table; but in little more than an hour from its commencement, Mr. Chaworth received a mortal wound from his opponent. Lord Byron- who was the great-uncle and immediate predecessor of the poet--was tried for the capital offence; but the found him guilty of manslaughter only, and, as he pleaded his privilege of peerage, he was let off, and discharged from custody on payment of the fees! The

Star and Garter

was famous for its choice dinners and its exorbitant prices, as we learn from the of .

It may sound strange when we tell our readers that, as late as the year , a highway robbery was committed on of his Majesty's mails in . At all events, Horace Walpole writes in January of that year:

On the

7th

, half an hour after

eight

, the mail from France was robbed in Pall Mall-yes, in the great thoroughfare of London, and within call of the Guard at the palace. The chaise had stopped, the harness was cut, and the portmanteau was taken out of the chaise itself. What think you of banditti in the heart of such a capital?

The Hon. Amelia Murray writes, in her

Recollections,

under the year :

It was about this time that gas was

first

introduced into England; a German of the name of Winsor gave lectures about it in

Pall Mall

. He had made his

first

public experiments at the Lyceum, in

the Strand

, in

1803

. He afterwards lighted with gas the walls of Carlton

Palace Gardens

, on the king's birthday, in

1807

, and during

1809

and the following year he lighted a portion of

Pall Mall

. He died in

1830

. My eldest brother,

she adds,

and my uncle were so convinced of the importance of the discovery, that they exerted themselves to get a bill through Parliament which gave permission for an experiment to be made; and my uncle established the

first

gas-works. Like all the pioneers in great works, he was ruined, and his country place, Farnborough Hill, came to the hammer. Since then the old house has been taken down, and a modern mansion has been built by the present possessor of the property; and it is a curious circumstance that the new house is lit throughout by gas made upon the spot. The greatest chemists and philosophers may be mistaken. In

1809

, Sir Humphry Davy gave it as his opinion that it would be as easy to bring down a bit of the moon to light London, as to succeed in doing so with gas!

Walker says, in his

Original:

The

first

exhibition of gas was made by Winsor, in a row of lamps in front of the colonnade before Carlton House, then standing on I the lower part of

Waterloo Place

; and I remember

hearing Winsor's plan of lighting the metropolis laughed to scorn by a company of very scientific men.

To our disgrace, was the last public place in the West-end of London where gas was adopted.

Macaulay thus records the state of the metropolis, in respect to lighting, centuries ago:--

It ought to be noticed that, in the last year of the reign of Charles the

Second

, began a great change in the police of London, a change which has perhaps added as much to the happiness of the body of the people as revolutions of much greater fame. An ingenious projector, named Edward Heming, obtained letters patent conveying to him, for a term of years, the exclusive right of lighting up London. He undertook, for a moderate consideration, to place a light before every

tenth

door, on moonless nights, from Michaelmas to Lady Day, and from

six

to

twelve

of the clock. Those who now see the capital all the year round, from dusk to dawn, blazing with a splendour beside which the illuminations for La Hogue and Blenheim would have looked pale, may perhaps smile to think of Heming's lanterns, which glimmered feebly before

one

house in

ten

during a small part

The Shakespeare Gallery, Pall Mall. (From A Drawing In Mr. Crace's Collection.)

of

one

night in

three

. But such was not the feeling of his contemporaries. His scheme was enthusiastically applauded and furiously attacked. The friends of improvement extolled him as the greatest of all the benefactors of his city. What, they asked, were the boasted inventions of Archimedes, when compared with the achievement of the man who had turned the nocturnal shades into noon-day? In spite of these eloquent eulogies the cause of darkness was not left undefended. There were fools in that age who opposed the introduction of what was called the new light, as strenuously as fools in our age have opposed the introduction of vaccination and railroads. Many years after the date of Heming's patent there were extensive districts in London in which no lamp was seen.

Those who may wish for further information on the subject of gas will find it in a work called

Angliae Metropolis,

, sect. , entitled,

Of the New Lights,

and in works on gas-lighting by the late Mr. Samuel Clegg, jun. (son of the inventor of the gas-meter), and by Mr. Samuel Hughes, both published some years ago in Weale's

Educational Series.

p.139

 
 
 
Footnotes:

[extra_illustrations.4.124.1] Duke of Schomberg

[extra_illustrations.4.128.1] Messrs. Christie's sale room

[extra_illustrations.4.129.1] Design for New War Office

[extra_illustrations.4.129.2] Fancy Dress Ball at Marlborough House

[extra_illustrations.4.129.3] Duchess of Gordon

[extra_illustrations.4.129.4] Government Offices

[extra_illustrations.4.129.5] War Department

[extra_illustrations.4.129.6] Lord Herbert of Lea

[extra_illustrations.4.129.7] Marlborough House

[extra_illustrations.4.132.1] Duke of Somerset

[extra_illustrations.4.134.1] Queen Adelaide

[extra_illustrations.4.134.2] Edmund Burke

[extra_illustrations.4.135.1] George Crabbe

[extra_illustrations.4.136.1] British Institution

[extra_illustrations.4.136.2] William Pitt

[extra_illustrations.4.136.3] George Hanger

[extra_illustrations.4.136.4] Lord George Germain

[extra_illustrations.4.136.5] Mrs. Abington

View all images in this book
 Title Page
 Chapter I: Westminster: A Survey of the City: Millbank, and its Neighbourhood
 Chapter II: Westminster.-Tothill Fields and Neighbourhood
 Chapter III: Westminster.-King Street, Great George Street, and the Broad Sanctuary
 Chapter IV: Modern Westminster
 Chapter V: St. James's Park
 Chapter VI: Buckingham Palace
 Chapter VII: The Mall and Spring Gardens
 Chapter VIII: Carlton House
 Chapter IX: St. James's Palace
 Chapter X: St. James's Palace (continued)
 Chapter XI: Pall Mall
 Chapter XII: Pall-Mall.-Club-Land
 Chapter XIII: St. James's Street.-Club-Land (continued)
 Chapter XIV: St. James's Street and its Neighbourhood
 Chapter XV: St. James's Square and its Distinguished Residents
 Chapter XVI: The Neighbourhood of St. James's Square
 Chapter XVII: Waterloo Place and Her Majesty's Theatre
 Chapter XVIII: The Haymarket
 Chapter XIX: Pall Mall East, Suffolk Street, &c.
 Chapter XX: Golden Square and its Neighbourhood
 Chapter XXI: Regent Street and Piccadilly
 Chapter XXII: Piccadilly.-Burlington House
 Chapter XXIII: Noble Mansions in Piccadilly
 Chapter XXIV: Piccadilly: Northern Tributaries
 Chapter XXV: Hanover Square and its Neighbourhood
 Chapter XXVI: Berkeley Square, and its Neighbourhood
 Chapter XXVII: Grosvenor Square, and its Neighbourhood
 Chapter XXVIII: May Fair
 Chapter XXIX: Apsley House and Park Lane
 Chapter XXX: Hyde Park
 Chapter XXXI: Hyde Park (continued)
 Chapter XXXII: Oxford Street, and its Northern Tributaries
 Chapter XXXIII: Oxford Street.-Northern Tributaries (continued)
 Chapter XXXIV: Oxford Street, and its Northern Tributaries (continued)
 Chapter XXXV: Oxford Street East.-Northern Tributaries
 Chapter XXXVI: Oxford Street: Northern Tributaries.-Tottenham Court Road
 Chapter XXXVII: Bloomsbury.-General Remarks
 Chapter XXXVIII: The British Museum
 Chapter XXXIX: The British Museum (continued)
 Chapter XL: The British Museum (continued)
 Chapter XLI: Bloomsbury Square and its Neighbourhood
 Chapter XLII: Red Lion Square, and its Neighbourhood
 Chapter XLIII: Queen Square, Great Ormond Street, &c.
 Chapter XLIV: Russell and Bedford Squares, &c.
 Chapter XLV: Gordon and Tavistock Squares, &c.
This object is in collection:
Edwin C. Bolles papers
Subjects
London (England)--Description and Travel
London --England
Permanent URL
http://hdl.handle.net/10427/14824
ID: tufts:UA069.005.DO.00063
To Cite: DCA Citation Guide
Usage: Detailed Rights