Old and New London, A Narrative of its History, its People and its Places. Illustrated with Numerous Engravings from the Most Authentic Sources. vol 4Thornbury, Walter
Waterloo Place and Her Majesty's Theatre.
Waterloo Place and Her Majesty's Theatre.
Previous to the year , the tract of ground which we are about to traverse, and indeed as far north and north-west as the parish of St. Mary lebone,was a vast extent of fields. There were no houses, excepting or in the immediate neighbourhood of what is now called Pall
| Mall East. In the time of Charles I., the whole of the district was unbuilt upon, and was known by the name of |
In the middle of these fields stood a solitary dwelling, called
mentioned by Clarendon, in his
with handsome gravel walks and shade, and where there was an upper and a lower bowling-green, whither many of the nobility and gentry of the best quality resorted for exercise and recreation. In Charles Knight's
reference is made to a petition from Colonel Thomas Panton, read in , before the Privy Council, setting forth that the petitioner having been at great charge in purchasing
part of it being bowling-greens fronting the , the other lying on the north of the Tennis Court, on which several old houses were standing, and praying for leave to build on this ground, notwithstanding the royal proclamation against building on new foundations within a certain distance of London. No doubt the colonel must have had influential friends about him, for we find that,
In the reign of Charles II., mention is made of the Hay Market and Hedge Lane; but they were at that time literally lanes, bounded by hedges. In Faithorne's plan of London, published in , no traces of houses are to be found in the north, except a single , called the Gaming House, at the end next to . In the upper part of this district, on the north side of , and on the site now partly covered by the Criterion Restaurant and Theatre and Lower , a market was established in . Malcolm tells that the market for all sorts of provisions was proclaimed
According to Gay's
was famous for its supply of veal. From Pepys we learn that the market owed its foundation to Jermyn, Earl of St. Albans, whose name is still preserved in ,
in the market, the mother of the charming and accomplished actress, Mrs. Oldfield, was living when the latter was quite young. day the girl was overheard reading a play with so much power and expression, that Sir John Vanbrugh obtained for her an introduction to Rich, the patentee of , by whom she was engaged. Here she soon made herself a name, and became so popular, that she obtained access to the circles. She became the mistress of General Churchill, a nephew of the great Duke of Marlborough, by whom she had a son, who married a natural daughter of Sir Robert Walpole, and obtained the rank and precedence of an earl's daughter. In the end Mrs. Oldfield had the honour of a funeral in .
In the house which stood at the corner of , in , at the shop of a linendraper named Wheeler, lived Hannah Lightfoot, the early flame of King George III., and indeed, if report may be credited, privately married to him. The fair Quakeress--for such was Hannah--is said to have contracted her marriage with royalty in , in Kew Church. She afterwards married a Mr. Axford, and died in obscurity.
The story of Hannah Lightfoot was thoroughly sifted and discussed in the pages of , the conclusion arrived at leaving little or no doubt as to the legality of her union with the young Prince.
says Mr. Larwood,
About the year , some low and mean houses that stood between the market and were demolished, and these were soon afterwards followed by the market itself, in order to form the broad and spacious thoroughfares of Lower and . At the upper or northern end of Lower a junction is formed right and left with . In that part of lying to the east is the
Restaurant and Theatre. This handsome building, which combines under roof the advantages of a restaurant on an unusually large scale, reading, billiard, hair-dressing rooms, cigar divan, concerthall, ball-room, and theatre, was built for Messrs. Spiers and Pond, in , from a design by Mr. Thomas Verity. The sum originally named as the probable cost, exclusive of decorations and fittings, was , but the actual expense to the proprietors, before the vast establishment was opened, is said to have exceeded .
has facades; the principal , in , is of Portland stone, decorated in the style of the French Renaissance. The doorway is arched and deeply recessed, the arch being supported by handsome bronze columns. Figures, beautifully sculptured, representing the seasons, are placed in niches above. The frontage in is of brick, picked out with Portland stone. The great dining-room, capable of accommodating persons, is on the right of the central vestibule; on the left is the refreshment-buffet, at the south end of which is the smoking-divan. The grand staircase leads to the ball-room, which occupies the entire width of the frontage. The whole interior is richly decorated; mosaics, parquetry, painted frescoes, mirrors, gildings, and carvings, meet the eye in every direction. The upper floor is occupied by kitchens and sculleries. The right-hand entrance in leads to the grill-room, also to the balcony and orchestra stalls of the theatre, while the entrance: to the amphitheatre stalls and parterre is from , the whole theatre being below ground. It will accommodate persons, and is fitted up in the most luxurious manner. It was opened on the , with new pieces-, by Mr. H. J. Byron; and by Mr. W. S. Gilbert. The company being an excellent , and principally consisting of popular favourites, and the authors being equally well and favourably known, the opening night was a triumphant success, giving a favourable augury of its future career. The entertainments since given have been principally of the class known as [extra_illustrations.4.208.1] [extra_illustrations.4.208.2]
stands on the site of an inn, the
which for a century and more was of the busiest coaching-houses in connection with the west and south-west of England. Mr. Larwood, in his
tells us that at this inn Benjamin West, the future President of the Royal Academy, put up and spent the night on his arrival in London from America. Here, too, he tells us, died Luke Sullivan, the engraver of some of Hogarth's most famous works, and another engraver, Chatelain--the latter in such poverty, that he was buried, at the expense of friends who had known him in better days, in the poorground attached to St. James's workhouse.
A few doors to the eastward of the
stood for many years a house notorious from the commencement of the present century as
a house of refreshment and gambling, which was open nearly all night, and formed a scene of dissipation which, even at that time, was unparalleled in London. Its aristocratic patrons, however, did not protect it from the fate which awaits all such dens sooner or later, and it is now a thing of the past.
On the eastern side of Lower is a large building, which till recently bore the name of the
It was erected from the designs of Mr. Nash, who intended it as a residence for himself. It was used occasionally for dramatic readings, and also for a class of amusements popularly known as
The northern wing of the building, formerly the Parthenon Club-house, is now the home of the Raleigh Club; the other portion of the edifice (formerly the Gallery of Illustration) has been converted into a restaurant, and bears the name of the
The long gallery was decorated from a of the Vatican at Rome.
[extra_illustrations.4.208.3] , or, as it is often called, Waterloo Chapel, on the opposite side of the street, was built in from the designs of Mr. Repton. The tower is a reproduction of the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates, at Athens. The front is adorned with a portico, supported by Doric columns. The interior has the appearance of a public secular assembly-room rather than of a church, being nearly square, with a double gallery, supported below by heavy piers, and above by Corinthian columns of scagliola. The ceiling is formed of a double cove, and is lighted from above.
Crossing [extra_illustrations.4.208.4] , and extending from to the , is Here Burke was living in the year , when he received from a poor and friendless young man, named- George Crabbe, a letter asking for aid. Burke read the note, and at once responded; asked Crabbe to call on him; read, and admired his verses.
writes Mr. Serjeant Burke,
Such deeds of kindness deserve to be recorded to the honour of the great orator.
Here, too, in , the [extra_illustrations.4.208.5] , then quite a young man, was living; and whilst residing here he exhibited some of his early busts.
The Junior United Service Club, of which we have already spoken in our chapter on
stands at the corner of and . [extra_illustrations.4.208.6]
p.209[extra_illustrations.4.209.1] [extra_illustrations.4.209.2] [extra_illustrations.4.209.3] [extra_illustrations.4.209.4]
[extra_illustrations.4.209.5] , which we now enter, was, like , built from the designs of Mr. Nash. Some time after the death of the architect, the gave the following eulogium on his memory :--
On the eastern side was, in , and for some time afterwards, Mr. Catlin's American Indian Collection, of the most interesting and successful of the many exhibitions that have been opened in London.
In the centre of , facing the [extra_illustrations.4.209.7] , stands the [extra_illustrations.4.209.8] , which was erected from the designs of Mr. John Bell. It consists of a massive granite pedestal, the front of which, some feet from the ground, is occupied by bronze figures, representing a Grenadier, a Fusilier, and of the [extra_illustrations.4.209.9] ,
These figures are about feet high, and behind them are placed their respective flags, thus forming a pyramidal group. The front of the pedestal is inscribed with the word
Upon this pedestal rises a smaller , having upon either side the words
whilst the back of this upper block of granite is ornamented with a pyramidal pile of cannon the broken Russian guns, burst and mutilated, as they were found in Sebastopol--having beneath it this inscription:--
The whole is surmounted with a bronze figure of Honour, with her arms extended wide, and having in her hands and on her arms wreaths of laurel; and immediately beneath this figure is inscribed-
Eastward of stands Her Majesty's Theatre, or, as it is generally called, the Opera House. The building occupies a vast space of ground, with its eastern side in the , and extends north and south from to .
The species of dramatic performance which we now style an opera, in which the various emotions incidental to the action of the piece are interpreted by the aid of music, vocal and instrumental, is supposed to have originated with the Chinese. Their dramas, almost interminable (a single representation of being an affair of many nights, and sometimes even of weeks), instead of being declaimed in the natural voice, have been, from time immemorial, delivered in a carefully intoned recitative, mingled with songs. The work of this description produced in Europe was , composed by an Italian artist, Francisco Barbarini, and performed in Rome in . England was at that period by no means a musical nation ; and it was not until about the commencement of the eighteenth century that, as Colley Cibber writes,
In a subscription was started by Sir John Vanbrugh to build a theatre for this special purpose, and was raised in shares of from each of persons, who, in addition to their interest in the building, were to have an admission ticket for life to all public entertainments given therein. The foundation-stone was inscribed with the words,
in honour of Lady Sunderland, the most celebrated Whig toast and beauty of her day. The theatre was opened , with an Italian opera, , which was so far from being a
that it was withdrawn after having been performed times before a mere handful of spectators. Sir John Vanbrugh [extra_illustrations.4.209.10]
| and his associate Congreve, the dramatist, were not long in retiring from a management so little profitable to themselves, and the theatre was transferred to a Mr. McSwiney. The Italian singer who made his mark on these boards was Valentini, who, on his appearance, sang through his part in his own language, the rest of the company singing in English! The effect must have been grotesque in the extreme, and may partially account for the fact that, during the years of its existence, the Opera House was but very poorly supported, and was frequently made a subject for satire in the and . Under these discouraging circumstances a subscription was raised for its support, and was thus obtained, King George I. contributing (afterwards continued annually): from this time the theatre assumed the name of |
In , says Hughson, the Grand Jury of Middlesex
the fashionable and wicked diversion called masquerade, and
It appears that this species of entertainment has never been truly popular in England. The masquerade given in London upon the foreign plan, uniting, after the Venetian fashion, elegance with rude mirth and revelry, was given by Henrietta, the queen of Charles I.; but, as it was unfortunately fixed for a Sunday, the populace in front of the Banqueting House, , loudly complained of the profanation of the Lord's Day. A scuffle ensued between the soldiers and the people, ii which half a dozen of the latter and or of the former were killed.
The most splendid masquerade ever known in England, as we learn from Colburn's
took place at the Opera House in , and was provided by Mr. Heidegger. It was allowed to exceed anything that had been known in Italy or any other country. The masquerades formerly given at the Pantheon were very celebrated. In Delphini, the famous clown, got up a grand masquerade there, in honour of the birthday and coming of age of the Prince of Wales. The tickets were sold at guineas each, yet Delphini was a loser by the speculation,
In the Bishop of London preached a sermon against masquerades, which made such an impression, that orders were issued for their discontinuance. After the lapse of some years they were again introduced. Some excellent reasons for the renewal of the prohibited amusement appeared in the , . We have already spoken of masquerades in our account of Mrs. Cornelys' house in .
The oratorio ever performed in England was Handel's , which was produced at this theatre in , and followed, later in the same year, by his . The opera must, by this time, have made vast strides in the estimation of the public, as in the year we find the famous Farinelli-at whom the newspapers of the day directed many a pointed sarcasm-receiving for the season a salary of , as well as a free benefit, which realised an additional profit of . Such, however, is the uncertain tenure of the public favour, that scarcely years later Farinelli had the mortification of singing to a house containing but .
Horace Walpole, in a letter written in , gives a piquant criticism upon Vaneschi's opera of
In the year the usual fate of theatres befell the Opera House, which was burnt to the ground on the night of the . The fire was supposed to have been the work of an
| incendiary, and suspicion attached to Pietro Carnivalli, the leader of the orchestra, who owed a grudge to Signor Ravelli, the manager, for whose benefit the performance was to have taken place the evening after the catastrophe. The company were at rehearsal when the fire broke out, and the wife of Signor Ravelli owed her life to the intrepidity of the firemen. In this conflagration the favourite opera of , by Paesiello, was destroyed-score, separate parts, and all. It is said that Mazzinghi, who then presided at the harpsichord, undertook to reproduce from memory the whole of the instrumental accompaniments, and this he did successfully. There still exists a print of the original building, taken from a drawing made on the spot by W. Capon, published in Smith's |
It shows the front of the edifice, much as it must have been when built by Sir John Vanbrugh, in the reign of George I. It was a dull plain building, not unlike a Quaker's meeting-house. The front was
It had circular-headed doorways, with windows of a similar shape above; in the floor, instead of windows, were oblong recesses of a very heavy character, and the roof was covered with black glazed tiles. The front was feet in width. Over the entrance-hall was
shown by a conspicuous notice in the print. On the piers below are seen some handbills of the time, including the name of Signor Rauzzini, and of Signora Carnivalli, the wife of the man whose hand is supposed to have set fire to the theatre. [extra_illustrations.4.212.1] [extra_illustrations.4.212.2] [extra_illustrations.4.212.3]
The stone of [extra_illustrations.4.212.4] , the entrance to which is shown on page , was laid in , by the Earl of Buckinghamshire, the architect being Michael Novosielski. The new theatre commenced its career under weighty liabilities, for which it was by no means fairly responsible, and of which there will be occasion to speak more in detail in our history of the Pantheon. Chancery or the Insolvent Court generally terminated the career of its half-dozen managers, as, in addition to its hopeless load of debt, the current expenses were so enormous as to swallow up all the receipts.
The great English tenor, John Braham--as mentioned in our notice of the St. James's Theatremade his here in , and rose at step to the height of public favour. The year was distinguished by great events in the history of this theatre--the introduction of Mozart's music, never before performed in England, and the of Madame Catalani. This marvellous singer, the versatility of whose talents rendered her equally admirable in a tragic or comic , received the sum of for the season of , her benefit and the various concerts which she gave amounting to more.
Catalani is pronounced by Captain Gronow, who well recollected her, the greatest vocalist that he ever heard. He writes:
writes Cyrus Redding,
Captain Gronow writes thus in his
The theatre was reconstructed, in , by Messrs. Nash and Repton, with great improvements. The interior was the in England to be modelled in the horse-shoe shape, so favourable both for sight and sound. The dimensions were within a few feet of those of the Grand Opera House at Milan. The length from the front of the curtain to the back of the boxes was feet; the extreme width, feet; the stage measured feet in length and in width. The edifice was of brick and Bath stone, with a bas-relief on the front representing Apollo and the Muses. It was in this year that the music of Rossini was presented to the English public.
A French nobleman remarks, in a letter to an English friend, in -
From to the history of the King's Theatre is that of a series of triumphs. Pasta, Veluti (the wonderful male soprano), Sontag, Grisi, Rubini, Tamburini, Lablache, and Mario successively appeared upon the stage; the last named, who were all in their zenith about the same time, forming a brilliant constellation of talent unequalled before or since.
In the name of the theatre was changed to
in honour of the accession of Queen Victoria. The year witnessed the
row, almost as famous in history as the O. P. riots. The manager, Laporte, who had long been at issue with several of the talented quintette, who were the glory of his establishment, and who had formed a against him, had declined the further services of Tamburini. His choice of a victim was determined by the fact that he was enabled to replace the great baritone by Coletti, a singer who had achieved a great success at La Scala. But Laporte had miscalculated his power. Madame Grisi, at whose fair shrine all the of that day bowed down, induced her aristocratic admirers to organise a disturbance, which burst out on the appearance of Coletti in the place of Tamburini. The omnibus boxes were crowded with lords of high degree, foremost among whom was a prince of the blood; and Coletti was saluted with yells, hisses, and cries of
shouted with all the
| force of aristocratic lungs; and finally the whole party, headed by the scion of royalty, leaped upon the stage, and the curtain fell on their shouts of |
Negotiations were subsequently entered into with Tamburini, through the good offices of Count D'Orsay, and the discarded baritone was persuaded to overlook the affront and resume his place.
This battle royal is handed down to posterity in the
The manager, being thus peremptorily summoned by the audience-
M. Laporte, who must have had rather a hard time of it among his imperious , resigned his uneasy throne in , and was succeeded by Mr. Lumley, who had long been his colleague.
The year was an eventful for Her Majesty's Theatre, which had been for more than half a century the only temple of Italian opera in London. Then took place the secession of Grisi, Mario, Persiani, and Tamburini, with the mighty Costa, to the new Opera in Covent Garden; then began the struggle to solve the problem whether Italian Opera Houses could be made to pay in London--a vexed question, which seems hardly settled even yet. The same year () witnessed also the appearance of Jenny Lind, who had been persuaded to break her engagement with Mr. Bunn, the lessee of , in favour of Mr. Lumley.
No words can describe the excited by this far-famed lady from the night of her until the time when she finally quitted the stage. As much as was frequently paid for a stall on a
As Lumley tells us in his
These triumphs were, however, partially counterbalanced by the result of an action brought by Mr. Bunn against the , for her breach of contract with him. He laid the damages at , and gained a verdict for -a loss which fell entirely on Mr. Lumley, who had undertaken to bear the vacillating fair scathless. The operatic career, however, of the celebrated songstress was as brief as it was brilliant; for on the , Jenny Lind made her last appearance upon any stage, as
In the chief stars of the Italian opera at Her Majesty's were native artists, Mr. Sims Reeves and Miss Catherine Hayes. An attempt was made in the same year to produce a sensation through the introduction of the . The lady bearing this pretentious title was Donna Maria Martinez, a negress, who appeared in a called , in which she sang quaint Spanish melodies, accompanying herself on the guitar.
In Mdlle. Titiens, the only worthy successor of Grisi in such parts as
The year produced another
in the young, charming, and high-born Marietta Piccolomini, of whom Lumley writes:--
This fascinating little lady created an equal in Paris, yet the French criticisms on her performance seem to agree with those of Lumley-as, for example, the following :--
Pecuniary difficulties having terminated Mr. Lumley's long managerial career, Mr. E. T. Smith became the lessee of Her Majesty's Theatre in , to be succeeded, years afterwards, by Mr. Mapleson.
Mdlle. Christine Nilsson appeared in with great success; perhaps the only who has ever succeeded in realising to the full the poet's exquisite conception of
in This triumph was the last reserved for the old
which was once more destroyed by fire on the . At the time of the catastrophe the Earl of Dudley, as assignee of Mr. Lumley, was the lessee under the Crown, on a lease terminating in . In Lord Dudley had sub-let the theatre to Mr. Mapleson for years, at a yearly rental of , payable in advance. The earl was fully insured; but Mr. Mapleson, who unfortunately was not so, was a loser to the extent of . The great organ, valued at , the chandeliers, scenery, costumes, interior fittings, the whole of the musical library, besides several invaluable manuscripts of Rossini, were all destroyed. The origin of the fire was never ascertained.
Lord Dudley having decided upon rebuilding the theatre without loss of time, the site was cleared early in , and the works were commenced at midsummer. The architect was Mr. Charles Lee, and the contractors Messrs. George Trollope and Sons, who undertook, to complete their task in weeks, under a penalty of for every following week in case of failure. This promise was so strictly fulfilled, that before the end of , the new theatre, complete at all points, at a cost of about , was in a condition to open its doors to the public. The old edifice having been considered deficient in stage accommodation, care had been taken in the present case to increase the size of the stage, which had been effected, as it was stated, without materially lessening the area of the auditorium. There are tiers of boxes in front of the stage, and tiers on either side; the space above the tier in front being occupied by amphitheatre stalls, with a spacious amphitheatre behind them. As in the case of , the partitions between the boxes are constructed in such a manner as to be easily removed, so as to form the ordinary dress circle of a theatre, if required. Every possible precaution has been adopted to reduce the risk by fire, throughout the whole of the building, to a minimum. It is calculated that the new theatre will accommodate about for operatic, and for dramatic performances. So much stress had been laid upon the completion of the new edifice by the contractors before the commencement of the opera season of , that both the public and the press were daily speculating upon the probable date of the opening night; when the of the , published a notice from the
of Her Majesty's Theatre, to the effect that no performances would be given there during that season. Great was the surprise and consternation at this announcement, and higher still rose popular amazement when the solution of the enigma leaked out by degrees. The construction of the interior is such that, the greater part of the boxes and stalls being held on lease, the expenses must necessarily be in excess of the receipts, even in the case of a full attendance every night. In the theatre was advertised for sale by public auction; but it does not appear that any sale was effected-at all events, its doors have not been open to the public excepting for a short time during the summer of , when the theatre was hired for the
services of Messrs. Moody and Sankey.
Even the Italian Opera House has had its
--its days of popularity and the reverse. It went out of fashion, through the caprice of the aristocracy of the day, in the reign of George II., the nobility supporting their own favourite house in . What the Court then patronised was but in ill odour with the rest of the aristocracy.
writes a well-known author,
[extra_illustrations.4.207.1] Improvements to Criterion Theatre
[extra_illustrations.4.208.1] Regent Street--Tallis
[extra_illustrations.4.208.2] Regent Street--West Side
[extra_illustrations.4.208.3] St. Philip's Chapel
[extra_illustrations.4.208.4] Regent Street
[extra_illustrations.4.208.5] sculptor Chantrey
[extra_illustrations.4.208.6] Regent's Circus
[extra_illustrations.4.209.1] Regent Street from Circus Piccadilly
[extra_illustrations.4.209.2] Regent Street from Quadrant
[extra_illustrations.4.209.3] Regent Street, East
[extra_illustrations.4.209.4] Regent Street, West
[extra_illustrations.4.209.5] Waterloo Place
[extra_illustrations.4.209.7] Duke of York's Column
[extra_illustrations.4.209.8] Guards' Memoial
[extra_illustrations.4.209.9] Coldstream Guards
[extra_illustrations.4.209.10] The Old Guard and The New
[extra_illustrations.4.212.1] Plan of Opera House
[extra_illustrations.4.212.3] Leaving the Opera
[extra_illustrations.4.212.4] the succeeding structure