Old and New London, A Narrative of its History, its People and its Places. Illustrated with Numerous Engravings from the Most Authentic Sources. vol 4

Thornbury, Walter
1872-78

Oxford Street, and its Northern Tributaries.

Oxford Street, and its Northern Tributaries.

 

Inter foemineas catervas.--Horace.

 

Having turned our backs on the fashionable part of London, and reached Tyburn, we may fairly ask for our readers' pardon if, startled and alarmed at the sights which meet us there, we now seek to travel eastwards, retracing our steps towards Bloomsbury by way of , and noting down, as we pass along, all that there is of interest to be told about its northern tributaries. We shall thus be able to look in upon Mrs. Montagu, in , to find Lord and Lady Hertford dispensing the hospitalities of their great house in , and to see how the

princely

Duke of Chandos is getting on, not with bricks and mortar, but with marble and cement, in , before we find ourselves once more in the dull regions which

fashion

has agreed to leave to artists and lawyers. With these few words by way of preface, we proceed along our way.

follows the line of the Via Trinobantina, of the military roads of the Romans, which bounded the north side of what is now , and continued thence to (Eald Street), in the north of London. extends from the north-east corner of to the junction of with , , where, as we have already stated, the village pound of formerly stood. The thoroughfare was formerly called the

Uxbridge Road

,

Tyburn Road,

and subsequently

Oxford Road

,

as being the highway to Oxford. Hatton, in , describes it as lying between

St. Giles's

pound east, and the lane leading to the gallows west.

In a plan published in the above year, the

Lord Mayor's Banqueting House

is shown as standing at the north end of Field, and at the north-east corner of the bridge across Tyburn Brook, which is now covered over by part of . Pennant tells us how that

the Lord Mayor and his brethren of the City used to repair to a building called the City Banqueting House, on the north side of

Oxford Street

, on horseback, attended by their ladies in waggons, to inspect the conduits, and then to partake of their banquet.

A view of the old house, as it appeared in , is given on page .

In Ralph Aggas' map of London, published in , it is almost needless to say, the space to the north of , then

the way to Uxbridge,

was open country, with fields and hedges, and dotted irregularly with trees; and in Vertue's plan, about a century later, the only building seen between the village of and is the little solitary church of Marylebone, and still further away in the fields is the little church of ,

all alone, old, and weatherbeaten.

Mr. Peter Cunningham says it

is somewhat uncertain when the thoroughfare was

first

formed into a continuous line of street, and in what year it was

first

called

Oxford Street

.

Mr. J. T. Smith, in his

Book for a Rainy Day,

tells us that

on the front of the

first

house, No. i, in

Oxford Street

, near the

second

-floor windows, is the following inscription cut in stone:

OXFORD STREET, 1725.

This, however, no longer exists. Lysons, in his

Environs of London,

remarks that

the row of houses on the north side of Tybourn Road was completed in

1729

, and it was then called

Oxford Street

. About the same time most of the streets leading to

Cavendish Square

and

Oxford Market

were built, and the ground was laid out for several others.

There is, it appears, says Mr. Cunningham,

good reason to suppose that it received its present name at a still earlier date; for a stone let into the wall of the corner of

Rathbone Place

is inscribed:

RATHBONE PLACE, OXFORD STREET, 1718.

In a

Tour through Great Britain, by a Gentleman,

published in , it is stated that

A new Bear Garden, called

Figg's

Theatre, being a stage for the gladiators or prize-fighters, is built on the Tyburn Road. N.B.-The gentlemen of the science taking offence at its being called Tyburn Road, though it really is so, will have it called the

Oxford Road

.

Of Figg's theatre we shall have more to say in a subsequent chapter.

p.407

[extra_illustrations.4.407.2] 

 

Facing us at the is , formerly Great , extending northward from to . This thoroughfare was commenced about the year , and, like the gate opposite leading into the Park, was named after the Duke of Cumberland, the hero of Culloden. On the east side the houses form a semicircle, the original design having been for a complete circus. Here, in , at No. , was living Lady Buggin, the widow of Sir George Buggin, and afterwards the morganatic wife of the [extra_illustrations.4.407.3] , when she was styled Lady Cecilia Underwood. In she was created Duchess of Inverness. She died at Kensington Palace, where she had resided for many years, in .

At No. lived for some time at the commencement of this century, Earl Cathcart, K.T., a distinguished general in the army, and colonel of the Life Guards.- His lordship was Commanderin-Chief of the military forces in the expedition to Copenhagen, and died in .

Here is a public-house bearing a portrait-sign of the Duke of Cumberland. Horace Walpole, in , looking upon this sign, and remembering how such signs had everywhere superseded those of Admiral Vernon, the Duke of Ormonde, and other heroes, muses in his agreeable though cynical style on the fleeting nature of popularity, and compares glory itself to a sign-board!

At the western end of stood Tyburn Turnpike--(see page ), whose double gates commanded the Uxbridge and the Edgware Roads, which here branch off, divided by Connaught Terrace. Of the neighbourhood which lies beyond this point, and which is popularly known as

Tyburnia

(just as the district south of is

Belgravia

in common parlance), we shall have more to say hereafter. At present we shall keep ourselves entirely to the eastward of the , and treat it briefly and cursorily.

Place is the name given to a row of mansions overlooking the Park, and built on the right and left of the entrance to . Here, at No. , the house of his friend Mr. Milner-Gibson, Charles Dickens, in the spring of , became for a few months a resident, being obliged to stay in London in order to give his farewell readings at St. James's Hall, though his medical advisers in vain dissuaded him from the attempt. Here he wrote more than number of

Edwin Drood.

He left this house at the end of May for the rest and quiet of Gadshill, where he died suddenly on the of the following month.

The moment that we pass to the north of , we find ourselves in far different latitudes from those in which we have lately been travelling. Owing to the comparatively modern period from which the streets and squares hereabouts date, we no longer have the friendly guidance of the honest old chroniclers, Stow and Strype, or even Pennant; and we no longer have before our eyes that under which we laboured in selecting our materials in treating of and , or . All to the north of was quite a in the Stuart days, and there are no contemporary notices from the pens of Pepys and Evelyn to enliven our pages. We must, therefore, be grateful for even small mercies, and pick up with a thankful heart such scanty crumbs of information as may be found in stray magazines and books of anecdote biography. There is advantage, however, and that is, that we shall move over the ground at a somewhat quicker pace.

We may remark, , that the names of most of the streets and squares in this vicinity are synonymous with the names of the ground landlords, and, in some cases, of their county residences; such, for instance, as and Place, , , , and Square, and . These names, of course, were given with reference to the family and estates of the sole landowner of the district of which we are about to speak in this chapter-namely, Edward Berkeley Portman, Viscount Portman, of Bryanston, near Blandford, in Dorsetshire, who was for many years M.P. for Dorset, and for a short time M.P. for Marylebone. The Portmans were a family of distinction in Somerset in the reign of Edward I., but its most distinguished member was Sir William Portman, Lord Chief Justice of England, who died in .

On turning round the corner into the , we notice that there are houses on our right hand with balconies and verandas, nearly opposite to . These balconies were built in order to accommodate the sheriffs and other officials who were bound to be present at the executions of criminals, who, during the and eighteenth centuries, were

turned off

on the gallows which stood about yards on the other side of the road, occupying the site of of the houses in , or, according to Mr. Peter Cunningham, of a house in . Of this gallows, and of those who suffered the extreme penalty of the law there, we shall have plenty to tell our readers hereafter.

In the early part of the present century the was void of any connected row of

p.408

houses beyond those already mentioned; but there were or public-houses at the corners of rural cross-roads. At of these, which stood near the corner of Oxford and , it is said that a messenger of Charles I., who was travelling with dispatches , had his saddle ripped open, and was robbed of its contents.

At the time of which we speak, and the other streets which connect with did not exist; and a gentleman then residing still further north in well remembered that from his back drawing-room windows he could see the troops being reviewed in by George III.

, the turning in , and extending eastward to , was, like the square bearing the same name, so called, as we have shown above, from Bryanstone, in Dorsetshire, the seat of Lord Portman, the ground landlord. The street, which simply consists of some well-built private houses, has no history attached to it to require special mention.

In Upper is a synagogue, erected for the use of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews residing at the West-end. It is Saracenic in

its architecture. The vestibule leads to stone stairs on either side, leading up to the ladies' gallery; while the floor of the synagogue will accommodate about male worshippers.

, the next turning, leading across into , was so named after the family of the Seymours, from whom the Portmans descend. Among the distinguished residents of this street have been

Tom

Campbell, the author of the

Pleasures of Memory,

who resided at No. whilst editing the , and who here lost his wife. The Corsican General, Paoli, who stood as sponsor to the Emperor Napoleon, lived for some time at the house, at the corner of . In Croker's

Boswell

appears a letter from Boswell to Lord Thurlow, dated from

General Paoli's,

Upper Seymour Street

,

Portman Square

,

24th June, 1784

.

According to Mr. Peter Cunningham, it was in the drawing-room of No. in this street, in , then the residence of Lady Floyd, that the late distinguished statesman, Sir Robert Peel, was married to Julia, youngest daughter of General Sir John Floyd, Bart.

Connecting the south side of

p.409

with , and running parallel with , is , which commemorates the capture of Quebec by General Wolfe, in , and probably dates its erection from about that time. Quebec Chapel, so named from the street in which it is situated, is a chapel of ease to Marylebone. It is a square, ugly edifice, dating from , with no pretensions to ecclesiastical fitness, and has been described as nothing but a

large room with sash-windows.

Among its ministers have been the amiable and accomplished Dean of Canterbury, [extra_illustrations.4.409.1] ; Dr. Goulburn, afterwards Dean of Norwich; and Dr. Magee, who here acquired the popularity as a preacher which he carried to so great a height as Bishop of Peterborough.

At No. in this street is a charitable institution bearing the name of the Cripples' Nursery. It was established in , and consists of a home, with religious instruction and medical aid, for infant cripples. This charity has a branch establishment at Margate.

Connecting with the north side of is . In this street, close by the corner of ,

is the West London Synagogue, for the congregation of Jewish

dissenters.

The building, though monumental in character, is erected on leasehold land belonging to the Portman estate, and was built in the year . The main portion of the structure occupies back land, and the exterior is consequently unseen from the surrounding streets; but the stone entrance-front in forms a fitting entrance.

The synagogue is constructed of brick, and was erected from the designs of Messrs. Davis and Emanuel, at an expense of about . The edifice is a domical structure, Byzantine in character, and a square in plan. It has a wide gallery along the sides and western end, the ceiling consisting of a large central dome, and small domes in the angles, and great arches covering the side spaces. This ceiling is supported by piers of clustered columns of Devonshire marble with carved capitals. At the east end of the building is a domed semi-circular recess, or apse, in which is placed the organ and choir, and in the centre of this apse is placed the ark, which has been constructed of inlaid marble-work. A peculiar feature in this building is the placing of the choir at the

p.410

east end of the building, facing the congregation, and concealing them from the view of the congregation by a screen of marble containing open-work grilles of gilded metal. The decoration is somewhat peculiar. The highest class of decorative art --namely, subject painting, or figure sculpture-is necessarily absent, the Jews, so far as their religious buildings are concerned, reading literally the Commandment.

Many special objects in the building were presented to the synagogue by the wealthier members of the congregation, the ark especially being the gift of the ladies of the Goldsmid family. It may be added that the founders of the congregation of Jewish dissenters, by whom this building was erected, left the orthodox Jewish body some years ago, through just such a communal quarrel as caused old Isaac D'Israeli to leave the religion of his fathers. Starting with a small room in , their numbers increased, until about years ago they built for themselves a small synagogue in , and since that time the further increase of their congregation rendered necessary the erection of the building now under notice.

In this street Cyrus Redding occupied lodgings during the greater part of his career as sub-editor of the . It was then on the very verge of the country, the town ending at , or thereabouts, as we have already stated.

Proceeding on our way along the , we pass and , both of which terminate in . In is , a large Gothic edifice, with a tower ornamented with pinnacles, erected in gratitude for the exemption of this district from the visitation of the cholera in .

The western end of , between the bottom of and the top of Oxford and , forms of necessity what we may call our

north-west passage,

in reference to this portion of our work. The chief object of interest in this neighbourhood, on the south side of the , is the celebrated

Yorkshire Stingo

tavern. At the early part of the present century there were tea-gardens and a bowling-green attached to this rural inn, which was much crowded on Sundays, when an admission-fee of sixpence was demanded at its doors. For that a ticket was given, to be exchanged with the waiters for its value in refreshments--a plan very commonly adopted even then in such places of resort, in order to exclude the

roughs

and lower orders, and such as would be sure to stroll about without spending anything, because they had no money to spend. It was from this house that the London omnibuses commenced running, in , when introduced by Mr. Shillibeer.

In , through which we commence our return towards , are the Christian Union Almshouses, for the relief of poor and aged persons, in

full communion with some Protestant church.

The almshouses were erected in , and are supported by voluntary contributions.

Extending from to is a short thoroughfare called Horace Street. This, it is said, was formerly known as Cato Street, a view of which, as it appeared in , has already been given in this work. A loft over a stable in this thoroughfare, in the early part of the year , formed the head-quarters of Thistlewood and some other assassins, who designed to murder the leading members of the then Administration. This is known to history as the Cato Street Conspiracy. The building contained but rooms, which could only be entered by a ladder. The conspirators having mustered to the number of twentyfour, they took the precaution of placing a sentinel below, whilst they prepared for their dreadful encounter. We have already given an account of this affair in treating of , the intended scene of the massacre. Mr. R. Rush, who was residing in London at the time of its occurrence as Minister from the United States, speaks of the conspiracy in the following terms, in his

Court of London:

--

The assassination plot has continued to be a prevailing topic in all circles since its discovery and suppression. It has caused great excitement, it may almost be said some dismay, so foul was its nature, and so near did it appear to have advanced to success. Thanks were offered up at the Royal Chapel, St. James's, for the escape of those whose lives were threatened. Different uses are made of the events, according to the different opinions and feelings of the people in a country where the press speaks what it thinks, and no tongue is tied. The supporters of Government say that it was the offspring of a profligate state of morals among the lower orders, produced by publications emanating from what they called the

cheap press,

which the late measures of Parliament aimed at putting down; and added, that it vindicated the necessity and wisdom of those measures. The opponents of Government, who vehemently resisted the measures, insisted in reply, that it was wrong to suppress, or

even attempt to interfere with, such publications, since, if every irritated feeling, however unjust might be deemed its causes, were not allowed vent in that way, it would find modes more dangerous.

We learn from Mr. Rush that the convicted prisoners confessed that it was their design, on getting to Lord Harrowby's house, that of their number should knock at the door with a note in his hand, under pretence of desiring that it should be sent in to his lordship, doing this in such a manner as to cause no suspicion among the passers-by. The rest of the band, from to in number, were to be close at hand, but divided into small groups, so as to be better out of view. The servant who opened the door was to be knocked down by the bearer of the note, when the whole of the band were to rush forward, enter the house, and make for the dining-room, and there have massacred the whole of the ministers and guests, not sparing even the servants if they offered resistance. It is satisfactory to know that this daring gang stood convicted, out of their own lips, of a cool and deliberate murder in design and intention, and that they were not hung without richly deserving their sentence. The conspirators, as we have already mentioned, were imprisoned in the Tower, and were the last State prisoners lodged there.

Thistlewood was a Lincolnshire man, by birth a gentleman, but reduced by gambling and bill transactions. Cyrus Redding, who met him at Paris, thus speaks of him in his

Recollections:

--

His countenance bespoke indomitable determination. I cannot forget it. He had been subjected to a long imprisonment by Lord Sidmouth, I forget on what account. His unscrupulous character, when driven to extremity, no doubt made him capable of the most revolting crimes.

Mr. T. Raikes, in his

Journal,

gives the following account of the execution of this villain and his associates:--

It was a fine morning, and the crowd in the

Old Bailey

was, perhaps, greater than ever was assembled on such an occasion; all the house-tops were covered with spectators; and when we

first

looked out of the window of the sheriffs' room, there was nothing to be seen but the scaffold, surrounded by an immense ocean of human heads, all gazing upon that

one

single object. At length the procession issued from the debtors' door, and the

six

culprits came on,

one

after the other, and were successively tied up to the gibbet. Thistlewood came

first

, looking as pale as death, but without moving a muscle of his features or attempting to utter a word, except that when the rope had been adjusted round the neck of him who was next to him, he said, in a low tone to him,

We shall soon know the grand secret.

Ings, the butcher, appeared in a great state of excitement, almost as if under the influence of liquor; he gave several huzzas, and shouted out to the crowd,

Liberty for ever!

twice or thrice; but it was evidently a feint to try to interest the bystanders. The last in this odd rank was a dirty-looking black man, who alone seemed to be impressed with a sense of his awful situation; his lips were in continual motion, and he was evidently occupied in silent prayer. At this moment

one

of the gentlemen of the press, who had posted himself in the small enclosure close to the foot of the scaffold, looked up to Thistlewood with a paper and pencil in his hand, and said,

Mr. Thistlewood, if you have anything to say, I shall be happy to take it down and communicate it to the public.

The other made him no answer, but gave him a look. As they were about to be launched into eternity, a well-dressed man on the roof of

one

of the opposite houses got up from his seat, and looking at Thistlewood, exclaimed, in a very loud but agitated voice,

God bless you! God Almighty bless you!

Thistlewood slowly turned his head to the quarter whence the voice came, without moving his body, and as slowly reverted to his former position, always with the same fixed impassible countenance. The caps were then pulled down, the drop fell, and after some struggles they all ceased to live. The law prescribed that their heads should be severed from their bodies, and held up to public view as the heads of traitors. The executioner had neglected to bring any instrument for the purpose, and we in the sheriffs' room were horrified at seeing

one

of the assistants enter, and take from a cupboard a large carving-knife, which was to be used instead of a more regular instrument. When we were able to leave the prison, which was not for some time on account of the immense crowd, I drove to

Seymour Place

, found--at breakfast, and gave him an account of the scene.

At the east end of , and extending thence to , is , out of which on either side branch a number of small courts and streets which we need not particularise, with or exceptions. The turning on the left in this thoroughfare, running northward into , is a small street called . At the angle of this street and stands a handsome Gothic edifice of red brick, with stone facings, and with a high-pitched

p.412

roof and bell turret. This is a Roman Catholic church, dedicated to the Holy Rosary; the mission was commenced in , and the church built in . The ground floor of the edifice is used as a schoolroom.

Passing along , we cross , which forms a direct communication between and , near its junction with the . , the next turning eastward on the right, leads into , on its north side; opposite, on the north side of , is , chiefly noticeable for its lofty semi-circular portico, supported by Corinthian columns, above which rises a graduating spire, surmounted by a cross. It was built in , from the designs of Sir Robert Smirke. Here, in , [extra_illustrations.4.412.1] , the author of

Zenana,

and other poetical works, and better known in literary circles by her initials,

L. E. L.

was privately married, by her brother, to Mr. George Maclean, Governor of Cape Coast Castle, the scene of her early death. A former vicar of this church was the Rev. J. H. Gurney, celebrated for his zeal in education.

, together with Old and New Quebec Streets, forms a direct line of communication, through , between the and the western portion of . and also , which is immediately contiguous to it on the west side, were, according to Mr. John Timbs,

built on Ward's Field, and the site of

Apple Village,

by David Porter, who was once chimney-sweeper to the village of Marylebone.

It has been the fashion to decry these squares as scarcely deserving of the name. Thus, a writer in the says,

They are mere oblong slips with houses built in dreary uniformity; they are fortunately out of the way, and few people see them.

, however, certainly does not deserve such criticism. In it resided for many years [extra_illustrations.4.412.2] , the economical M.P.; and also Sir Francis Freeling, many years Secretary of the General Post Office.

, the next turning eastward of , extends from to the north-west corner of ; it consists of well-built private houses. Making our way down , we enter , of the most aristocratic of London neighbourhoods. It was formed, or rather commenced, about the year , on land once belonging to the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem. According to Mr. Peter Cunningham, it is described in the last lease granted by the Prior of that Order , as

Great Gibbet Field, Little Gibbet Field, Hawkfield, and Brock Stand; Tassel Croft, Boy's Croft, and

twenty

acres Furse Croft, and

two

closes called Shepcott Hawes, parcel of the manor of Lilestone, in the County of Middlesex.

The north side of the square was built, and it was nearly years before the whole was finished. This square takes its name from that of the proprietor of the land upon which it is built-namely, William Henry Portman, of Orchard-Portman, in Somersetshire, who died in , and was the ancestor of the present Lord Portman. According to Lambert, who wrote in the year , it is

one

of the largest and handsomest squares in the metropolis ;

though he complains of the want of correspondence-i.e., of uniformity--in the houses which surround it.

was built on high ground, with an open prospect to the north, which gave it a name as a peculiarly healthy part of London. Mrs.. Montagu, whom we have already mentioned at , , but whose name is, more than any other, particularly associated with this square, called it the Montpelier of England, and said she

never enjoyed such health as since she came to live in it.

It is of the largest and handsomest squares in London for its general effect, but the houses have no architectural character; and the central enclosure is laid out as a shrubbery. They were, however, built with due consideration for the. requirements of the wealthy, and were inhabited by a large number of the

quality

at their building. In the following members of the nobility were living in the square:--Lord Clifford, Lord Teignmouth, Earl of Beverley, Lord Lovaine, Lord Kenyon, Lord Petre, Earl Manvers, Earl of Scarbrough, Duke of Newcastle, Countess of Pomfret, Lady Owen, Earl Nelson, Dowager Duchess of Roxburghe, Earl of Cardigan, Dowager Countess of Clonmell, and the Dowager Countess of Harcourt. In this same year lived, at No. , Mr. Thomas Assheton Smith, of Tedworth, who might truly be called the pattern and type of the old English sportsman.

No. was the town-house of the late Duke of Hamilton, who married the daughter of William Beckford, the author of

Vathek,

and who took a pride in showing on his walls some of the finest paintings in the collection of that connoisseur, which he inherited in right of his wife. At No. lived General Sir John Byng, afterwards Field- Marshal the Earl of Strafford.

Early in the present century No. was the residence of the Right Hon. Hugh Elliot; and Lord Garvagh, the possessor of the celebrated

p.413

Aldobrandini Madonna

of Raffaelle, now in the , lived at No. for many years.

Sir William Pepperell, the eminent loyalist and royalist, of Rhode Island, in North America, and formerly the richest subject of the Crown in that country, died at his house here, in . He was created a baronet in recognition of his loyalty and losses, and a handsome pension was settled on his title. But his son dying before him, his title became extinct, and his pension was not continued to his daughters.

M. Otto, the French ambassador at the Court of St. James's, was living in at the time of the short-lived Treaty of Amiens. Peace had long been wished for by the people, and the preliminaries were signed at Lord Hawkesbury's office in , on the . On the arrival in London of General Lauriston, aide-de-camp to Napoleon, with the French ratifications, he was greeted with enthusiastic cheers by a vast concourse of people. Some of the men took the horses from his carriage, and drew him to M. Otto's house with tumultuous expressions of joy.

A very curious print is in existence showing the illumination of M. Otto's house in celebration of this event. On the front was a row of large oillamps forming the word

Concord,

and on either side were the initials

G. R.,

for

George III.,

and

R. F.,

Republique Francaise

--the time, no doubt, and probably the last, on which those names stood united. This illumination was somewhat unfortunate, for a London mob, unwittingly, interpreted

Concord

into

Conquered.

All the ambassador's windows were smashed in consequence. When the word

Concord

was removed, its place was supplied by

Amitie;

but the stupid mob read this as

Enmity,

and insisted on its removal also. Mr. Planche, who was present, writes:

The storm again raged with redoubled fury. Ultimately, what ought to have been done at

first

was done: the word

Peace

was displayed, and so peace was restored to

Portman Square

for the evening.

The chief interest of , however, centres in the large house-lately rebuilt or re-cased with red brick-standing by itself in a garden at the north-west corner; this was originally built for the once celebrated Mrs. Montagu, of

Bluestocking

notoriety, whose memory has of late years been revived by Dr. Doran, by the publication of some of her letters in a volume entitled,

A Lady of the Last Century.

As we have stated in a previous chapter, this distinguished lady removed hither from , , a few years after the death of her husband, Edward Montagu, of whose family Lord Rokeby is the head.

Elizabeth Robinson--for such was Mrs. Montagu's maiden name--was born at York, in , and, as we learn from Dr. Doran's interesting book, she was a lively girl, loving fun and pursuing learning, so that the Duchess of Portland nicknamed her . In she married Edward Montagu, M.P., a mathematician of eminence, and a coal-owner of great wealth, after which event she became more sober, and told her friend the duchess that her

fidgetations

were much spoiled. She became a power in the literary world, and was the founder, or, at all events, of the chief leaders, of the celebrated

Blue-Stocking Club.

Her house in , as we have already shown, became a favourite resort of statesmen, poets, and wits; and the young aspirant for fame felt that he had his foot on the rung of the ladder when he was invited to her table. Indeed, her name will be known to all our readers as emphatically

the Englishwoman of letters

of the eighteenth century, for in that respect she stood unrivalled. Let us look for a moment at her as portrayed in , by the pen of Sir N. W. Wraxall. He writes:

At the time of which I speak, the Gens de Lettres, or Blue Stockings as they were commonly termed, formed a very numerous, powerful, and compact phalanx in the midst of London. Mrs. Montagu was then the Madame du Deffand of the English capital; and her house constituted the central point of union for all those persons who were already known, or who sought to become known, by their talents and productions. Her supremacy, unlike that of Madame du Deffand, was indeed established on more solid foundations than those of intellect, and rested on more tangible materials than any which her Essay on Shakespeare could furnish her. Impressed, probably from the suggestions of her own deep knowledge of the world, with a deep conviction of that great truth laid down by Molilere, which no man of letters ever disputed, that Le vrai Amphytrion est celui chez qui l'on dine, Mrs. Montagu was accustomed to open her house to a large company of both sexes, whom she frequently entertained at dinner. A service of plate, and a table plentifully covered, disposed her guests to admire the splendour of her fortune, not less than the lustre of her talents. She had found the same results flowing from the same causes during the visit which she made to Paris, after the Peace of 1763, where she displayed to the astonished literati of that metropolis the extent of her pecuniary as well as of her mental resources. As this topic formed one of the subjects most gratifying to her, she was easily induced to launch out on it with much apparent complacency. The eulogiums lavished on her repasts, and the astonishment expressed at the magnitude of her income, which appeared prodigiously augmented by being transformed from pounds sterling into French livres, seemed to have afforded her as much gratification as the panegyrics bestowed upon the Essay on the Genius and Writings of Shakespeare.

Mrs. Montagu, in 1776, verged towards her sixtieth year; but her person, which was thin, spare, and in good preservation, gave her an appearance of less antiquity. From the infirmities often attendant on advanced life she seemed to be almost wholly exempt. All the lines of her Madame Tussaud. countenance bespoke intelligence, and her eyes were accommodated to her cast of features, which had in them something satirical and severe, rather than amiable and inviting. She possessed great natural cheerfulness, and a flow of animal spirits; loved to talk, and talked well on almost every subject; led the conversation, and was qualified to preside in her circle, whatever subject of discourse was started; but her manner was more dictatorial and sententious than conciliating or diffident. There was nothing feminine about her; and though her opinions were usually just, as well as delivered in language suited to give them force, yet the organ which conveyed them was not musical. Destitute of taste in disposing the ornaments of her dress, she nevertheless studied or affected those aids more than would seem to have become a woman professing a philosophic mind intent on higher Marylebone In 1740. (From An Old Print.) pursuits than the toilet. Even when approaching to fourscore, this female weakness still accompanied her; nor could she relinquish her diamond necklace and bows, which, like Sir William Draper's blushing riband, commemorated by Junius, formed of evenings the perpetual ornament of her emaciated person. I used to think that these glittering appendages of opulence sometimes helped to dazzle the disputants whom her arguments might not always convince, or her literary reputation intimidate. That reputation had not as yet received the rude attack made on it by Dr. Johnson at a subsequent period, when he appears to have treated with much irreverence her Essay on Shakespeare, if we may believe Boswell. Notwithstanding the defects and weaknesses that I have enumerated, she possessed a masculine understanding, enlightened, cultivated, and expanded by the acquaintance of men as well as of books. Many of the most illustrious persons in rank no less than in ability, under the reigns of George II. and III., had been her correspondents, friends, companions, and admirers. Pulteney, Earl of Bath, whose portrait hung over the chimney-piece in her drawing-room, and George, the first Lord Lyttelton, so eminent for his genius, were among the number. She was constantly surrounded by all that was distinguished for attainments or talents, male or female, English or foreign; and it would be almost ungrateful in me not to acknowledge the gratification derived from the conversation and intercourse of such a society.

Lord Bath thought there never was a more perfect being than Mrs. Montagu, and Edmund Burke. was inclined to agree with him. Hannah More describes her as combining

the sprightly vivacity of

fifteen

with the judgment and experience of a Nestor;

and Cowper, after he had read her

Essay on the Genius of Shakespeare,

no longer wondered that she stood

at the head of all that is called learned.

Boswell tells us that when Reynolds, Garrick, Johnson, Goldsmith, and a knot of literary friends were dining with him in in , and mention was made of Mrs. Montagu's

Essay on Shakespeare

by Reynolds, who remarked that it

did her honour,

Dr. Johnson replied, sharply,

Yes, sir, it does

her

honour, but it would do honour to nobody else. I will venture to say that there is not

one

sentence of true criticism in her book.

And yet the burly doctor was not above accepting the hospitality of the lady of whom he spoke thus lightly; but then it must be remembered that it was Mrs. Montagu who made the witty and most truthful remark, that

were an angel called upon to give the

inmprimatur

to Dr. Johnson's works, they would not have to be curtailed by a single line.

On another occasion, as his biographer informs us, Johnson had formed of a party evening at Mrs. Montagu's, where a splendid company had assembled, consisting of the most eminent literary characters.

I thought,

adds Boswell,

he seemed highly pleased with the respect and attention that were shown him; and asked him, on our return home, if he was not

highly gratified by his visit.

No, sir,

said he,

not highly gratified, yet I do not recollect to have passed many evenings with fewer objections.

The Blue-Stocking Club was the name given to a society of ladies who met at Mrs. Montagu's house, which had for its object the substitution of the pleasures of rational conversation for cards and other frivolities. The name, as Mr. Forbes tells us, in his

Life of Beattie,

originated in this manner:--

It is well known that Mrs. Montagu's house was at that time (

1771

) the chosen resort of many of those of both sexes most distinguished for rank, as well as classical taste and literary talent, in London. This society of eminent friends consisted, originally, of Mrs. Montagu, Mrs. Vesey, Miss Boscawen, and Mrs. Carter; Lord Lyttelton, Mr. Pulteney, Horace Walpole, and Mr. Stillingfleet. To the latter gentleman, a man of great piety and worth, and author of some works in natural history, &c., this constellation of talents owed that whimsical appellation of

Bas Bleu.

Mr. Stillingfleet being somewhat of a humorist in his habits and manners, and a little negligent in his dress, literally wore grey stockings; from which circumstance Admiral Boscawen used, by way of pleasantry, to call them

The Blue-Stocking Society,

as if to intimate that when these brilliant friends met, it was not for the purpose of forming a dressed assembly. A foreigner of distinction hearing the expression, translated it literally

Bas Bleu,

by which these meetings came to be afterwards distinguished.

This account is corroborated, we may here remark, by Forbes, in his

Life of Beattie,

almost in the very words here used.

If we may rely on the statement of John Timbs, in his amusing sketches of

Clubs and Club Life,

the earliest mention of a Blue Stocking, or is to be found in

a Greek comedy entitled

The Banquet of Plutarch

,

but which we rather imagine to be the

Symposium of Plato.

He adds,

The term as applied to ladies of high literary tastes, has been traced by Mills, in his

History of Chivalry,

to

the Société de la Calza, formed at Venice in A.D. 1400, when consistently with the character of the Italians of marking academies and other intellectual associations by some external sign of folly, the members when they met in literary discussion were distinguished by the colour of their stockings. These colours were sometimes fantastically blended; and at other times a single colour, especially blue, prevailed.

The Societe de la Calza lasted till

1590

, when the foppery of Italy took some other symbol. The rejected title then crossed the Alps, and found a congenial soil in Parisian society, and particularly branded female pedantry. It then passed from France to England, and for a while marked the vanity of the small advances in literature in female

coteries

.

So far Mr. John Timbs.

Boswell, who writes, in his

Life of Johnson,

under date , gives a very similar account of the matter to that of Mr. Forbes, already quoted, in the following terms:--

About this time it was much the fashion for several ladies to have evening assemblies, where the fair sex might participate in conversation with literary and ingenious men animated by a desire to please.

One

of the most eminent members of these societies was a Mr. Stillingfleet (a grandson of the bishop), whose dress was remarkably grave; and in particular it was observed that he wore blue stockings. Such was the excellence of his conversation, and his absence was felt so great a loss, that it used to be said,

We can do nothing without the blue stockings!

and thus by degrees the title was established.

Miss Hannah More has admirably described a Blue-Stocking Club in her

Bas Bleu,

a poem in which many of the persons who were most conspicuous there are mentioned; and Horace Walpole speaks of this production as a

charming poetic familiarity, called

the Blue-Stocking Club!

The circle at Mrs. Montagu's used to include nearly all the persons of her time who were celebrated in art, science, or literature, including not only Boswell and Johnson--the latter of whom, in the presence of ladies, forgot his rough and rude manners-but Miss Burney, the author of

Evelina,

and also Dr. Monsey, of College, the fashionable physician, who used to send to his lady-hostess the compliment of a poem as often as her birthday returned.

After years of married life, Edward Montagu left his distinguished wife a widow well provided for, with an income of a year. She soon afterwards entertained thoughts of leaving for the more northern district of Marylebone, and decided on building for herself a mansion in . During its erection, it is related, she watched its progress with much interest. In of her letters, Mrs. Montagu says,

I will get the better of my passion for my new house, which is almost equal to that of a lover to a mistress whom he thinks very handsome and very good, and such as will make him enjoy the dignity of life with ease;

and in another she writes,

It is an excellent house, finely situated, and just such as I have always wished, but never hoped to have.

In the year , just years after the death of her husband, the mansion was ready for her occupation, and she at once proceeded to transfer her household goods hither. Some years previously, as we learn from of her letters, she had

bought a large glass at the French ambassador's sale, and some other things for my new house, pretty cheap.

of the rooms in the new house was ornamented in a novel manner with

feather hangings,

and Mrs. Montagu begged all sorts of birds' feathers from her friends. She tells correspondent that

the brown tails of partridges are very useful, though not so brilliant as some others ;

and another she asks for

the neck and breast feathers of the stubble goose. Things homely and vulgar are sometimes more useful than the elegant, and the feathers of a goose may be better adapted to some occasions than the plumes of the phoenix.

On this unique room, where Mrs. Montagu held her court, Cowper wrote, in , some lines commencing as follows:--

The birds put off their every hue

To dress a room for Montagu;

The peacock sends his heavenly dyes,

His rainbows and his starry eyes;

The pheasant, plumes which round infold

His mantling neck with downy gold;

The cock his arch'd tail's azure show;

And, river-blanched, the swan his snow;

All tribes beside of Indian name,

That glossy shine or vivid flame,

Where rises and where sets the day,

Whate'er they boast of rich and gay,

Contribute to the gorgeous plan,

Proud to advance it all they can.

This plumage neither dashing shower

Nor blasts that shake the dripping bower,

Shall drench again or discompose,

But screen'd from every storm that blows,

It boasts a splendour ever new,

Safe with protecting Montagu.

The excitement that seems to have pervaded the mind of Mrs. Montagu during the erection of her new house, and the satisfaction which she evinced on its completion, does not appear to have worn off after she took up her residence there, notwithstanding that she was then getting well advanced in years, for we find her afterwards writing:--

I

am a great deal younger, I think, since I came into my new house; from its cheerfulness, and from its admirable conveniences, less afraid of growing old. My friends and acquaintances are much pleased with it.

In this last particular she was quite correct, for Walpole, who was not over-prone to praise the hobbies of others, wrote as follows to Mason:--

On Tuesday, with the Harcourts, at Mrs. Montagu's new palace, and was much surprised. Instead of vagaries, it is a noble, simple edifice. Magnificent, yet no gilding. It is grand, not tawdry, not larded, embroidered, and pomponned with shreds and remnants, and

clinquant

like the harlequinades of Adam, which never let the eye repose an instant.

Mrs. Montagu, however, used to give here, not only splendid entertainments to the Blue-Stocking Club and to a large circle of literary friends and persons of the highest distinction, but also annually, on the , a feast on the lawn before her doors to all the chimney-sweepers in London. A writer in , for , remarks:

It is not generally known that this celebration took its rise in a case of kidnapping which occurred--not to

one

of her children, for she never had any, but to some member of her own or of her husband's family. It is said that the boy whose restoration she thus commemorated was stolen by chimney-sweeps when only

three

or

four

years old, and was brought back unintentionally to the house by some members of the sooty confraternity, when sent for to sweep the chimneys of her town mansion. If so, the only wonder is that none of our modern versifiers have seized on the incident as the subject of a poem.

The Blue-Stocking gatherings, however, did not thrive very long in the new house, for many of their chief supporters had passed away. Mrs. Montagu's breakfasts, however, were continued; but they became more sumptuous, and her rooms were often overcrowded. In Mrs. Montagu adopted giving teas, a fashion introduced from France by the Duke of Dorset. years before Cumberland had written an essay in the on the assemblies at Montagu House, in which he lightly satirises the hostess as

Vanessa,

and her assembly as the

Feast of Reason.

Cowper afterwards more politely wrote :--

There genius, learning, fancy, wit,

Their ruffled plumage calm refit.

In the year Mrs. Montagu died, when the mansion passed to her nephew, Mr. Matthew Montagu, who had taken that surname in lieu of his patronymic Robinson, on being made heir to her estate. In Sir N. W. Wraxall's

Memoirs of his Own Times,

there is an amusing anecdote relating to the confusion as to this gentleman's name, after he entered the . There appears to have been some difficulty in distinguishing between Matthew Montagu and Montagu Matthew, until

General Matthew himself thus defined the distinction:

I wish it to be understood,

said he,

that there is no more likeness between Montagu Matthew and Matthew Montagu than between a chestnut-horse and a horse-chestnut.

After Mrs. Montagu's death the house was for some time occupied by the Turkish ambassador, who erected in the garden a

kiosk,

or movable temple, where he used to sit and smoke in state, surrounded by his Eastern friends. In the year Montagu House is given as the address of the Right Hon. Henry Goulburn, M.P., Chancellor of under Sir Robert Peel, who married a daughter of Lord Rokeby, of the Montagus. The mansion, however, remained in the possession of the Montagu family down to the year , when the lease having expired, it has reverted into the hands of the ground-landlord, Lord Portman, whose family have made it their London residence. The pleasant memory of Mrs. Montagu, however, still survives in , Place, and Street named after her.

In connection with , a laughable anecdote is told concerning Beau Brummell, which may bear repeating. It was related in the . It appears that Brummell was once at an evening party in the square. On the removal of the cloth, the snuff-boxes made their appearance, and Brummell's was particularly admired; it was handed round, and a gentleman, finding it somewhat difficult to open, incautiously applied a dessert-knife to the lid. Poor Brummell was on thorns; at last he could not contain himself any longer, and addressing the host, said, with his characteristic quaintness,

Will you be good enough to tell your friend that my snuff-box is not an oyster?

The neighbourhood,

writes Malcolm, in ,

is distinguished beyond all London for its regularity, the breadth of its streets, and the respectability of the inhabitants, the majority of whom are titled persons, and those of the most ancient families.

of the largest builders of houses in this neighbourhood was John Elwes, the well-known miser and M.P., who is said to have made a very large addition to his fortune by building speculations, especially about , which opens into from the south-west corner of the square. In this street Queen Caroline took up her residence, in , in the house of Lady

p.419

Anne Hamilton, of her Ladies of the Bedchamber.

On the east side of , extending north and south, are and . The former street, which runs into the , was named after Sir Edward Baker, of Ranston, a neighbour of the Portmans, in Dorsetshire, and who seems to have lent Mr. Portman a helping hand in developing the capacities of his London estate. It consisted, at the commencement of this century, chiefly of private houses, now, however, mostly turned to business purposes. At No. in this street, in the year , was living Lord Camelford, who, years later, was killed in a duel with a Mr. Best, in the grounds behind Holland House. In the year the Right Hon. Henry Grattan, the distinguished Irish orator, died at his residence in this street.

In No. was in the occupation of Lord William Lennox. Mr. Thomas Spring Rice, M.P., afterwards Lord Monteagle, was at that time living in this street; and No. was the residence of John Braham, the singer, already mentioned by us in our account of St. James's Theatre. This street has at various times been the of exhibitions of a popular character, which have come and gone, and their memory soon perished. , however, has at all events remained, and shown that it has in it the elements of permanence, and of this we will now proceed to speak. [extra_illustrations.4.419.1]  exhibition of wax-work figures of the celebrities of the past and present age has been established in for a period of years. In our account of we have noticed the wax-works of Mrs. Salmon, which have passed away, while those of Madame Tussaud seem destined to survive the present era. They were originally commenced in Paris about the year , and brought, in , to London, where they formed for a time the chief attraction of what is now the Lyceum, in , and afterwards at the Rooms. Madame Tussaud subsequently travelled with her exhibition from town to town, and in the course of years succeeded in forming a goodly collection and a small sum of money. She then resolved to visit Ireland; but in the transit the vessel in which she had embarked her all was wrecked, and with great difficulty the lives of the passengers were saved; so that when she landed at Cork with her boys she found herself penniless. She then began the would anew, and this time with still greater success; and thus she was, as it were, twice the architect of her own fortune. In she came again to London, and founded her

unrivalled

collection in ; and it has since gone on increasing, till it now includes upwards of specimens, ranging from William the Conqueror down to the Duchess of Edinburgh and the impostor Arthur Orton. Of the founder of this collection, Madame Tussaud, who died in , at the age of , we know that she was a native of Berne, in Switzerland, and that when a child she was taught the art of modelling figures in wax by an uncle. Coming to Paris, she taught drawing and modelling to Madame Elizabeth, the daughter of Louis XVI. and of Marie Antoinette, and mixed in the best society of the French capital, where she became acquainted with Voltaire, Rousseau, La Fayette, Mirabeau, and the other heads of the party opposed to royalty. She found it convenient, however, to accept the hospitality of England, and accordingly settled here as a refugee.

The exhibition is approached through a small hall, and by a wide staircase, which leads to a saloon at its summit, richly adorned by a radiant combination of arabesques, artificial flowers, and mirrored embellishments. From the saloon the great room is at once entered. This is a gorgeous apartment--in fact, almost an

exhibition

in itself. Its walls are panelled with plate-glass, and richly decorated with draperies, and burnished gilt ornaments in the Louis Quatorze style. The principal statues and groups are placed round the sides of the room, and the larger scenic combinations of figures in the centre of the room. The objects exhibited here are constantly varied, according to the public interest which they excite. Some, however, are shown , being never out of date. Of these the most noteworthy are the recumbent effigies of Wellington and Napoleon; of Henry VIII. and his wives; Queen Victoria, the Prince Consort, and the different members of the royal family; Voltaire (taken from life a few months before his death), and a coquette of the period; Lord Nelson, the cast taken from his face; and a series of the kings and queens of England, from William the Conqueror to Queen Victoria. The apartment called the

Hall of Kings

has a ceiling painted by Thornhill; and in the richlygilt chamber adjoining is George IV. in his coronation robes, which, with other velvet robes, cost, it is said, ; the chair is the

homagechair

used at the coronation. The

Napoleon

room contains an interesting collection of trophies and relics connected with the emperor, besides a fine series of portraits of the Bonaparte family. The last apartment entered, which bears the not

p.420

very pleasant-sounding name of the

Chamber of Horrors,

contains, as may be inferred, an array of portrait-models of some of the greatest criminals of the age, including those of the Mannings, Greenacre, and Wainwright type. Here, too, are casts of the bleeding and dying heads of Robespierre, Marat, Fouquier, and various horrible relics and mementos, even to a model of the guillotine itself. Although to view this chamber an extra charge is made, such is the love of the marvellous, that but few persons decline to enter it, the ladies especially liking to

have their flesh made to creep.

Ingenious as these wax-works were, they are but a proof of the old saying, that there is nothing new under the sun; for we have already been introduced to the wax-work effigies of our sovereigns, &c., in ; and we read in the volume of the

Entertaining Correspondent,

published in , a long account of a group of wax-work figures to be seen in the Maze at Amsterdam, representing the scene of the Nativity of our Lord in the manger at Bethlehem; and the proverb is further confirmed by Mr. Isaac D'Israeli,
in his

Curiosities of Literature,

published in . The author, after mentioning several attempts to produce exhibitions of wax-work in London, though not very successful ones, adds the following:--

There was a work of this kind which Menage has noticed, and which must have appeared a little miracle. In the year

1675

the Duke of Maine received a gilt cabinet, about the size of a moderate table. On the door was inscribed

The Chamber of Wit

. The inside displayed an alcove and a long gallery. In an arm-chair was seated the figure of the duke himself, composed of wax, the resemblance the most perfect imaginable. On

one

side stood the Duke de la Rochefoucault, to whom he presented a paper of verses for his examination. M. de Marcillac, and Bossuet, Bishop of Meaux, were standing near the arm-chair. In the alcove Madame de Thianges and Madame de la Fayette sat retired, reading a book. Boileau, the satirist, stood at the door of the gallery, hindering

seven

or

eight

bad poets from entering. Near Boileau stood Racine, who seemed to beckon to La Fontaine to come forward. All these figures were formed of wax, and this imitation must have been at once curious and interesting.

p.421

 

The basement-floor of the building is devoted to other purposes, and is known as the

Baker Street

Bazaar.

It was originally called the

Portman Bazaar,

and had its chief entrance in . It was at established for the sale of horses; but carriages, harness, furniture, and other household goods are the only commodities now exhibited for sale. Here, in , was given what the advertisements style a

magnificent exhibition of musical and mechanical automata, comprising nearly

twenty

different subjects, including the celebrated musical lady, juvenile artist, magician, ropedancer, and walking figure; also a magnificent classic vase, made by order of Napoleon; together with a serpent, birds, insects, and other subjects of natural history; the whole displaying, by their exact imitations of animated nature, the wonderful powers of mechanism.

Here, about the year , was started a field of artificial ice for skating, but it did not take with the public, and was soon given up. It is not a little singular, that the attempt to anticipate the pleasures of the skatingrinks, now so generally popular with the rising generation, should have been a failure. Here, too, the Royal Smithfield Club held its annual Cattle
Show, from down to , when it was removed to the Agricultural Hall at . The late Prince Consort was an exhibitor on several occasions, and carried off several prizes here in , and again in .

From Mr. Gibbs's

History of the Origin and Progress of the Smithfield Club,

we learn that it was founded in by a party of noblemen and gentlemen, including the Duke of Bedford, Lords Somerville and Winchilsea, and Sir Joseph Banks. Its exhibitions were held in Smithfield, then in , and in or other places in that neighbourhood; and it did not move westwards hither till , when the receipts taken at the doors of the bazaar amounted to only . Her Majesty paid a visit to the cattle show here in , and the Prince Consort, who had become a member of the Smithfield Club on his marriage, carried off several prizes at the annual exhibitions held here with his cattle bred at his model farm in Windsor Park. The members of the Smithfield Club made an award of prizes, in the shape of gold and silver medals, silver cups, &c., for the successful competitors with live stock, agricultural implements, &c.

p.422

 

On the east side of , at the corner of , is Portman Chapel, a chapel of ease to Marylebone Parish Church. Like most of its neighbours, it is a dull, heavy, unecclesiasticallooking structure, and offers little or no subject for remark.

The streets which run crosswise between and , on its western side, such as George, King, Dorset, Crawford, and York Streets, if they have about them little of personal or historic interest, and are even less remarkable in an architectural point of view, at all events bear testimony to the loyalty of the House of Portman, and their attachment to their native county of Dorset. Between and , in a sort of mews and side passage,

gracefully retreating

from the public view, as became a chapel of Roman Catholics, when they lay under penal laws, but nestling safely under the wing of the French ambassador's house, is the Chapel of the Annunciation. This chapel was built in the reign of George III., and has always been the place whither the sovereigns of France have resorted to hear mass when in this country, and where masses are said for the repose of the souls of French royalty after death; and though a small and poor edifice, and concealed in a back street which is little better than a mews, it has a history of its own which cannot be omitted here. It was founded by some of the who sought an asylum in England on the outbreak of the French Revolution in , and who opened it in , having previously celebrated the divine offices in a house in , not far off. It is said that many of the clergy, and even members of the French court, aided the workmen with their own hands in building the walls. It was solemnly blessed and dedicated on the . Here most, if not all, of the Bourbon kings and princes who have come to England as exiles or as visitors-Louis XVIII., Charles X., Louis Philippe and Queen Amelie, the Duchesse d'Angoulgme, &c. --have always heard mass; to say nothing of the Emperor Louis Napoleon, the Empress Eugenie, and their son. Here have been preached the of the Abbe Edgworth, of the Duc d'Enghien, and of very many royal and distinguished personages of foreign countries, such as the King of Portugal, Queen Mary Josephine of Savoy, Chateaubriand, Count de Montalembert, and others. In this chapel the body of the Duc de Montpensier lay in state, previous to its interment in . Here courses of sermons have been annually preached, and

Retreats

have been given, from time to time, by the most eloquent of French preachers, such as Pere Ravignan, Pere Gratry, and Pere Lacordaire. Attached to the chapel are many religious and charitable confraternities, &c., including a branch of the Society of St. Vincent de Paul, for the benefit of the French poor of the metropolis.

is the name given to the last or houses at the upper end of , where it joins the . The houses, which were built about the year oo, are fine and commodious. At his residence here, in , died his Eminence Cardinal Wiseman, at the age of . The Cardinal removed his archiepiscopal residence hither from , as we have stated in a previous chapter. Born at Seville, in Spain, in the year , Nicholas Wiseman was the son of Irish parents, descended from the younger branch of the ancient Essex family of Sir William Wiseman, Bart. He entered the priesthood at the age of ; in the following year he was appointed Vice-Rector of the English College at Rome, and in the year he became Professor of Oriental Literature. In he was chosen Coadjutor-Bishop to Dr. Walsh, then the Vicar-Apostolic of the Central District in England. He afterwards for some years presided over College, Oscott; and on the transference of Dr. Walsh to the post of Pro-Vicar Apostolic of the London District, Dr. Wiseman was again the coadjutor. On the establishment of the Roman Catholic hierarchy in , Dr. Walsh having died in the meanwhile, Dr. Wiseman was nominated Archbishop of , and at the same time elevated to the cardinalate. His eminence was acknowledged as of the scholars in Europe; he was also a great Biblical scholar, a judicious critic, and a proficient in almost every branch of science. His successor in the see of , Cardinal Manning, lived in the same house from down to . The house is now the

Bedford College for Ladies.

In lived for some time Mr. Edward Hodges Baily, R.A., the sculptor. He executed the surrounding the throne-room at Buckingham Palace, and also designed several of the figures on the . Among his principal works are

Eve Listening,

the group of

The Graces,

and

The Fatigued Huntsman;

and among his most recent works are statues of Mansfield and Fox, erected in Hall, in the Houses of Parliament; and a statue of

Genius,

from Milton's Arcades, for the of London. His last work was a bust of Mr. Hepworth Dixon. Mr. Baily died in .

Midway between and Crawford

p.423

Street, and extending from westward into , is a broad thoroughfare called ; but, like the or small streets connecting it with , its history is a blank. and Street took their designation from the original family name of Lord Portman's ancestor, who was not a Portman, or even a Berkeley by birth, but a Seymour, but took the name of Portman on inheriting the estate of Orchard-Portman.

Making our way back into , we pass through , which runs from the south-east corner of , and is called after Orchard-Portman, in Somersetshire, of the seats of Lord Portman. Here Sheridan, soon after his marriage with the beautiful Miss Linley, took his town-house, and here he wrote and

There used formerly to be some barracks between and ; they were removed about the year , and built on their site.

In , in the immediate neighbourhood of , was Fladong's Hotel, which in the days of the Regency acquired some celebrity. Captain Gronow, in his

Reminiscences,

speaks of it as mostly frequented by

old salts,

as at that time there was no club for sailors.

 
 
Footnotes:

[] See Vol. III., p. 200.

[extra_illustrations.4.407.2] Great Cumberland Place--Residence of Lady Randolph Churchill

[extra_illustrations.4.407.3] Duke of Sussex

[extra_illustrations.4.409.1] Dr. Henry Alford

[] See Vol. II., p. 456.

[] See ante, p. 340.

[] See Vol. II., p. 76.

[extra_illustrations.4.412.1] Miss Letitia E. Landon

[extra_illustrations.4.412.2] Mr. Joseph Hume

[] See ante, p. 193.

[extra_illustrations.4.419.1] Madame Tussaud's

[] See Vol. I, pp. 45, 46.

[] See Vol. III., p. 446.

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 Title Page
 Chapter I: Westminster: A Survey of the City: Millbank, and its Neighbourhood
 Chapter II: Westminster.-Tothill Fields and Neighbourhood
 Chapter III: Westminster.-King Street, Great George Street, and the Broad Sanctuary
 Chapter IV: Modern Westminster
 Chapter V: St. James's Park
 Chapter VI: Buckingham Palace
 Chapter VII: The Mall and Spring Gardens
 Chapter VIII: Carlton House
 Chapter IX: St. James's Palace
 Chapter X: St. James's Palace (continued)
 Chapter XI: Pall Mall
 Chapter XII: Pall-Mall.-Club-Land
 Chapter XIII: St. James's Street.-Club-Land (continued)
 Chapter XIV: St. James's Street and its Neighbourhood
 Chapter XV: St. James's Square and its Distinguished Residents
 Chapter XVI: The Neighbourhood of St. James's Square
 Chapter XVII: Waterloo Place and Her Majesty's Theatre
 Chapter XVIII: The Haymarket
 Chapter XIX: Pall Mall East, Suffolk Street, &c.
 Chapter XX: Golden Square and its Neighbourhood
 Chapter XXI: Regent Street and Piccadilly
 Chapter XXII: Piccadilly.-Burlington House
 Chapter XXIII: Noble Mansions in Piccadilly
 Chapter XXIV: Piccadilly: Northern Tributaries
 Chapter XXV: Hanover Square and its Neighbourhood
 Chapter XXVI: Berkeley Square, and its Neighbourhood
 Chapter XXVII: Grosvenor Square, and its Neighbourhood
 Chapter XXVIII: May Fair
 Chapter XXIX: Apsley House and Park Lane
 Chapter XXX: Hyde Park
 Chapter XXXI: Hyde Park (continued)
 Chapter XXXII: Oxford Street, and its Northern Tributaries
 Chapter XXXIII: Oxford Street.-Northern Tributaries (continued)
 Chapter XXXIV: Oxford Street, and its Northern Tributaries (continued)
 Chapter XXXV: Oxford Street East.-Northern Tributaries
 Chapter XXXVI: Oxford Street: Northern Tributaries.-Tottenham Court Road
 Chapter XXXVII: Bloomsbury.-General Remarks
 Chapter XXXVIII: The British Museum
 Chapter XXXIX: The British Museum (continued)
 Chapter XL: The British Museum (continued)
 Chapter XLI: Bloomsbury Square and its Neighbourhood
 Chapter XLII: Red Lion Square, and its Neighbourhood
 Chapter XLIII: Queen Square, Great Ormond Street, &c.
 Chapter XLIV: Russell and Bedford Squares, &c.
 Chapter XLV: Gordon and Tavistock Squares, &c.
This object is in collection:
Edwin C. Bolles papers
Subjects
London (England)--Description and Travel
London --England
Permanent URL
http://hdl.handle.net/10427/14824
ID: tufts:UA069.005.DO.00063
To Cite: DCA Citation Guide
Usage: Detailed Rights