Old and New London, A Narrative of its History, its People and its Places. Illustrated with Numerous Engravings from the Most Authentic Sources. vol 4Thornbury, Walter
As and the immediate neighbourhood of St. James's have been for a century the headquarters of those London clubs which have succeeded to the fashionable coffee-houses, and are frequented by the upper ranks of society, a few remarks on Club-land and Club-life will not be out of place here.
As Walker observes in his
the system of clubs is of the greatest and most important changes in the society of the present age from that of our grandfathers, when coffee-houses were in fashion.
[he wrote this in ]
In these remarks Mr. Walker draws for his experience on the club to which he belonged, the
and he enters into some interesting calculations as to the cost of living, if a man makes such a club his head-quarters. From the accounts of his club in , it appeared that the daily average of dinners was and a fraction, and that the dinners for the year, a little over in number, cost on an average and ninepence farthings, and that the average quantity of wine drunk by each diner was a small fraction over half a pint! It is to be feared that all the clubs in the West-end could not show an equally abstemious set of diners; but still, it may fearlessly be said that the majority of them exhibit a simplicity which contrasts very favourably with the old taverns and coffee-houses of or years ago, and the excesses to which they too often ministered occasion. And although the ladies, as a body, do not like
because they are more or less antagonistic to early marriages, yet Mr. Walker defends them on even what may be called the matrimonial ground, asserting that
and he adds emphatically:
The London system of clubs, grouping, as it does, around and St. James's, finds its outward expression in buildings that give dignity and beauty to the thoroughfare in which they stand by their architectural splendour. They afford advantages and facilities of living which no fortunes, except the most ample, could procure, to thousands of persons most eminent in the land, in every path of life, civil and military, ecclesiastical, peers spiritual and temporal, commoners, men of the learned professions, those connected with literature, science, the arts, and commerce, in all its principal branches, as well as to those who do not belong to any particular class. These are represented by the
and a host of others.
The opinion of Dr. Johnson on the subject of clubs and club-life is well known to every reader of Boswell. A gentleman venturing day to say to the learned doctor that he sometimes wondered at his condescending to attend a club, the latter replied,
Again, the learned doctor touches on this phase of life in the great metropolis, in the following conversation, also related by Boswell:--
Addison, who knew something about the coffeehouse, and what we may call the
of his day, has given us, in his own graphic style, a sketch of St. James's Coffee-house, which stood near the western end of . We have already spoken of him as a frequenter of
in Covent Garden, and as a member of the celebrated Kit-cat Club, in ; indeed, he modestly surmised that his detractors had some colour for calling him the King of Clubs, and oracularly said that
But it is not every club that has avowed itself by its name or title as formed on this basis.
says Addison, in illustration of the proposition quoted from him above,
The truth is, that centuries ago clubs were the natural resorts of men who, though socially inclined, did not enjoy the social position, and could not, therefore, command the introductions into high circles which were accorded to Pepys or Evelyn in the , and to Horace Walpole in the eighteenth century.
, if we may trust John Timbs, was noted for its tavern clubs more than centuries since.
writes Peter Cunningham,
The passage is curious, not only as showing how, even at that time, was. famous for houses of entertainment, but also as the earliest instance of the use of the verb
in the sense in which we now commonly use it.
Thackeray describes the club-life at the Westend, in Queen Anne's day, with his usual felicity:
he writes again,
We see no trace of club-life in the gossiping writings of Horace Walpole, though so many of his personal friends-George Selwyn, for example --were devoted to its pleasures. For himself, it is scarcely uncharitable to add that he was scarcely robust enough to live in such an element.
The clubs in London in the days of the Regency belonged exclusively to the aristocratic world. In the words of Captain Gronow:
as King Allen used to call the bankers and the merchants, had not then invaded White's, Boodle's, Brookes's, or Wattier's, in , ; which, with the Guards', Arthur's, and Graham's, were the only clubs at the West-end of the town.
was decidedly the most difficult of entry; its list of members comprised nearly all the noble names of Great Britain. Its politics were decidedly Tory. Here play was carried on to an extent which made many ravages in large fortunes, the traces of which have not disappeared at the present day. General Scott, the father-in-law of George Canning and the Duke of Portland, was known to have won at
a large fortune; thanks to his notorious sobriety and knowledge of the game of whist. The general possessed a great advantage over his companions by avoiding those indulgences at the table which used to muddle other men's brains. He confined himself to dining off something like a boiled chicken, with toast and water; by such a regimen he came to the whisttable with a clear head, and possessing as he did a remarkable memory, with great coolness and judgment, he was able to boast that he had won honestly no less than .
It is traditionally said that the modern mansion in which was used as a club in the present sense of the word was No. , now part of the War Office, and originally built for Edward Duke of York, brother of George III. It was opened as a
and called the
This must have been towards the end of the last century.
Cyrus Redding tells us that in , when he came up from Cornwall to London, single men, of all classes, including the best, still sassed a good part of their time in coffee-houses; the great objection to which plan, he seems to think, was the bad ventilation of these places, and fatal to young men fresh from their country hills. They used to be crowded, especially in the evening, and the conversation in them was general.
He means to add, no doubt,
and possibly the accusation may be true.
Spence tells us in his
that there was a club held at the
in , which arrogantly styled itself
Among its members was [extra_illustrations.4.142.1] .
Dr. Johnson, as we have already seen, considered that
but in years after his death the centre of social London had moved somewhat further west, and Theodore Hook, in the reign of William IV., maintained that
At this period, it is to be observed that he himself lived just outside that world which he defined with such geographical precision, being then tenant of a house in .
Many of the old clubs have passed away, for though some of them, or similar societies, may still exist, they live behind the scenes, instead of figuring conspicuously upon the stage of London life. Quite a new order of things has come up: from small social meetings held periodically, the clubs have become permanent establishments, luxurious in all their appointments--some of them indeed occupy buildings which are quite palatial. No longer limited to a few acquaintances familiarly known to each other, they count their numbers by hundreds, and, sleeping accommodation excepted, provide for them abundantly all the comforts and luxuries of an aristocratic home and admirably-regulated , without any of the trouble inseparable from a private household, unless it be whose management is, as in a
| clubhouse, confided to responsible superintendents. Each member of a club is expected to leave his private address with the secretary; but this, of course, remains unknown to the outside world, and considerable advantage frequently results from the arrangement, inasmuch as it was some years ago determined by a County Court judge, who before his elevation to the bench had been sadly annoyed by such visitants, that the interior of a club was inviolable by the bearers of writs, summonses, orders, executions, and the like. Besides those staple features, news-room and coffee-room, the usual accommodation of a club-house comprises library and writing-room, evening or drawing-room, and card-room, billiard and smoking rooms, and even baths and dressing-rooms; also a |
committee-room, and other apartments, all appropriately fitted up according to their respective purposes, and supplied with almost every imaginable convenience. In addition to the provision thus amply made for both intellectual and other recreation, there is another important and tasteful department of the establishmentnamely, the
As to the management of a club household, nothing can be more complete or more economical, because all its details are conducted systematically, and therefore without the slightest confusion or bustle. Every has his proper post and definite duties, and what contributes to his discharging them as he ought is that he has no time to be idle. The following is the scheme of government adopted :--At the head of affairs is the committee of management .--ho are generally appointed from among the members, and hold office for a certain time, during which they constitute a board of control, from whom all orders emanate, and to whom all complaints are made and irregularities reported. They superintend all matters of expenditure and the accounts, which latter are duly audited every year by others, who officiate as auditors. The committee further appoint the several officers and servants, also the several tradespeople. The full complement of a club-house establishment consists of secretary and librarian, steward, and housekeeper; to these principal officials succeed hall-porter, groom of the chambers, butler, under butler; then, in the kitchen department, clerk of the kitchen, , cooks, kitchenmaids, &c.; lastly, attendants, or footmen, and female servants, of both which classes the number is greater or less, according to the scale of the household. It may be added that most of the clubs distribute their broken viands to the poor of the surrounding parishes. .
So far as the general arrangement of the clubhouses is concerned, description may serve for the whole, as there is little difference between. the majority of them. The kitchen, cellars, storerooms, servants' hall, &c., are situated in the basement of the building. On the ground floor the. principal hall is usually entered immediately from: the street; in other instances it is preceded by an outer vestibule of smaller dimensions and far more simple architectural character. At a desk near the entrance is stationed the hall-porter, whose office it is to receive and keep an account of all messages, cards, letters, &c., and to take charge of the box into which the members put letters to be delivered to the postman. The chief apartments on this floor usually are the morningroom and coffee-room, the of which is the place of general rendezvous in the early part of the day, and for reading the newspapers. In some club-houses there is also what is called the
into which members can introduce their friends as occasional visitors. The,
is generally on this floor. Here, although the of the club take their meals in the coffee-room, some of the members occasionally-perhaps about once a month-make up a set dinner-party, for which they previously put down their names, the day and number of guests being fixed: these, in club parlance, are styled
Ascending to the upper or principal floor, we find there the evening or drawing room, and card-room; the library, the writing-room. So far as embellishment or architectural effect is concerned, the mentioned of these rooms is generally the principal apartment in the building. The writing-room is a very great accommodation to members, for many gentlemen write their letters at, and date them from, their club. Upon this floor is generally the committee-room, and likewise the secretary's office. The next, or uppermost floor-which, however, in most cases does not show itself externally, it being concealed in the roof--is appropriated partly to the billiard and smoking rooms, and partly to servants' dormitories, the divisions being kept distinct from each other. Being quite apart from the other public rooms, those for billiards, &c., make no pretensions to outward appearance.
With these preliminary remarks as to our present club system and the usual arrangements of a clubhouse, we will proceed to speak more individually of the clubs which abound in .
The Guards' Club, which is restricted to the officers of Her Majesty's Household Troops, is the oldest club now extant, having been established
| in . It was formerly housed in , next to |
The present clubhouse, however, was erected only as far back as ; it was built from the designs of Mr. Henry Harrison, and is said to be
As Captain Gronow tells us in his
it was established for the regiments of Foot Guards, and was conducted on a military system. Billiards and low whist were the only games indulged in. The dinner was, perhaps, better than at most clubs, and considerably cheaper.
Close by the Guards' Club, and adjoining the grounds of Marlborough House, is the new building belonging to the [extra_illustrations.4.144.1] , which was erected in . The edifice is storeys high. It is built of Portland stone; the base and columns of the entrance are of polished Aberdeen granite, and over the doorway at each side are life-sized recumbent female figures supporting shields bearing medallions of Nelson and Wellington; whilst over the centre of the doorway is a huge lion's head with the head of a
|child betwixt its jaws. On the right side of the entrance hall, which is paved with encaustic tiles, is the smoking-room, and in the rear is a noble dining-room. The entire frontage of the floor is occupied by the morning-room; in the rear is the billiard-room. The floor consists of billiard and card rooms, and bed-rooms for members, others being also on the and floors. In the rear of the floor a large roof or flat has been carried out, overlooking the grounds of Marlborough House; this is paved with encaustic tiles, and during the summer it can be converted into a covered lounge for smokers.|
[extra_illustrations.4.145.1] -or rather a part of it-covers the site of what was once Nell Gwynne's house. Pennant thus describes it:
--an ancestor, we may add, of the Lords Dacre.
This club--which bears the colloquial nickname of the
arising out of a joke in --was originally held at a private mansion in , and the present club-house was finished in , at the cost of nearly . The house is luxuriously furnished, and the smokingroom has the reputation of being of the best in London.
which was established
as far back as the end of the war in , stands at the corner of and the opening into . This club took its rise, says the author of |
when so many of the officers of the army and navy were thrown out of commission. Their habits, from old mess-room associations, being gregarious, and their reduced incomes no longer affording the luxuries of the camp or barrack-room on full pay, the late Lord Lynedoch, on their position being represented to him, was led to propose some such institution as a mess-room, in peace, for the benefit of his old companions in arms. A few other officers of influence
|in both branches of the service concurred, and the [extra_illustrations.4.146.1] was the result. It was established at the corner of , , where the junior establishment of the same name now stands; but the funds soon becoming large, and the number of candidates for admission rapidly increasing, the present large and classic edifice was erected. The building, which is devoid of much architectural embellishment--the decorations being simple almost to severity--was erected from the designs of Mr. John Nash.|
This is considered to be of the most commodious, economical, and best managed of all the London club-houses. Among the pictures that adorn the walls of the principal rooms are Clarkson Stanfield's
by George Jones, R.A. There are also several portraits of the sovereigns of England, of the Stuart and Brunswick lines. Among them are James I., James II., Charles II., William III., and Queen Mary, original picture, by Sir Godfrey Kneller; Queen Anne, the Georges, William IV., and Queen Victoria, by Sir Francis Grant; and an original portrait of the late Prince Consort, by J. Lucas. The members of this club consist of princes of the blood royal, and officers of the army, navy, marines, regular, militia, and Her Majesty's Indian Forces, of the rank of commander in the navy, or major in the army, in active service or retired; the lords lieutenants of counties in Great Britain and Ireland, &c., are also eligible.
although perhaps not quite within the limits of
standing as it does at the corner of and Waterloo Place--may be introduced here. It was established in , to provide for officers not of field rank, and also for those general officers whom the Senior Club was unable to receive. The house was rebuilt and enlarged in , from the designs of Messrs. Nelson and Innes. The club accommodates fully as many members as the old club, as well as or additional, or
Many of the senior members of each club now belong to both, it having been considered a high honour, when the Junior was established, for the more distinguished individuals in the ranks of the Senior Club to be elected as honorary members, although those belonging to the new institution could not, of course, attain a similar distinction, unless of the requisite grade.
The Travellers' Club dates its existence from the year . Sir Charles Barry was the architect of the club-house, which was built in the year . In it had a narrow escape from destruction by fire; the damage, however, was principally confined to the billiard-room, in which it originated. This club is exceedingly select, numbering among its members the highest branches of the peerage, and the most distinguished of the lower House of Parliament. It consists of only about members, but they are amongst the of the land; and Talleyrand, with some of the most eminent representatives of foreign powers, have been enrolled in the list of its honorary members. When ambassador to this country from the French Court, the veteran diplomatist was wont to pass his leisure hours at this favourite retreat in , and, we are told,
in , midway on the
at the corner of , in , may both be mentioned together as being restricted to University men, and, indeed, to such only as are members of Oxford or Cambridge. The former is a handsome structure, and was built from the joint designs of Mr. Sidney Smirke and his brother, Sir Robert. In panels over the upper windows, in number, are a series of bas-reliefs, executed by Mr. Nicholl, who was also employed on those of the Fitzwilliam Museum at Cambridge. The subject of that at the east end of the building is Homer; then follow Bacon and Shakespeare. The centre panel contains a group of Apollo and the Muses, with Minerva on his right hand, and a female, personifying the fountain Hippocrene, on his left. The remaining panels represent Milton, Newton, and Virgil. The
which is the more recent of the in its origin-having been established in , whereas the
dates from --consists chiefly of the younger spirits of the universities, and is less
The other is, for the most part, composed of the old and graver members. The serious members of Parliament who have received university education are almost invariably to be found in the latter. It also contains a considerable number of the judges, and no small portion of the beneficed and dignified clergy.
at the corner of and , is of the oldest of the clubs, and for many years enjoyed the reputation of being of the most of all. It was founded in , and consists of politicians, and the higher order of professional and commercial men, without reference to party opinions. The
|club-house itself was built in , from the designs of the late Sir Robert Smirke, R.A.|
was established in , and the club-house, built by Mr. Decimus Burton, was opened about years later. The building showed considerable progress with regard to ornateness and finish, for it presented the then somewhat extravagant novelty of a sculptured frieze. It is surmounted by an imposing statue of Minerva, by Baily, R.A. In the interior the chief feature is the staircase. The library, as perhaps maybe expected, is very extensive, consisting of several volumes. A sum of a year from the funds of the club was, several years ago, voted to be set apart for the purchase of new works of merit in literature and art. Above the mantelpiece is a portrait of George IV., painted by Lawrence, upon which he was engaged but a few hours previous to his decease, the last bit of colour this celebrated artist ever put upon canvas being that of the hilt and sword-knot of the girdle; thus it remains, unfinished.
The expense of building the club-house, we are told, was , and for furnishing; the plate, linen, and glass cost ; library, ; and the stock of wine in the cellar is usually worth . The yearly revenue is about . It does not admit strangers to its dining-room under any circumstances. The economical management of the club has not, however, been effected without a few sallies of humour from various quarters. In we read,
was founded by a number of gentlemen connected with the learned professions and higher order of the fine arts and literature; and, with the exception, perhaps, of the
it is the most select establishment of the kind in London. Previous to the year , if we except the occasional festive gatherings of the Royal Society, there was no place in London where those gentlemen who were more interested in art and literature than in politics could meet together for social intercourse. To remedy this acknowledged want, a preliminary meeting was held in the February of that year, at the rooms of the Royal Society, at , at which it was resolved to institute a literary club. Among those present were Sir Walter Scott, Sir Francis Chantrey, Richard Heber, Thomas Moore, Davis Gilbert, Mr. J. W. Croker, Sir Humphry Davy, Lord Dover, Sir Henry Halford, Sir Thomas Lawrence, Joseph Jekyll, and other well-known celebrities. It was at called
but the name was subsequently changed to its present. Its members made their rendezvous at the Clarence Club until .
For many years after its establishment, smoking was not permitted within the walls of this club. At last, however, about , a concession was made, and a smoking-room added-apart, however, from the rest of the house, a part of the garden on the south front being sacrificed.
The number of ordinary members is fixed at . Samuel Rogers and Thomas Campbell, the poets, were among its earliest members, and Theodore Hook, too, was also of its most popular members. Almost all the judges, bishops, and members of the Cabinet belong to it; and the committee have the privilege of electing annually, without ballot, persons, eminent in art, science, or literature. It is said that at the
the dinners fell off in number by upwards of yearly after Theodore Hook disappeared from his favourite corner near the door of its coffee-room.
observes of his biographers,
It may be added, by way of explanation, that when Hook wanted brandy or whisky, he asked for it under the name of tea or lemonade, in order not to shock the grave and dignified persons who were members of the
in his day.
A falling-off in the number of its members being at time anticipated, says the writer of an able article in the , a report was foolishly set abroad that
As may well be supposed from its literary constituency, no modern club in London, except the Garrick, is richer than the Athenaeum in anecdotes and . In the library of this club loungingchairs, writing-tables, and like conveniences are abundantly provided; and it was in some such apartment as this, probably in this identical room, where creditors pressed him, that, as we are told,
Mr. E. Jesse used to tell a story to the effect that Thomas Campbell, the poet, was led home evening from the Athenaeum Club by a friend. There had been a heavy storm of rain, and the kennels were full of water. Campbell fell into of them at the steps of the club, and pulled his friend after him, who exclaimed, in allusion to a well-known line of the poet's,
has reckoned among its members at least half of the illustrious names of the last half century; among others, Mr. D'Israeli, Lord Granville, Lord Coleridge, Thackeray, Sir John Bowring, Sir Roderick Murchison, Sir Benjamin Brodie, Sir Charles Wheatstone, Dr. Hooker, Sir Henry Holland, George Grote; Professors Sedgwick, Darwin, Tyndal, Huxley, Willis, Owen, Phillips, Maurice, and Conington; Lord Lytton, Macaulay, Bishop Thirlwall, Charles Dickens, Dean Stanley, Lord Shaftesbury, Bishop Wilberforce, Lord Romilly, Ruskin, Maclise, Serjeant Kinglake, Dean Milman, Lord Mayo, and Sir Edwin Landseer. The secretary was no less eminent a person than Professor Faraday, but he retained the post only for a year.
In -during the exciting era which culminated in the passing of the Reform Billthe friends of the Constitution, somewhat alarmed perhaps at the
which were supposed to be about to follow, founded the
bestowing upon it this name from the terrace where the club was originally held. In the April of the above year we find the following entry in Mr. Raikes's
The club-house, built from the designs of Mr. Sydney Smirke and his brother, Sir Robert, was finished about . It bears upon its exterior a degree of richness almost unprecedented in the metropolitan architecture. The facade in is upwards of feet in length, with windows on a floor; between each of the windows are columns of highly polished red Peterhead granite. The design is said to be founded on the east front of the Library of St. Mark's at Venice.
[extra_illustrations.4.148.1] is the head-quarters of Conservative, as the Reform Club is of Liberal politics. [extra_illustrations.4.148.2] in was --started for the reception of the Tory rank and file, but in congregate the leading men of the party. Here are concerted the great political
which are to upset a Whig or Liberal Administration; here the grand mysterious tactics of a general election are determined upon, and here are the vast sums subscribed which are to put the whole forces of the party in motion in the country boroughs. This club still retains its original name, though removed from the lordly terrace which gave rise to it, to the
Passing to what may be called the
of the club, we may state that the head of its was a French
who had lived with the Duc d'Escars, chief to Louis XVIII., and who is said to have made that famous which killed his master.
which is situated between the
was built from the designs of the late Sir Charles Barry, R.A., and was for a long time considered of the
of the metropolis. The style is purely Italian, and partakes largely of the character of many of the celebrated palaces in Italy. The building is chiefly remarkable for simplicity of design, combined with grandeur of effect, as well as for the convenience and elegance of its internal arrangements. It differs from most of the other club-houses, in having ranges of windows above the ground floor instead of a single range. The latter feature has been regarded as rendering the metropolitan
|club-houses eminently characteristic of their purpose, and highly favourable to architectural dignity. [extra_illustrations.4.149.1]|
On the establishment of the
by the Liberal party, Gwydyr House, in , was hired, and in that mansion the club was located until the present club-house was erected. This, although of severe simplicity, by the utter absence of exterior ornament, is nevertheless an imposing structure. Some critics, indeed, have compared it to an inverted chest of drawers; but the chief beauty of the Reform Club is . On entering the vestibule is immediately struck by the splendid proportions of the hall and the elegance of the staircase, reminding of the magnificent of Versailles and of the glories of the Louvre. In the upper part of the building are a certain number of
set apart for those who pass their whole existence amid club gossip and politics- of the peculiarities of the establishment.
The author of
The breakfast given by the Reform Club on the occasion of the Queen's coronation obtained for Soyer high commendation; and in his O'Connell dinner, the
were considered by gastronomes to be a rich bit of satire. The banquet to Ibrahim Pacha, in , was another of Soyer's great successes, when
Another famous banquet was that given to Admiral Sir Charles Napier, in , as Commander of the Baltic Fleet; and the banquet given in , to Viscount Palmerston, who was a popular leader of the Reform, was, gastronomically as well as politically, a brilliant triumph. It was upon this occasion that Mr. Bernal Osborne characterised the Palmerston policy in this quotation:--
The following description of the [extra_illustrations.4.150.1] is from the pen of Viscountess de Malleville, and appeared originally in the :--
Thackeray was a member of the Reform, the Atheneum, and Garrick Clubs-perhaps of others,
| but it was in those here named that his leisure was usually spent. |
writes of his biographers,
Among the latest additions to the batch of clubs that line are the
The former, which was established in , numbers about member;. It is a political club, in strict connection with the Conservative party, and designed to promote its objects; and the only persons eligible for admission are those who profess Conservative principles, and acknowledge the recognised leaders of the Conservative party. The
so named in honour of the Prince of Wales-was started about , and numbers among its members the Prince of Wales and several of the aristocratic patrons of the turf.
Whatever may have been the
of the now defunct species of club of the last century-such as the
and others of which we have spoken in the previous volume--a wide difference exists between them and those of the present day in the matter of bacchanalian festivities. It may with truth be said that high play and high feeding are no longer the rules; in fact, clubs are to many persons even dull and unsociable. In most of the clubs of the Johnsonian period, the flow of wine or other liquor was far more abundant than that of mind, and the conversation was generally more easy and hilarious than intellectual and refined. The bottle, or else the punch-bowl, played by far too prominent a part, and sociality too frequently took the form of revelry-or, at least, what would be considered such according to our more temperate habits. Though in general the elder clubs encouraged habits of free indulgence as indispensable to good fellowship and sociality, the modern clubs, on the contrary, have done much to discourage them, as low and ungentlemanly.
used formerly to be a common expression, whereas now inebriety, or the symptom of it, in a club-house, would bring down disgrace upon him who should be guilty of such an indiscretion.
The pleasures and comforts of clubs and clublife to the bachelor whose means and position allow of such luxuries have been often graphically and humorously described in serious and ephemeral publications for the past century and a half, but nowhere in a more amusing manner than in the
in ; and it has been wittily observed by Mrs. Gore in of her novels that,
 See Vol. III., p. 277.
 See Vol. III., p. 20.
[extra_illustrations.4.142.1] Lord Stanhope afterwards Earl of Chesterfield
[extra_illustrations.4.144.1] Junior Naval and Military Club
[extra_illustrations.4.145.1] The Army and Navy Club
[extra_illustrations.4.146.1] United Service Club
[extra_illustrations.4.148.1] The Carlton
[extra_illustrations.4.148.2] The Conservative Club
[extra_illustrations.4.149.1] Reform Club--Corridors
[extra_illustrations.4.150.1] kitchen of the Reform Club