The History and Antiquities of London, Westminster, Southwark, and Parts Adjacent, vol. 3

Allen, Thomas
1827

St. Mary Abchurch.

St. Mary Abchurch.

This church is of ancient foundation, and is supposed to derive its additional name from being situated on high ground, as it is found written Apchurch and Upchurch. The patronage was originally in the prior and canons of St. Mary Overies, Southwark, who, in 1448, exchanged it with the master and chaplains of Corpus Christi college, Laurence Poulteney hill, for a house in the parish of Allhallows-the-less. On the dissolution of that house it fell to the crown. Queen Elizabeth, in the 10th of her reign, 1568, gave it to the college of Corpus Christi, Cambridge; in whom the advowson still remains.

The church is situated on the west side of Abchurch-lane; the south front abuts on a paved court, which is still used as a burying ground; the west front and tower on a passage leading into Sherbourn lane. It is a spacious rectangular building of brick covered with stucco, with stone dressings; the four elevations of the building are nearly uniform. In the centre of the southern front is a large segment arched window, with a a shield upon the key-stone; on each side is a semicircular arched window, with another of a circular form above it, the key stones of the lateral windows have cherubs. Below the westernmost is an arched entrance surmounted with a cornice resting on consoles. The east front only differs in having the centre window walled up. The north elevation is built against, and has consequently no windows. The western front corresponds, except in regard of the tower. The angles are rusticated, and the walls are finished with a coping. The roof is slated and rises in a dome, square in plan, and pierced with four circular windows, having a platform on the summit. The tower is situated within the walls at the north west angle of the church, and in this respect varies the western elevation; it is built with brick and covered with compo; the angles are rusticated, and the elevation is made by plain courses into four stories; in the basement of the west front is an arched entrance similar to the one already described; the next story has an arched window, the key stone carved with a cherub; the third has a circular, and the fourth an arched window, with a grotesque mask on the key stone; the latter is also repeated on the other sides of the tower; the elevation finishes with a cornice and parapet; the door and window cases, and other dressings, are stone: above the parapet rises a leaded dome, pierced with port holes; on its summit is a square story, formed by four open arches which sustain an obelisk of the same form, covered with lead: the whole is finished with a ball and cross surmounted by a vane.

The interior of this church is strikingly grand, and with the exception of the Roman Catholic chapel in Moorfields, is perhaps the most highly decorated ecclesiastical edifice in London. The plan is square, lengthened by three divisions at the west end: the ceiling is formed by eight arches springing from corbels affixed to the walls, and from a column and pilaster at the west end, all of the Corinthian order, the corbels being formed of the capital of a pilaster; these arches gather over into pendentives, and sustain a circular modillion cornice which serves as the impost to a hemispherical dome, the whole of the soffit of which is painted; it is pierced, as before observed, with four port hole windows; just above these windows is a painted repetition of the cornice, and the interval between that and the lower cornice is occupied by paintings in chiaroscuro of eight seated female figures in imitation of sculpture representing saints and martyrs. The remainder of the dome is painted in colours, with a cherubic choir, some of whom are engaged in playing on various instruments of music, others in chaunting the praises of the Deity, and the remainder in the act of adoration. In the centre is a splendid irradiation surrounding the Hebrew name of the Deity. The effect of the whole is injured by unsightly iron scroll work depending from the centre, and which remains, although the chandelier it upheld is removed. Of the three divisions westward, two are recessed and occupied by a gallery, with rich pannelled front coeval with the church; and the third is filled by the tower, which here, as well as in many other instances, is allowed to protrude into the church; in the basement is an entrance covered with an oak frontispiece, consisting of an arch surmounted by a cornice resting on consoles: above this, is an arched window now walled up. As a proof of the inattention of the architect to detail, it may be remarked, that neither this window nor the door below it, are in the centre of the wall; this frequent disregard of uniformity observable in the works of sir Christopher Wren, can only be accounted for by the supposition that his great mind was occupied so entirely by the grandeur of the whole, that it could not descend to pay strict attention to the parts. The wood work is deserving of attention. The altar screen is composed of a pannelled plinth sustaining a facade ending in a lofty acroterium surmounted by a shield having the cypher A. R. in a garter between two pair of Corinthian columns sustaining an entablature and broken elliptical pediment, surmounted by an attic crowned by vases. The commandments, &c. are inscribed on large tablets. The whole face of the screen is enriched with a profusion of Gibbons' carving in his best style: above the decalogue is a pelican feeding her young with her blood, and the remainder of the centre is occupied by entwined tendrils, grapes, flowers, various fruits, and ears of wheat, executed with such delicacy, and at the same time so accurate, that it appears a matter of surprise how the sculptor could succeed so well on such a material; the screen is painted to represent verd antique and Sienna marbles, but the imitation is the most bungling ever witnessed, the capitals of the columns and the carvings are white. The pulpit is hexagonal, and has a sounding board of the same form richly carved, in which the pelican is introduced; it rests on a square pillar, with an Ionic capital, festoons of foliage hanging from the volutes. The font is a circular basin of white marble, with four cherubic heads attached to it; the cover represents a square temple, with a niche in each face, on which are statues of the four evangelists distinguished by their proper symbols. In the gallery is an organ erected by subscription in 1822, when the church was last repaired. The entrance in the south front is covered with a porch, enriched with Corinthian pilasters and crowned with an elliptical pediment, on the apex of which the pelican is repeated; there is also an entrance in the northern wall which corresponds; the arms of king James II. occupy the place of the pelican. The excellence of the building appears in some degree to have extended its influence to the monuments, the two handsomest are the following; one of white marble under the south-east window to the memory of sir Patience Ward, lord mayor, 1681, died July 10, 1696, without issue, and his lady, being a cenotaph as to the latter. The decorations are in a very correct style, and on a lofty acroterium is a marble statue of Hope about two feet high; the other was erected to the memory of the wife of Mr. Alderman Perchard: it is of white marble, and is adorned with neat relievos of Faith, Hope, and Charity.

This church was rebuilt after the fire in 1666, under the direction and from the design of sir Christopher Wren, at an expense of 4,922l. 2s. 4 1/2d. The dimensions are, length 63 feet, breadth 60, height 51, height of steeple 140 feet. In the vestry room is a plan of the parish made in 1816. The organ was erected in 1822 by voluntary subscription, and cost 300l.

This church is of ancient foundation, and is supposed to derive its additional name from being situated on high ground, as it is found written Apchurch and Upchurch. The patronage was originally in the prior and canons of St. Mary Overies, , who, in , exchanged it with the master and chaplains of Corpus Christi college, Laurence Poulteney hill, for a house in the parish of Allhallows-the-less. On the dissolution of that house it fell to the crown. Queen Elizabeth, in the of her reign, , gave it to the college of Corpus Christi, Cambridge; in whom the advowson still remains.

The church is situated on the west side of ; the south front abuts on a paved court, which is still used as a burying ground; the west front and tower on a passage leading into Sherbourn lane. It is a spacious rectangular building of brick covered with stucco, with stone dressings; the elevations of the building are nearly uniform. In the centre of the southern front is a large segment arched window, with a a shield upon the key-stone; on each side is a semicircular arched window, with another of a circular form above it, the key stones of the lateral windows have cherubs. Below the westernmost is an arched entrance surmounted with a cornice resting on consoles. The east front only differs in having the centre window walled up. The north elevation is built against, and has consequently no windows. The western front corresponds, except in regard of the tower. The angles are rusticated, and the walls are finished with a coping. The roof is slated and rises in a dome, square in plan, and pierced with circular windows, having a platform on the summit. The tower is situated within the walls at the north west angle of the church, and in this respect varies the western elevation; it is built with brick and covered with compo; the angles are rusticated, and the elevation is made by plain courses into stories; in the basement of the west front is an arched entrance similar to the already described; the next story has an arched window, the key stone carved with a cherub; the has a circular, and the an arched window, with a grotesque mask on the key stone; the latter is also repeated on the other sides of the tower; the elevation finishes with a cornice and parapet; the door and window cases, and other dressings, are stone: above the parapet rises a leaded dome, pierced with port holes; on its summit is a square story, formed by open arches which sustain an obelisk of the same form, covered with lead: the whole is finished with a ball and cross surmounted by a vane.

The interior of this church is strikingly grand, and with the exception of the Roman in , is perhaps the most highly decorated ecclesiastical edifice in London. The plan is square, lengthened by divisions at the west end: the ceiling is formed by arches springing from corbels affixed

263

to the walls, and from a column and pilaster at the west end, all of the Corinthian order, the corbels being formed of the capital of a pilaster; these arches gather over into pendentives, and sustain a circular modillion cornice which serves as the impost to a hemispherical dome, the whole of the soffit of which is painted; it is pierced, as before observed, with port hole windows; just above these windows is a painted repetition of the cornice, and the interval between that and the lower cornice is occupied by paintings in chiaroscuro of seated female figures in imitation of sculpture representing saints and martyrs. The remainder of the dome is painted in colours, with a cherubic choir, some of whom are engaged in playing on various instruments of music, others in chaunting the praises of the Deity, and the remainder in the act of adoration. In the centre is a splendid irradiation surrounding the Hebrew name of the Deity. The effect of the whole is injured by unsightly iron scroll work depending from the centre, and which remains, although the chandelier it upheld is removed. Of the divisions westward, are recessed and occupied by a gallery, with rich pannelled front coeval with the church; and the is filled by the tower, which here, as well as in many other instances, is allowed to protrude into the church; in the basement is an entrance covered with an oak frontispiece, consisting of an arch surmounted by a cornice resting on consoles: above this, is an arched window now walled up. As a proof of the inattention of the architect to detail, it may be remarked, that neither this window nor the door below it, are in the centre of the wall; this frequent disregard of uniformity observable in the works of sir Christopher Wren, can only be accounted for by the supposition that his great mind was occupied so entirely by the grandeur of the whole, that it could not descend to pay strict attention to the parts. The wood work is deserving of attention. The altar screen is composed of a pannelled plinth sustaining a facade ending in a lofty acroterium surmounted by a shield having the cypher A. R. in a garter between pair of Corinthian columns sustaining an entablature and broken elliptical pediment, surmounted by an attic crowned by vases. The commandments, &c. are inscribed on large tablets. The whole face of the screen is enriched with a profusion of Gibbons' carving in his best style: above the decalogue is a pelican feeding her young with her blood, and the remainder of the centre is occupied by entwined tendrils, grapes, flowers, various fruits, and ears of wheat, executed with such delicacy, and at the same time so accurate, that it appears a matter of surprise how the sculptor could succeed so well on such a material; the screen is painted to represent verd antique and Sienna marbles, but the imitation is the most bungling ever witnessed, the capitals of the columns and the carvings are white. The pulpit is hexagonal, and has a sounding board of the same form richly carved, in which the pelican is introduced; it rests on a square pillar, with an Ionic

264

capital, festoons of foliage hanging from the volutes. The font is a circular basin of white marble, with cherubic heads attached to it; the cover represents a square temple, with a niche in each face, on which are statues of the evangelists distinguished by their proper symbols. In the gallery is an organ erected by subscription in , when the church was last repaired. The entrance in the south front is covered with a porch, enriched with Corinthian pilasters and crowned with an elliptical pediment, on the apex of which the pelican is repeated; there is also an entrance in the northern wall which corresponds; the arms of king James II. occupy the place of the pelican. The excellence of the building appears in some degree to have extended its influence to the monuments, the handsomest are the following; of white marble under the south-east window to the memory of sir Patience Ward, lord mayor, , died , without issue, and his lady, being a cenotaph as to the latter. The decorations are in a very correct style, and on a lofty acroterium is a marble statue of Hope about feet high; the other was erected to the memory of the wife of Mr. Alderman Perchard: it is of white marble, and is adorned with neat relievos of Faith, Hope, and Charity.

This church was rebuilt after the fire in , under the direction and from the design of sir Christopher Wren, at an expense of The dimensions are, length feet, breadth , height , height of steeple feet. In the vestry room is a plan of the parish made in . The organ was erected in by voluntary subscription, and cost

 
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 Title Page
 Dedication
 CHAPTER I: The site, extent, buildings, population, commerce, and a view of the progressive increase of London
 CHAPTER II: List of the parishes and churches in London, with their incumbents, &c
collapseCHAPTER III: History and Topography of Aldersgate Ward
collapseCHAPTER IV: History and Topography of Aldgate Ward
collapseCHAPTER V: History and Topography of Bassishaw Ward
collapseCHAPTER VI: History and Topography of Billingsgate Ward
collapseCHAPTER VII: History and Topography of Bishopsgate Ward, Without and Within
collapseCHAPTER VIII: History and Topography of Bread-street Ward
collapseCHAPTER IX: History and Topography of Bridge Ward Within
collapseCHAPTER X: History and Topography of Broad-street Ward
collapseCHAPTER XI: History and Topography of Candlewick Ward
collapseCHAPTER XII: History and Topography of Castle Baynard Ward
collapseCHAPTER XIII: History and Topography of Cheap Ward
collapseCHAPTER XIV: History and Topography of Coleman-street Ward
collapseCHAPTER XV: History and Topography of Cordwainer's-street Ward
collapseCHAPTER XVI: History and Topography of Cornhill Ward
collapseCHAPTER XVII: History and Topography of Cripplegate Ward Within
collapseCHAPTER XVIII: History and Topography of Cripplegate Yard Without
collapseCHAPTER XIX: History and Topography of Dowgate Yard
collapseCHAPTER XX: History and Topography of Farringdom Ward Within
collapseCHAPTER XXI: History and Topography of Farringdon Ward Without
collapseCHAPTER XXII: History and Topography of Langbourn Ward
collapseCHAPTER XXIII: History and Topography of Lime-street Ward
collapseCHAPTER XXIV: History and Topogrpahy of Portsoken Ward
collapseCHAPTER XXV: History and Topography of Queenhithe Ward
collapseCHAPTER XXVI: History and Topography of Tower Ward
collapseCHAPTER XXVII: History and Topography of Vintry Ward
collapseCHAPTER XXVIII: History and Topography of Wallbrook Ward
This object is in collection:
Edwin C. Bolles papers
Subjects
London (England)--History
Antiquities
Permanent URL
http://hdl.handle.net/10427/44306
ID: tufts:UA069.005.DO.00068
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