Old and New London, A Narrative of its History, its People and its Places. Illustrated with Numerous Engravings from the Most Authentic Sources. vol 4Thornbury, Walter
Gordon and Tavistock Squares, &c.
Gordon and Tavistock Squares, &c.
was so called after Alexander, Duke of Gordon, whose daughter, the Lady Georgiana Gordon, married, as his wife, John, Duke of Bedford, whose wife was a daughter of the noble house of Torrington.
The south-west corner of is occupied by a very large and noble Gothic building, the Metropolitan Church or Cathedral of the
as the followers of Edward Irving style themselves. It was built .about the year , from the designs of Mr. R. Brandon and Mr. Ritchie. The exterior is of Early-English design, and the Decorated interior has a triforium in the aisle-roof, after the manner .of our early churches and cathedrals. The ceilings are highly enriched, and some of the windows are filled with stained glass; the northern doorway and porch and the southern wheel-window are very fine. A beautiful side chapel has been added on the south, styled a
but the name is inappropriate, as devotion to the Virgin Mary forms no part of the Irvingite creed. Grouped around the church are some Gothic houses, with projections and gables, pointed-headed windows, and traceried balconies.
Previous to the building of the Catholic and Apostolic Church, the
had their headquarters for some years in a chapel in , which, as we have already stated, had preriously served as Benjamin West's studio.
writes Mr. James Grant, in his
The writer, however, whilst regretting Mr. Irving's novel and strange views, defends him zealously from the charge so frequently brought against him in his life-time, of aiding in an imposture, certifying to his single-heartedness and honesty. He adds that the late Mr. Henry Drummond, of Albury, M.P. for Surrey, and a son of the Prime Minister Spencer Perceval, were among those who frequented this chapel, and that Mr. Irving himself, as the
of it, was styled its
[extra_illustrations.4.573.1] propounded or exhibited the strange doctrine which became associated with his name in the parish of Row, and the town of Port Glasgow, in Scotland; but afterwards settled in London, preaching in a chapel in , and afterwards in the Scotch Church in , which was built expressly for him. Here, we are informed,
Irving's oratorical powers, and the novelty of the doctrines promulgated by him,
immense congregations, and he became the
We are told that his figure, air, costume, and uncapped head attracted the gaze, if not the admiration, of the young and old. He was a tall, gaunt figure, with dress of unusual cut, with his hat generally in his hand; a head of black hair, starting in all directions like the projecting quills of the
lank cheeks, and eyes apparently directed to the sides of the street rather than to his pathway, which was usually in the middle of the road.
Mr. Grant, in his
tells us that the Irvingite body, in spite of having diminished in numbers since the death of its founder, has churches in the metropolis besides its central place of worship, in allusion, doubtless, to the
of the Book of Revelation.
On the west side of , and in the rear of University College, is University Hall. It was designed by Professor Donaldson in , and was built for the purpose of instructing such young men as chose to reside there in theology and moral philosophy, subjects which are excluded from the college curriculum. The architecture is Elizabethan or Tudor, in red brick and stone, and the grouping of the windows is effectively managed.
, which lies on the east side of , is named from the Duke of Bedford's title, Marquis of Tavistock. , long the residence of James Perry, editor of the during its palmiest days, became in later times the abode of Charles Dickens, who took possession of it in , having removed hither from , Marylebone. Here he almost immediately set to work upon the number of
which he had long been meditating. Here his children's private theatricals were commenced on Twelfth Night in , being renewed annually till the actors ceased to be children any longer. They were often aided by Mr. Mark Lemon, Douglas. Jerrold, and Mr. Planche, and among the audience were Sir Edwin Landseer, Clarkson Stanfield, and the other friends of
in his early days. But it was not only at Christmas that Dickens delighted in his private theatricals. In the summer of , for instance, he threw open his little theatre to, several gatherings of a larger and outer circle of friends, amongst whom were Lord Campbell, Peter Cunningham, Lord Lytton, William M. Thackeray, and Thomas Carlyle. He described himself on his play-bills as
his poet was Wilkie Collins,
and his scenepainter was [extra_illustrations.4.573.2] . The performances included
by Mr. W. Collins; and it may be recorded here that the scene of the Eddystone Lighthouse in this little play, afterwards carefully framed, and hung up in the hall at Gad's. Hill, near Rochester, Dickens' last home, fetched a guineas at the sale of the great novelist's effects. It was at supper, after of these performances, that Lord Campbell told the company that he would rather have written
than be Lord Chief Justice and a Peer of Parliament.
writes Mr. John
| Forster, |
There is, it may be added, a most amusing paper in on these
written by who had been a member of the juvenile company. In the getting--up of these amusements Dickens was happy to secure the help of Mr. J. R. Planche in costume, and the
of Clarkson Stanfield in his scenery.
Southward of the square is , which has had among its residents some men of note in their day. At No. lived John Pinkerton, the historian.
says Mr. Peter Cunningham,
No. was for some time the residence of Francis Douce, the antiquary, the author of a
John Galt afterwards resided in the same house. Here he wrote his autobiography and many other literary works, including a
As editor of , he lived a stormy life, being involved in repeated controversies. No. in this street, more recently the residence of [extra_illustrations.4.574.1] , is worthy of a note, as having been the residence of Francis Baily, President of the Royal Astronomical Society, and also the spot where, in II, the weight of the world was ascertained by him as the result of mathematical computation. An account of it is to be found in John Timbs'
for . With reference to this building, Sir John Herschel writes:
Parallel with , on the south side, and extending from to , is , so named after Captain Coram, the founder of the . In this street is a building of some architectural pretensions, the centre having a handsome portico with pillars. It is called the [extra_illustrations.4.574.2] , and is somewhat similar in plan to the , though on a smaller and less ambitious scale. The house was erected on speculation for the purpose of holding assemblies and balls, and was purchased in the year from Mr. James Burton, the builder, by the managers of the institution. There is here an extensive and valuable library, consisting of the most useful works in ancient and modern literature; and the reading-room is well managed and attended.
In , Thackeray, then newly married, took up his residence in this street, where he lived for years, occupying himself with his literary contributions to , and. an occasional illustration. It was while residing here that he day called on Dickens, with an offer to illustrate
an offer which was
and possibly turned the course of his life into a different channel. Had his offer been accepted, he probably would have become an artist, and possibly an R.A.; but
would never have been written.
On the north side of are and . In the former, at No. , lived Mrs. Davidson, who, as Miss Duncan, attained high repute on the stage by her performances in and other dramas, but who lived to see her fame decline. Often would she walk to and from the theatre twice a day, to rehearsal and performance, in wet and cold weather, whilst her husband was either in bed or at a gaming-table.
In this street, as Mr. Grant tells us in his
there was formerly of the chapels of the sect founded by Emmanuel Swedenborg, called the New Jerusalem Church.
At Burton Cottage, , lived John Britton, F.S.A., the topographer, antiquary, and man of letters, who has already been briefly mentioned in our account of , Clerkenwell. John Britton was a native of Kington St. Michael, Wiltshire, where his father was a small farmer and kept a village shop. At an early age he came to London, and, as we have said, was apprenticed to a wine-merchant. At that time, and even on reaching manhood, his education was very imperfect; he, nevertheless, formed the acquaintance of various persons connected with the humbler walks of literature, and was induced to embark in a small way on authorship himself, by compiling some common street song-books, &c. Becoming acquainted with Mr. Wheble, the publisher of the , for which he had prepared some short notices, he obtained his introduction into the career which he so long and honourably pursued. Wheble, whilst residing at Salisbury, had issued the prospectus of a work to be called the
but was not able to carry it on; but now, finding that Britton was a native of that county, Wheble proposed to him to compile the work he had announced. Among Britton's acquaintances was a young man named Brayley, of about his own age, but somewhat better taught; they had assisted each other in their studies, and they now entered upon a sort of literary partnership. In due time the
was completed, and at the invitation of the publishers the joint authors immediately afterwards set to work on the
of all the other counties of England were published, in volumes, but only the were written by the original authors. In , Mr. Britton produced the part of a more elaborate work, the
which in the end formed splendid volumes. From this time Mr. Britton's course was of laborious and persevering authorship in the path which he made for many years in a special manner his own--that of architectural and topographical description. Of the many works of this character which he produced, the most important is the
Mr. Britton died in , at an advanced age.
No. , , which intersects , was for some years the home of [extra_illustrations.4.575.1] , the Socialist. Like Mr. Britton, Owen was of humble origin. He was for some time a successful cotton-spinner at Lanark, in Scotland, during which period he attended with benevolent. care to the welfare of the persons employed and to the education of their children. He here: introduced many improvements, since adopted in other schools, so as to make instruction at once attractive and useful; and founded, if not the , of the earliest of the infant schools.. About this time he published his
and subsequently a
in which he developed a theory of modified Communism. In , this eccentric philanthropist went to North America, where he attempted, but unsuccessfully, to found a settlement. The latter years of his life, which were spent in England, were devoted to various objects, all more or less visionary,
He died in , at his birthplace in North Wales.
is only noticed in the
This Major Cartwright was of the earliest advocates and champions of Parliamentary reform. In
it is stated that he was born at Marnham, Nottinghamshire, in .
The major, who often distinguished himself at the Covent Garden hustings, lived to a ripe old age, and was much esteemed by all who knew him.
|He died at his residence in in the year . [extra_illustrations.4.576.1]|
and preserve the name of the builder, who may be regarded as the creator of all this district, James Burton, of whom Mr. Britton thus writes in his
To the east of , and connecting with the , is . Sir Andrew Judd, or Judde, after whom the street was named, was a native of Tunbridge in Kent, and was Lord Mayor of London in . He bequeathed a large part of his wealth towards founding and endowing a public school in his native town. Among the lands so bequeathed were certain
then let for grazing purposes at a few pounds a year, but now covered with houses, and bringing in an income of several thousands a year. Sir Andrew Judde lies buried in St. Helen's, Bishopsgate, and his school now flourishes among the best grammar schools in the kingdom.
On the east side of , behind the , is , which is chiefly noticeable for containing the Scotch Presbyterian Church, where, as we have already stated, the Rev. Edward Irving and his peculiar doctrines and
attracted large and fashionable congregations in the early part of this century. The church, which stands at the corner of , is Gothic in style, and was built in -, by Mr. (afterwards Sir William) Tite, the architect, who adopted as his model the principal front of York Minster; the twin towers are feet in height. On the east side of the square is , commonly called Church. Here, too, is a charitable institution, wholly dependent upon voluntary contributions; it is called the Home of Hope, and has been established
Passing in the direction of , by a few streets of little or no importance, we arrive in , which, with its trees and greensward, has quite a refreshing appearance after escaping from some of the narrow streets which surround it. Here is the New Jerusalem Church, which was opened in for the followers of Swedenborg, whom we have mentioned above. The church is in the Anglo-Norman style of architecture, and was built from the designs of Mr. Hopkins; it has towers and spires, each terminating with a bronze cross; the intervening gable has a stone cross, and a wheel-window over a deeply-recessed doorway. The interior of the church has a vaulted roof; the altar arrangements are somewhat peculiar, and there is an organ and choir.
, , and a few others in the neighbourhood, were named after the Ministers in office at the date of their erection. In , a little to the eastward of , is a small building which has been occasionally used for amateur theatrical performances. It was originally an auction-room, but has since been turned into the , or, as it is sometimes called,
Having now arrived at , which has been already fully described in these pages, we shall in the succeeding chapters travel over the outlying portions of London, on the south-west and west frontier of the great metropolis, commencing our journey anew at .
 Comprehensive History of England, vol. iv., p. 769.
[extra_illustrations.4.573.2] Clarkson Stanfield
[extra_illustrations.4.574.1] Sir Matthew Digby Wyatt
[extra_illustrations.4.574.2] Russell Literary and Scientific Institution
 See Vol. II., p. 323.
[extra_illustrations.4.575.1] Robert Owen
[extra_illustrations.4.576.1] Liverpool Street Railway Station
 See Vol. III., p. 539.