Old and New London, A Narrative of its History, its People and its Places. Illustrated with Numerous Engravings from the Most Authentic Sources. vol 4Thornbury, Walter
Hanover Square and its Neighbourhood.
Hanover Square and its Neighbourhood.
This square--perhaps in way among the most popular in London, so closely connected as it is with the fashionable marriages solemnised in Church--was entirely unbuilt in ; but its name, which is mentioned in the plans of London of the year , bears testimony to the loyalty of the Londoners who worshipped the
in the person of George I. Both in the square itself, and in adjoining, there are several specimens of the German style of building. covers about acres of ground, and the centre is enclosed with a neat iron railing, within which, on the north side, is a colossal bronze statue of William Pitt, by Sir Francis Chantrey. This statue was not set up until , when the statesman had been dead for more than a quarter of a century; it cost ; and Mr. Peter Cunningham, who was present on the occasion, records the fact, that on the very day of its erection some advanced reformers endeavoured, though in vain, to pull it down with ropes. The figure is upright, in the act of speaking, and is of the finest statues in London.
The , in , contains the following observations, which are interesting at the present time:--
It would appear, therefore, that its tenants were mostly of the military order.
Strype tells us that the houses which in his time were in the process of creation were rapidly taken up; of them he specifies by name, the mansion of
and he adds that it was in contemplation to change the common place of execution from Tyburn to somewhere near Kingsland, in order to spare that square and the houses thereabouts--it must be supposed that he really means their inmates--the inconvenience and annoyance which might be caused by the execution of malefactors, which at that time went on rather by wholesale. But the square, though so aristocratic in its earlier inhabitants, does not appear to have been well looked after. At all events, we find plenty of complaints as to its condition half a century later.
writes the author of
published in ,
We gather from Dr. Hogg's work on
published in , that several, at all events, of the streets near , on the Grosvenor property, were not originally public thoroughfares. But the only gate now existing which bars the passage of carriages in this neighbourhood is that in , between the north side of this square and .
On the north side of the square, with its stables facing , is Harewood House, the residence of the Earl of Harewood. Of the interior of this mansion, Mr. T. Raikes gives us the following peep in his amusing
The gallant admiral, Lord Rodney, was living in this square in . It is well known that his favourite daughter eloped to Gretna Green with Captain Chambers, a son of the eminent architect, Sir William Chambers. At he was inclined to be angry, but he soon relented, and merely said,
The large house in the south-western corner, towards the close of the last century, was the town residence of Lord and Lady Palmerston, the father and mother of the late Premier. The house, which was of the great centres of political and social reunions, is noted by Lambert, in his
In [extra_illustrations.4.316.1] was residing in this square along with her parents, Sir William and
| Lady Fairfax, and gratifying her new-born taste for astronomical and other science by attending the lectures at the Royal Institution. Here the Fairfaxes used to have little evening parties, and it was here that the late Sir Charles Lyell (as recorded in Mrs. Somerville's |
) met his future wife, the beautiful Miss Horner.
Among the other distinguished residents in the square have been Field-Marshal Lord Cobham, the owner of Stowe, and the friend of Pope; Sir James Clark, Physician to Her Majesty the Queen in ; and Ambrose Philips, the poet satirised by Pope, and author of the
who died in . The mansion at the corner of , now rebuilt and turned into the London and County Bank, was formerly called Downshire House. In it was inhabited by the Marquis of Salisbury. In it was held by another tenant, Prince Talleyrand, the ex-Minister of State in France, who used to gather round him the wits, , and diplomatists of the time. We shall meet him again at Kensington.
Of the houses which form the north-east side, is occupied by the Zoological Society, whose offices have been located here since about . The society was instituted in the year , under the auspices of Sir Humphry Davy, Sir Stamford Raffles, and other eminent individuals,
In the society had a museum in , and subsequently in . This society took the place of the Zoological Club of the Linnaean Society, which had been broken up by internal differences. We shall have more to say about this society presently on reaching its gardens in the .
The Royal Agricultural Society of England has its offices at No. (next door to the above). This society was established in , for improving the general system of agriculture in this country, and engaging talented men in the investigation of such subjects as are of deep practical importance to the British farmer. Agricultural meetings are held annually in London and the country; the latter including a cattle-show, an exhibition of agricultural implements and inventions, and the awarding of prizes in either department. Its presidents, chosen annually, are almost always noblemen of high standing as practical farmers and breeders of stock.
At No. , on the north side of the square, and extending back into , is the Royal College of Chemistry. It was founded in
The stone of the laboratory, which has a handsome elevation on the south side of , was laid by the late Prince Consort in . The fees for the students are in proportion to the number of days in each week that they attend.
At the north-west angle of the square, facing , is the Oriental Club, founded about the year , mainly through the influence and exertions of that accomplished writer and traveller, the late Sir John Malcolm. It was at intended for gentlemen who have belonged to the civil or military services in India, or have been connected with the government of any of our Eastern dependencies. The building is constructed after the manner of club-houses in general, having only tier of windows above the ground-floor. The interior received some fresh embellishment about the year , some of the rooms and ceilings having been decorated in a superior style by Collman, and it contains Come fine portraits of Indian and other celebrities, such as Lord Clive, Nott, Pottinger, Sir Eyre Coote, &c. This club is jocosely called by of the critics of
At No. was established, about the year , the Arts Club. It was instituted
Charles Dickens belonged to this club, which numbers among its members very many of the Royal Academicians and others of the most rising artists of the day, with a goodly sprinkling of literary celebrities.
On the east side of the square, at the southeastern corner of , the large building now known as the Hanover Club, or Cercle des Etrangers, had for many years, down to the beginning of , borne the name of the Queen's Concert Rooms, more popularly known as the Rooms. The site of the building was anciently called the Mill Field (from a mill which adjoined it, and which , hard by, still commemorates), or Kirkham Close. It was originally in the parish of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, though in it was joined on to that of , . It appears to have formed part of the premises in the occupation of Matthew, Lord Dillon, the ground landlord being the Earl of Plymouth, who sold it to Lord Denman,
| who re-sold it to Sir John Gallini, by whom the house and the original concert-room were erected, in the half of the reign of George III. Gallini, an Italian by extraction, but a Swiss by birth, who, coming to England, was engaged to teach dancing to the then youthful royal family, realised a fortune at the West-end, received the honour of knighthood, and married Lady Betty Bertie, daughter of Lord Abingdon. In Gallini, joining with John Christian Bach and Charles F. Abel, converted the premises into an |
no doubt, in order to act as a counter attraction to the fashionable gatherings in , under the auspices of Mrs. Cornelys, and other places where music went hand-in-glove with masked balls and other frivolous dissipations. years later we find Gallini buying up the shares of his partners and carrying on the rooms upon his own account. Supported by the musical talent of Bach, Abel, and Lord Abingdon, and also, in emergencies, by the purse of the last, Gallini carried on here, from to , a series of concerts, for which he contrived to gain the patronage of the Court. George III. himself was accustomed frequently to attend these concerts, together with Queen Charlotte; and it is said that his Majesty showed such an active interest in the performances that he had a room added to the side, called the Queen's Tea Room: in this apartment, over the mantelpiece, was fixed a large gilt looking-glass, which he presented to the rooms for ever. In a committee of noblemen and gentlemen, consisting of Lord Sandwich, Lord Dudley and Ward, the Bishop of Durham, Sir Watkin Williams Wynn, Sir R. Jebb, and the Hon. Mr. Pelham, established the wellknown
to the directorship of which soon afterwards were added Lord Fitzwilliam and Lord Paget, afterwards the Earl of Uxbridge. These memorable performances, which commenced their season at the Rooms, near (subsequently converted into a theatre), and which from to had their head-quarters at the King's Theatre in the , were removed hither in the latter year, and continued to flourish under the patronage of royalty and the leaders of the aristocracy-including the late Prince Consort, the Duke of Wellington, Lord Westmoreland, and others-down to , when they were discontinued. King George III. took the warmest interest in these concerts, and not only occupied the royal box with his Queen and family night after night, but would constantly write out the programmes of the performances with his own hand. It is said the directors of these concerts paid Sir John Gallini a rental of a year for the use of the rooms. Mr. Greatorex was the conductor of these concerts from the commencement of the century down to his death in , when he was succeeded by Mr. W. Knyvett.
writes Sir Richard Phillips, in ,
He adds, that difficulties arise out of this stringent rule, a want of variety in the performances, and the
These rooms were also long used for the Philharmonic Concerts, established by Messrs. Cramer and Co., in , under the auspices of the then Prince Regent. They were held in the Argyll Rooms, at the corner of Argyll Place, and on those premises being burnt down in , they were given at the concert-room of the Opera House; but they were transferred to in . It may not, perhaps, be out of place to mention here that the annual performance of the for the benefit of the Royal Society of Musicians was given here from to .
the incident which is said to have given rise to the estrangement between the Prince Regent and the
is stated to have occurred at these rooms, although other writers have fixed upon as the scene, as we have mentioned in our account of that street; nevertheless, the story told by Jesse will bear repeating:--
The entertainments provided in these rooms were not strictly confined to balls and concerts, for lectures,
and public meetings innumerable have been held here: and in Miss Linwood here exhibited her
prior to their final removal to . In -, Dr. Chalmers, the celebrated Scotch divine, here delivered a series of lectures on the Church of England.
In , at the death of the Misses Gallini, Sir John's nieces (the founders of the Roman Catholic Church in , Wood), their freehold interest in Rooms was bought by Mr. Robert Cocks, the eminent musical publisher, who subsequently let them on a lease of years to the committee of the club above mentioned. It is not, however, only with the ancient institutions named above that the history of these rooms was interwoven, but with that of Mr. Henry Leslie's choir, and with the concerts of the Royal Academy of Music in close by, which renewed its
|performances here in . The large room, in its original state, was dull and heavy, owing to the architectural style of the date at which it was built; at end was the ponderous royal box, and almost the only tasteful decoration consisted of some paintings by the hand of Cipriani. In the winter of -, however, the rooms underwent a complete restoration and re-decoration, and they became the most comfortable concert-rooms in London, to say nothing of their great superiority to most large buildings in respect of acoustic properties. The large room had a slightly arched roof, richly gilt and ornamented with pictures; the walls on either side of the room were adorned with Corinthian columns with ornamental capitals,|
|also gilt. The panels over the looking-glasses were filled with medallions, painted in , of the most celebrated composers-Handel, Beethoven, Bach, Rossini, Purcell, Weber, Haydnaccom- panied by their names and dates; and the plinth round the room was decorated in imitation of marbles of various patterns and colours.|
On Saturday evening, , took place the very last entertainment ever given in these time-honoured rooms. Mr. Cocks having placed them at the disposal of the Royal Academy of Music, a full orchestral and choral concert was given under the direction of Mr. Walter Macfarren. The work of altering the building to suit the requirements of a club was commenced immediately
|afterwards. The large room has been preserved unaltered, as far as possible; but in other respects the building has undergone a thorough transformation, and has been raised a couple of storeys in height; the additional floors being devoted to chambers for such members as may wish to make the club their home, either permanently or temporarily. On the ground-floor is the newspaperroom, which occupies the position of the old supper-room, to the left of the entrance in ; the secretary's office, and also a writingroom. The principal lavatories, &c., are in the basement. The grand staircase, entirely of stone, is ornamented with statues holding jets of gas, and at the top is a large skylight, with an inner light of coloured glass. The floor contains a smoking-room, card-room, wine-bar, and also the dining-hall. The last-named apartment has been formed out of the old concert-room, which has been somewhat contailed in length; the east end, where the royal box formerly stood, is new; the pictures in the ceiling, mentioned above, where practicable, have been restored, and new ones inserted where necessary. On the floor is a billiard-room, and also the drawing-room, which overlooks . The Hanover Club, as now established-whose object is much the same as that of the Travellers', embracing the introduction of foreigners--is not the of that name which has existed; and it is probable that some house in the neighbourhood, in the time of the Georges, formed the head-quarters of a political association of persons zealous for the Hanoverian succession, which bore the same name; but the exact house which it occupied is not known.|
In the of contains the following paragraph, which shows pretty clearly the condition of the immediate neighbourhood of at that time, so far as the building of streets is concerned :--
The street here spoken of is now called , which opens into the north-east corner of the square. This and , which connects the square with at its south-east corner, were built about the same time, and bear testimony to the strong hold which the succession of the House of Brunswick had already taken on the feelings of the nation. Both streets are deficient in literary or personal associations; but it may be noted, that in the former Miss Emily Faithfull started her
through which she inaugurated her efforts to obtain remunerative employment for women.
In , which connects the square at its north-west angle by a circuitous route with and the northern end of , is the Royal Academy of Music. It has been devoted to its present use almost since the formation of the Academy. The Academy itself was established in the year , and a few years afterwards a charter was obtained from George IV. Here the Academy used to give its concerts until , when the latter were transferred, as already stated, to the Rooms. The object of the Academy is the instruction of youth of either sex in every branch of musical education; and they are taught in classes by the professors at a trifling charge. Since its foundation, it has supplied a large number of instrumental performers of no mean eminence to the various orchestras of London; and many of its pupils have become leaders and conductors of concerts, and also eminent musicians, whilst several have distinguished themselves as composers. Among the students here was Mr. Charles Dickens's sister Fanny, to fetch whom the future
would call at its doors every Sunday morning, and bring her back at night after spending the day in their wretched home in . The house, No. , on the north side, opposite the Oriental Club, was at time the town residence of the Herberts, Earls of Carnarvon, who here used to entertain King George III. and his family with syllabub and tea in the terraced garden behind, which commanded a view of the Uxbridge or Tyburn Road. On the gardens of Lord Carnarvon's House, at the back, stands the carriage-factory of Messrs. Laurie and Marner, of which we shall have more to say when dealing with .
, which connects the south-west angle of the square with and , will be more properly treated in a future chapter. Only a few of its houses stand to the east of , and to these no literary interest attaches, unless it is worth while to mention the fact that of them was the last abode of
|Messrs. Saunders and Otley, librarians and publishers to the Queen, before the break--up of that firm, about the year .|
, which dates its erection from the building of the square itself, and which, as we have observed above, is similar to it in the character of its architecture, passes from the centre of the south side of the square into . Of this street the author of
remarks that there is an inconsistency and a departure from the true rule of taste in making it wider at the upper than at the lower end, as quite reversing the perspective; and yet he says that the view down from the top of the square, with in the front, is fine, and indeed
though it ought properly to end in something more attractive to the eye than Trinity Chapel, in , of which we shall speak presently.
In a somewhat similar strain, but more rhapsodical style, Ralph remarks:
For ourselves, we prefer decidedly the view looking the street towards the square, which throws the portico into bold relief against the sky. An cending view of a church, too, is almost always preferable to what may be called a descending view.
The parish of was
out of that of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, and Mr. John Timbs says that the site of the church was given by a General Stewart. The fabric has been much admired by those who think that style of architecture appropriate for religious edifices. It was built in -; the designer and architect was named James. This was, to use Pennant's quaint expression,
The writer of
in , mentions it as
he complains, however, that its position is such as not to allow its beauties to be seen, for,
it is so blocked up by houses as
No doubt the beautiful proportions of its lofty Corinthian portico would form a fine object if there had been a broad street leading from to its western front; nevertheless, as it is, it is seen to great advantage from the junction of and . The interior has been decorated in an ecclesiastical style, so far as possible, of late years. Over the altar is a fine painting of the Last Supper, ascribed to Sir James Thornhill; it is surmounted by a painted window, said to be of the century; but the ornaments do not harmonise. The window itself is said to have formerly belonged to a convent at Malines. The subject is
Till within the last few years-or between the close of the last century and the year , when was the centre of rank and fashion-[extra_illustrations.4.321.1] enjoyed a monopoly of
weddings, which has passed into a proverb. Here Sir William Hamilton was married on the , to Emma Harte, afterwards so well known as
the friend of Nelson. Horace Walpole, in announcing the marriage to the Miss Berrys, tells them that
alluding to the fact that his wTfe used to sit as a model to artists. Here, too, was married in the year , the Marquis of Douro (now Duke of Wellington). The attesting witnesses, whose signatures may be seen in the marriage register, are his noble father, the great duke, and his brothers-all peers of the realm--the Marquis Wellesley, Lord Maryborough, and Lord Cowley.
Mr. F. Locker, in of his charming volumes of
to perfection a fashionable wedding at , and epigrammatically expresses all the good wishes which usually attend the brides who are
as the marriages mostly were that were performed in this church, they had their rude accompaniments: for instance, there were fees to be paid to
says a writer in ,
The rectors of , in spite of the fashionable situation of the church, have not been on the whole distinguished, nor have many of them attained high dignities in the Church. To obtain this rectory the notorious Dr. Dodd offered to Lady Apsley, wife of the then Lord Chancellor, a of .
There are burying-grounds belonging to this parish- in the rear of , , and the other on the north side of the , . In the latter burial-ground for nearly years reposed the remains of the gallant general, [extra_illustrations.4.322.2] , who fell at Waterloo; but in they were removed and deposited, with all due military honours, in . There, too, lies poor Lawrence Sterne: we shall speak of him again when we reach Bayswater.
No. , about half way down on the eastern side, was the residence, for nearly a century, of John Copley, the Royal Academician, and afterwards of his son, [extra_illustrations.4.322.3] , both of whom died here; the former in , and the latter in . The future Chancellor was born in America in , and at an early age was brought over to England by his parents, who were staunch royalists. The father was presented at Court, obtained the favour of George III. and Queen Charlotte, and enjoyed a prosperous career. The son obtained the highest honours at Cambridge, was called to the bar in due course, entered Parliament in middle life, and soon rose to be Solicitor and Attorney-General, and Master of the Rolls, and in succeeded Eldon as Lord Chancellor. He enjoyed the confidence of the Duke of Wellington and Sir Robert Peel, and at time was sent for by the King to form an administration. The Whig party for many years feared nothing so much as the withering sarcasm of his annual reviews of the Parliamentary session, delivered by him in his place in the . He again held the Great Seal under Sir Robert Peel in - and in -. The walls of his house in were hung with his father's historical paintings, including the
&c. It is remarkable that the united ages of the painter, the ex-Chancellor, and a sister amounted to nearly years. After Lord Lyndhurst's death his house and the adjoining were pulled down, and on their site was built the magnificent mansion of Mr. Gore-Langton.
The house, No. , formerly the town residence of the late Sir George Wombwell, of the leaders of fashion in his day, and a friend of Count D'Orsay and the Fitzclarences, is now the Junior Travellers' Club.
, which runs from to the east end of , dates from about , and is probably named after the enterprising person who built it. In this street is the Museum of Building Appliances, which is in direct communication with, and indeed forms a part of, the Architectural Societies' House in . This museum, which was established in , and enlarged in , is
It was founded chiefly as a means of affording to patentees and inventors an
The museum is open free daily throughout the year.
In this street is an inn now called the
but formerly the
It is remarkable that the
does not figure in Mr. Larwood's
Less than half a century ago there were more than inns in London rejoicing in the sign of the
but their number is much reduced now, having been superseded by railways and steam.
Close by , and also at the back of , is , which perpetuates the fact of the mill standing hard by the site of , as mentioned above.
, which extends from to , across the south end of , still preserves the memory of the
| conduit which stood in the centre of Conduit Mead--a large field--as lately as the year , on which and its neighbouring streets have since been erected, but whereon Carew Mildmay told Pennant, in , that he remembered shooting woodcocks when a boy. The same thing is said also of his contemporary, General Oglethorpe, who died in , having lived to be upwards of , and who, as Macaulay tells us, had |
The Conduit Field in old days was a great
for the Nimrods of the City.
It is amusing, after an interval of more than years, to read of a Lord Mayor going out from and finding the hare and the fox in Marylebone, or possibly even nearer to the City, and thence making his return journey to his home in to the yelping of dogs and the lusty cheer of the huntsman's horn.
At the corner of and is Limmer's Hotel, once an evening resort for the sporting world; in fact, it was a midnight
where nothing was heard but the language of the turf, and where men with not very clean hands used to make up their books.
says a popular writer,
At the corner of this and is the sign of the
serving as a sort of tap to
still bearing testimony to the sporting associations of the neighbourhood. Whilst the gentlemen Jehus put up at
their coachmen and grooms met here, and discussed all sorts of questions connected with horseflesh at a sociable
In this street was the
coffeehouse, in which the mad Lord Camelford picked up, most gratuitously, his last quarrel with his friend Mr. Best, about a lady named Simmonsa quarrel which led to the duel fought by them in the grounds of Holland House, and his lordship's tragic death.
At No. , on the north side, between and , is a house formerly the town residence of the Earl of Macclesfield, but now entirely devoted to the architectural and building interests, for it contains within its walls the offices and rooms of the Architectural Association, the Architectural Publication Society, the Architectural Union Company, the District Surveyors' Association, the Photographic Society, the Provident Institution of Builders' Foremen and Clerks of Works, the Royal Institute of British Architects, the Society of Biblical Archaeology, the Society for the Encouragement of the Fine Arts, and also an entrance to the Museum of Building Appliances, mentioned above. The rooms and gallery of the Architectural Association are used constantly during the
for exhibitions of architectural designs and paintings. The Royal Institute of British Architects was established in for the purpose of
The society has here founded a library of works, manuscripts, and drawings, illustrative, practically and theoretically, of the art; the publication of curious and interesting communications; the collection of a museum of antiquities, models, casts, &c.; with provision for performing experiments on the nature and properties of building materials. Its president is Sir George Gilbert Scott, R.A.
On the south side of the street, nearly facing , is Trinity Chapel, a curious and interesting relic of London in the days of the Stuarts. Although they did not form part of the original edifice, yet the walls of the chapel which now present themselves to our view stand on the site of a movable tabernacle, or chapel on wheels, which was built by order of James II., to accompany him in his royal progresses and on his visits to the camp at Hounslow, in order that mass might be celebrated in his presence by his chaplain. The camp was at Hounslow when in the autumn of the king withdrew and abdicated; and as soon as his abdication was known to be a fact, the chapel was brought up by road to London, and placed upon the site now occupied by its successor. Dr. Tenison-afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury
| but at that time rector of St. Martin'sin-the-Fields-- begged the new king and queen, William and Mary, to make over to him the structure, in order to turn it into a temporary church, or rather chapel of ease, for the use of the outlying portion of the inhabitants of his then wide and scattered parish. It was actually opened for service according to the rites of the Established Church in , and among those who were present to hear the Protestant sermon preached within its walls was John Evelyn, who thus writes in his diary:-- |
Pennant tells us that,
it was altered into
The houses on either side of the chapel were erected at the same time, forming part of the same insipid design, but such was the prevailing taste that they were then
It appears not to have been Dr. Tenison's fault that Trinity Chapel remained a mere
without a district assigned to it; for the commissioners for church building in those days refused to allow a proposal which he made to that effect, on the ground that the site was not freehold. The latter, it appears, had been bestowed on the vicar and churchwardens of for the benefit of the poor of the parish, by whom it was turned into money, being purchased at the close of the last or very early in the present century for a
chapel. The speculation would seem to have been successful, for a writer in the mentions it as of the most fashionable places of worship at the West-end,
Towards the commencement of the present century, the Rev. Dr. Beamish made it by his fervid and eloquent discourses, if not so fashionable, at all events so crowded, that it was impossible to accommodate the congregations which he drew together, without the erection of galleries. The chapel was plain and ugly enough before, but by this addition it was made fairly the most ugly of the then existing proprietary chapels. In the early part of the year , it was decreed by the ground
|landlord that the site was required for secular building, and that the services in this chapel should be discontinued, and the fabric itself demolished.|
[extra_illustrations.4.326.1] lived for several years at No. , next door to the chapel, afterwards the residence of the excellent and benevolent Dr. Elliotson, to whom we are mainly indebted for the science of mesmerism, a study to which he devoted many years of his life,
as Mr. John Forster observes,
On the same side of the street was formerly, for very many years, before they removed into , the shop of Messrs. Saunders and Otley, booksellers to the Queen, and for some time the publishers of
In this street died quite suddenly, in , Mr. E. Delme Radcliffe, Gentleman of the Horse to George IV., whose racing studs he superintended. In his youth he was the best gentleman jockey in England, and lived much in the sporting circles of Carlton House. Mr. Raikes says, in his
Michael William Balfe, the composer, also resided in this street.
The eminent surgeon, Sir Astley Cooper, whom we have already mentioned in our account of , lived in this street towards the end of his most successful professional career, after the futile attempt he made to retire from practice, making the large income of a year; and here he died
[extra_illustrations.4.316.1] Mrs. Somerville
[extra_illustrations.4.317.1] Fancy Dress Ball at Royal Academy of Music
[extra_illustrations.4.321.1] St. George's
[extra_illustrations.4.322.1] Copley's Siege of Gibraltar--Exhibited in Green Park
[extra_illustrations.4.322.2] Sir Thomas Picton
[extra_illustrations.4.322.3] John Singleton Copley, Lord Lyndhurst
[extra_illustrations.4.326.1] George Canning