The History and Antiquities of London, Westminster, Southwark, and Parts Adjacent, vol. 3

Allen, Thomas
1827

St. Paul's Cathedral.

St. Paul's Cathedral.

St. Paul's Cathedral

It has been judiciously remarked, that among the modern works of architecture which adorn and dignify the British empire, this stupendous fabric holds the most distinguished rank; that even with foreigners it has obtained great celebrity, and in any enumeration or comparison of the religious edifices of Europe, is always mentioned immediately after the church of St. Peter, at Rome.

The popular tradition, that a temple, dedicated to Diana, once occupied the site of St. Paul's cathedral, has already been mentioned,See vol. 1, page 22. as well as the small degree of credit which sir Christopher Wren, the architect of the present structure, was inclined to give to the common report.

It may not be improper to mention what Stow, the most accurate of all the historians of London, states on the subject of a Roman temple having once stood on the site of St. Paul's. Some have noted, says this author, that on digging the foundation of this newe worke (namely, the Lady Chapel, built by bishop Baldock, about 1313), there were found more than a hundred scalpes of oxen, or kine, which thing (say they) confirmeth greatly the opinion of those which have reported, that of olde time there had beene a temple of Jupiter, and that there was daily sacrifice of beasts. Other some, both wise and learned, have thought the buck's head, borne before the procession of Paule's, on St. Paule's day, to signifie the like: but true it is, that I have read an auncient deed to this effect.

Sir William Baude, knt. the third of Edward the First, in the year 1274, on Candlemas day, graunted to Harry de Borham, dean of Powles, and to the chapter there, that in consideration of two acres of ground or land, granted by them within their manor of West-ley, in Essex, to be inclosed into his park of Curingham he would for ever, upon the Feast-day of the Conversion of St. Paul, in winter, give unto them a good doe, seasonable and sweete; and upon the feast of the commemoration of St. Paul, in summer, a good bucke, and offer the same at the high altar, the same to be spent amongst the canons residents. The doe to be brought up by one man at the houre of procession, and through the procession to the high altar; and the bringer to have nothing: the bucke to be brought by all his meyney in like manner; and they to have payd unto them by the chamberlaine of the church 12 pence onely, and no more to be required. This graunt he made, and for performance bound the lands of him and his heirs to be distrained on; and if the landes shoulde be evicted, that yet hee and his heires shoulde accomplishe the gift. Witnesses, Robert Tilbery, &c. His son, sir William Baude, knt. confirmed his father's gift in the thirtieth of the same reign.

Thus much for the grant. Now what I have heard by report, and have partly seene, it followeth. On the feast-day of the commemoration of St. Paul, the bucke being brought up to the steps to the high altar in Powles church, at the houre of procession, the deane and chapter, being apparelled in copes and vestments, with garlands of roses on their heads, they sent the body of the bucke to baking, and had the head, fixed on a pole, borne before the crosse in their procession, untill they issued out of the west doore, where the keeper that brought it blowed the death of the bucke, and then the homers that were about the cittie presentlie answered him in like manner; for the which paines they had each one, of the dean and chapter, fourpence in money, and their dinner; and the keeper that brought it was allowed during his abode there, for that service, meat, drink, and lodging, and five shillings in money at his going away, together with a loafe of bread, having the picture of St. Paule uppon it, &c. There was belonging to the church of St. Paul for both the days two special sutes of vestments, the one imbrodered with buckes, the other with does; both given by the said Baudes, as I have heard. Sur. of Lon. p. 270-273.

Though sir Christopher controverted the idea of Diana's temple, he was of opinion that a Christian church had stood upon this spot at a very early period, agreeably to the statements of different ecclesiastical writers; yet as venerable Bede, in his account of the establishment of Christianity in London, under bishop Mellitus, gives no intimation of such a fact, its accuracy is liable to be questioned. Bede, who lived nearest to the time, ascribes the foundation of the original St. Paul's to Ethelbert king of Kent, to whom all the country, south of the Humber, was feudatory. This munificent prince, after his conversion by St. Augustine, besides greatly contributing to the establishment of the cathedral at Canterbury, founded the abbey of St. Augustine in that city, and afterwards, in the year 610, began the building of St. Paul's; to which church he granted the manor of Tillingham, with other lands.Besides the gift of Tillingham, in Essex, granted by the first charter of king Ethelbert, he also gave to this church twenty-four hides of land near London, (dedit viginti quatuor Hidas terra juxta Londonium) all of which, with the exception of Norton Folgate, reserved for the dean and chapter, were divided into the prebends of More, Finsbury, Old-street, Wenlock's-barn, Hoxton, Newington, Islington, St. Pancras, Kentish-town, Tottenham, Ragener, Holbourn, and Portpool. The gifts made by king Athelstan consisted of 106 farms, messuages, etc, at various places, chiefly in Essex; king Edgar gave three-score marks, and twenty-five mansions at Nasingstoke, king Canute granted the church of Lambourne, in Berks, pro victu Decani qui pro tempore fuerit; Edward the confessor gave eight messuages, &c. at Berling, and five at Chingford, in Essex; and also confirmed the gift of West Lee, in the same county, made by a religious woman, named Ediva. Divers other manors were also granted to St. Paul's before the conquest, as Kensworth, Caddington, &c. The conqueror, besides the castle of Stortford, in Herts, gave the land of William, the Deacon, and Ralph, his brother, held of the king; William Rufus confirmed all his father's donations and privileges, and freed the canons of St. Paul's from all works in respect to the Tower; two hundred acres of wood in Hadley and Thundersey, in Essex, with fourscore acres of arable land and a brewhouse, were afterwards given by Peter Newport; Draton was given by sir Philip Basset, knt. and Hayrstead by his executors; the executors of John of Gauntgave the manors of Bowes and Peeleshouse, in Middlesex; the churches of Willesdon, Sunbury, Brickesley, Rickling, and Aveley, were impropriated to the dean and chapter by divers bishops; and numerous houses within the city were granted to the cathedral establishment under different forms. Weever states, that among many deeds relating to the latter which he had seen, was one dated in the year 1141, and fastened by a label to the end of a stick, of what wood I know not; howsoever it remains to this day free from worm-holes, or any the least corruption, not so much as in the bark, upon which the following words were fairly written: Per hoc lignum oblata est terra Roberti fillij Gousberti super altare Sancti Pauli in festo omnium Sanctorum. Fun. Mon. p. 356. Edit. 1631. A great variety of particulars relating to numerous other grants that have been made to this church, may be seen in Mal. Lord. Red. vol. iii. p. 35-44. Erkenwald, the fourth bishop, expended large sums upon the new fabric, but whether for additions, or to Ethelbert's plan, cannot be ascertained. He also augmented its revenues, and procured for it considerable privileges from the Pope, and the Anglo-Saxon princes, who then reigned in England. During the successive centuries, from that time to the conquest, the immunities and possession of the cathedral were greatly increased by different sovereigns; among whom were Kenred, king of Mercia,, Athelstan, Edgar and his queen, Ethelred, Canute, and Edward the confessor. William, the Norman, following the example of his Saxon predecessors, confirmed to St Paul's all its estates and privileges by a charter, which concludes with the words, for I will that the church, in all things, be as free as I would my soul should be at the day of judgment. See Strype's Stow, Vol. ii. p. 638. This charter must have been given either in or after 1070, as Lanfranc, archbishop of Canterbury, and Thomas, archbishop of York, are among the attesting witnesses, and both those prelates were not appointed to their respective sees till that year. He afterwards granted to Maurice, the bishop, and his successors for ever, the castle of Stortford, in Hertfordshire, with all its appurtenances.

In the year 1086, the old cathedral was destroyed by a destructive fire, which enveloped the greater part of the city in similar ruin. After this event, bishop Maurice, who had been chaplain and chancellor to the conqueror, conceived the vast design of erecting the magnificent structure which immediately preceded the present cathedral; a work, says Stow, that men of that time judged would never have bin finished, it was to them so wonderfull for length and breadth. Sur. of Lond. p. 262; fist Edit. Much of the stone used in that edifice was brought from Caen, in Normandy; and king William gave toward the building of the east end, the choyce stones of his castle, standing neere to the bank of the river Thames.

The magnitude of the new edifice was so great, that neither Maurice, nor de Belmeis, his successor, were able to complete the undertaking; though each of them presided twenty years, and expended great sums in furthering it. The latter appropriated the whole revenue of his bishopric for carrying on the work, supporting himself and his family by other means.Malmesbury. Bishop Belmeis II. following the example of his uncle, proceeded with the work, and his successors in process of time, completed the undertaking; though not in all parts in accordance with the original plan.Previously to this, however, the cathedral again suffered by fire, though to what extent is questionable; for Stow, in his annals, has given two accounts, which are contradictory to each other. Under the date, 1132, he records, that a fire, beginning at Gilbertus house, in West Cheap, burnt, eastward, a great part of the city to Aldgate, with the priory of the Holy Trinity, and westward, to Ludgate; consuming the great church of St. Paul. Yet, in the next place, he mentions another fire, which kindled at the house of one Ailward, neare London Stone, and consumed eastward, to Aldgate, and westward, to St. Erkenwald's Shrine in Paules church. This second fire he has also mentioned in his Survey of London (First Edit. p. 117.) with the additional sentence, in the which fire the Priorie of the Holy Trinitie was brent. Now, had the former fire actually consumed the church, the shrine of St. Erkenwald would, most probably, have been destroyed with it; and if it had not, there is the greatest incongruity in supposing, that the vast fabric of St. Paul's could have been restored within the short space that had elapsed between the above dates, when we have seen, that nearly fifty years had been passed since its foundation by Maurice, and that it was still incomplete. The priory of the Holy Trinity, also, is said, to have been burnt in each conflagration; yet, it is almost equally incredible if that edifice was really destroyed by the first fire, that it could have been rebuilt so early as the occurrence of the second.-Brayley, ii. p. 208.

In the conflagration of the city in the year 1135 or 1136, the eastern part, or choir of the new church, appears to have been burnt: when it was restored is uncertain, though Dugdale conjectures it to have been executed in the time of bishop Richard de Ely, who expended great sums on this fabric in the reign of Henry the Second.Hist. St. Paul's p. 6. The erection of the central tower was probably carried on at the same time, yet this was not completed till 1221, in the last year of bishop de Sancta Maria. In 1229, bishop Niger undertook to rebuild and extend the choir,Sir Christopher Wren imagined that the choir was added in after times, to give a greater length eastward and that the original termination of the presbyterium was semicircular. Among the foundations of the choir he found nine wells in a row, which he conceived to have anciently belonged to a street of houses, that crossed obliquely from the High-street, then Watling street, to the Roman Causeway, now Cheapside. Parentalia, p. 272. in the pointed style of architecture, then becoming prevalent.Hist. St. Paul's, p. 12. The expense of this was partly defrayed by collections made throughout England and Ireland, and by the sale of indulgences. On the completion of the work, in the year 1240, the grand ceremony of consecration was performed by bishop Niger, assisted by cardinal Otho, the pope's legate, the archbishop of Canterbury, and six bishops, in the presence of Henry the Third, and a vast concourse of dignitaries, nobles, and citizens. Whar. Hist. de Episc.

In the year 1256, the newe work of Pauls, to wit, the cross yles, were begun to be new builded. Howes Stow's Chro. p. 191. This must have been to adapt them to the style of the new choir. In the same year, the foundation of the Lady Chapel was begun by Fulk Basset, the then bishop: bishop Baldock gave four hundred marks towards completing it; and the rest of the charges were principally defrayed by the sale of indulgences.Leland says, that the Lady chapel was built on ground that had been obtained of king John for a market place. This chapel appears to have been completed within a year or two after 1312, as Dugdale has preserved a contract bearing that date, for paving it with marble, at 5d. per foot. Beneath it, and extending also under part of the choir, was the extensive crypt known as St. Faith's church.

The upper part of the spire, which was of timber, being greatly decayed, and the old cross that crowned its apex having fallen down, a considerable repair in this part was made in the years 1314 and 1315, and a new cross was then set up, in the ball of which, the bishop, Gilbert de Segrave, enclosed numerous holy relics, in the vain hope of preserving the spire from storms. This may be considered as the period of the completion of the ancient church, and two hundred and twenty-five years had now intervened from the time of its foundation by Maurice.

In 1344, a beautiful clock, of curious mechanism, was erected. The hour hand, or rather the hand of an angel, revolved past the numerals. If contrived with graceful attitude and easy motion, the thought was singularly appropriate, a heavenly messenger marking the progress of time.

On Candlemas eve (February the first) in the year 1444-45, in a great tempest of wind, bail, snow, and rain, accompanied by thunder, the towering spire of this edifice was fired by lightning, in the midst of the shaft, first on the west side and then on the south; and the people, espying the fire, came to quench it in the steeple, which they did with vinegar, Howe's Stow's Ch. p. 384. at least in appearance, so that all men withdrew themselves to their houses, praising God: but betweene eight and nine of the clock in the same night, the fire brast out again more fervently than before, and did much hurt to the lead and timber, till by the great labour of the maior and people that came thither, it was thoroughly quenched. Stow's Lond. p. 264. First edit. The subsequent repair was not completed till 1462, when a man was killed on the pinnacles, through the breaking of a rope with which he was raising the weather-cock; which was an eagle, with expanded wings, made of copper, gilt, four feet in length, and three feet and a half in breadth over the wings.Ibid. 264.

In the year 1561, June the fourth, the spire was again set on fire, though not by lightning, as at first supposed, and as Stow has recorded in his Annals; for Dr. Heylin affirms, that an aged plumber, when at the point of death, confessed that the fire had been occasioned by his own carelessness, in leaving a pan of coals and other fuel in the steeple whilst he went to dinner; and that he had judged it better, for his own safety, not to divulge the real cause, as the flames had got so high before his return that he found them impossible to be quenched. This fire, says Stow, brast forth, as it seemed to the beholders, two or three yardes beneath the foote of the crosse, and from thence, brent down the spere to the stone works and bels, so terribly, that within the space of four houres, the same steeple, with the roofes of the church, so much as was timber, or otherwise combustible, were consumed; which was a lamentable sight and pittiful remembrance to the beholders thereof. Howe's Stow's Ch. p. 646.

After this mischance, the Q. Majestie [Elizabeth] being much grieved for ye losse of so beautiful a monument, directed the mayor to assemble the citizens for the purpose of taking the requisite measures for an immediate repair, and for the furtherance thereof, did herself presently give, and deliver in gold 1000 marks, and a warrant for a thousand load of timber, to be taken out of her majestie's woods or elsewhere. Ibid. The citizens and the clergy contributed very liberally after this example, and the work was so immediately proceeded with, that, within a month after the fire, a complete covering of boards and lead, after the manner of a false roofe, and the greatness of the worke, dispatched in so short time, was for feare of raine, which might have perished the vaults to the destruction of the whole church. Ibid. So much expedition was practised on this occasion, that the roofs of all the aisles were fully completed and covered with lead before the expiration of the year; as well as the great roofe of the west end, which was framed and made of new and great timber in Yorkshire, and brought to London by sea. Howe's Stow's Ch. p. 646. In like manner, within the sayd yeere, the whole roofe, and frame of the east end, was made in Yorkshire, and brought by sea to London, and after set uppe as the rest of the roofes; but the roofes of the north and south end of the same church, remained covered with boards till 1564, when the bishop (as I am informed) tooke upon him the charge of repairing them, and for the same laid out 720l. and so that worke ceased to proceed any further. Ibid. In this latter sentence, the historian alludes, probably, to the spire, which was never rebuilt, though divers models were devised, and sufficient monies collected for the execution.Strype's Stow, vol. i. p. 646. There must have been some very considerable defect of solidity in the original construction of this immense fabric, for, in the time of James the First, it appears to have become ruinous throughout; and though large sums of money were collected, and materials provided, it remained in the same state till the elevation of Laud to the see of London. This prelate exerted himself zealously and successfully in favour of the neglected building, and a general subscription, supported in a munificent manner by king Charles, was soon collected to the amount of 104,330l. 4s. 8d. Having thus amply provided the necessary means for an entire restoration of the church, the celebrated Inigo Jones was appointed to superintend the important undertaking. His repairs were begun in 1633, end being diligently prosecuted, in the course of nine years a magnificent portico was erected at the west end: the whole exterior of the body of the church was new cased with stone, and the roofing and lead covering were completed. The vaulting, which stood greatly in need of reparation, was well centered and upheld with some hundred of tall masts. Such was the situation of the building when the dissentions between the king and the parliament broke out into civil war. From that period so fatal to the monuments of ecclesiastical antiquity, most of the cathedrals in the kingdom date considerable oss; but the cathedral of London, whose citizens had adopted the popular side, both in politics and religion, with peculiar zeal, suffered beyond all example. Having confiscated the revenues of the church, the parliament seized all the remaining money and materials which had been appropriated to the repairs. The scaffolds and centres were granted to the soldier's of colonel Jephson's regiment for arrears of pay, and they removed them with so little caution, that great part of the vaulting fell down in consequence. The choir was still used for public worship, but the rest of the building was converted into stables and barracks for dragoons, whilst the pavement was, in various parts, broken up for saw-pits. The portico was converted into shops for seamstresses and milliners, with lodging rooms over them; the pillars being hacked and mangled, in order to make room for the tranverse beams that were placed between them. Some other enormities, though by no means the worst, were the subject of the following proclamation, issued during the time of the commonwealth, and dated May 27, 1651. Forasmuch as the inhabitants of St. Paul's church-yard are much disturbed by the souldiers and others calling out to passingers and examining them, (though they goe peaceably and civilly along); and by playing at nine-pinnes at unseasonable hours; these are therefore to command all souldiers and others whom it may concern, that hereafter there shall be no examining and calling out to persons that go peaceably on their way, unless they do approach the guards; and to forbeare playing at nine-pinnes and other sports, from the hour of nine o'clock in the evening until six in the morning, that so persons that are weak and indisposed to rest may not be disturbed. Thus this grand and venerable edifice continued exposed to every wanton, fanatical, or rapacious injury, until the restoration of the ancient order of things under Charles the Second, when the regular government of the church having been re-established, the dean and chapter proceeded immediately to remove the incroachments, and to restore the stalls and other appendages of cathedral worship; but their revenues not affording the means for a general reparation without liberal assistance, another subscription was solicited and received, and the repairs were re-commenced in 1663. Sir John Denham, the surveyor-general, had the superintendence of the works; but it appears, from the Parentalia, that sir Christopher, then doctor Wren, was employed to make a survey of the building, the result of which is given in an elaborate report contained in the work referred to. In that paper, the architect, after remarking on the original bad construction of the body of the church, and recommending a new and massy casing of stone, pronounces a final condemnation upon the tower, which, together with the adjacent parts, he represents as such a heap of deformities that no judicious architect mill think it corrigible, by any expense that can be laid out upon the dressing it, but that it will remain unworthy the rest of the work, infirm and tottering. He therefore proposes a bold alteration of the primitive form, by cutting off the inner corners of the cross, to render the middle part into a spacious dome or rotunda, with a cupola or hemispherical roof; and upon this cupola for the outward ornament, a lantern with aspiring top to rise proportionably, but not to that unnecessary height of the former spire. This proposal of the great architect does not appear to have been much approved by his employers, and the public opinion was expressed strongly for retaining the tower in th ancient form; but the great fire of London occurring in 1666, at length decided the question. Again this unfortunate building became a prey to the flames, which consuming the roof and precipitating the vaulting, weakened, cracked and ruined the walls and piers in such a manner, that they were judged incapable of repair. Still some years of irresolution and fruitless labour elapsed, till it was finally determined to erect a new cathedral, in a style worthy of the nation and of the occasion. Such was the fate of the ancient church ; and like many other monuments of antiquity, it might have passed into oblivion, had not that meritorious antiquary, Dugdale, with the assistance of that clever draughtsman and engraver, Hollar, preserved in his History of St. Paul's some considerable memorials of its form and decorations. A chronological view of the History of the Fabric of St. Paul's Cathedral. Bishop Mellitus610The cathedral founded. Bishop Erkenwald675Continued the building. Bishop Maurice King William I. and II.1086The body of the church and transept rebuilt, after a fire in 1086. King Henry I1107 Bishop Richd. de Bealmeis I1108There building proceeded with. King Henry I1127 Bishop Richard de Ely1189Began to rebuild the choir after a second fire in 1135. King Henry II Bishop William de St. Maria1198The central tower King John1221 King Henry III . Bishop Roger Niger1229The choir rebuilt. King Henry III1240 Bishop Fulk Basset1255Roof repaired. Ibid.1256New work, and Lady chapel at the east end of the cathedral, and St. Faith's church commenced. Bishop John de Chishul1277New work going on. Bishop Richard Gravesend1283 King Edward I1294 1303 Bishop Ralph de Baldock1309High altar. King Edward II1312Lady chapel completed. New work paved, and timber spire repaired. Bishop Gilbert de Segrave1314Spire repaired. Ibid1315 1316West Belfry. Bishop Steph. de Gravesend1332Chapter house. King Edward III. Bishop Simon de Sudbury1371General repair. Ibid Bishop Robert Gilbert1462Steeple repaired, after damage by lightning 1444. King Edward IV. Bishop Edmund Grindall1566Repaired after the fire on 4th of June, 1561. Queen Elizabeth Bishop William Juxon1633Western portico. Altar screen. King Charles I1642 Bishop Humphry Henchman1668Repairs re-commenced. King Charles II.1666Destroyed by the great fire. 1675First stone of new cathedral laid on 21st June. Bishop Compton1675The last stone laid. Queen Anne1710 Bishop William Howley1822New ball and cross. Interior cleansed throughout. King George IV

The ancient church was cruciform in plan, consisting of a body with north and south aisles, having two square towers attached to the north and south sides of the west front, the southern being the steeple of the parochial church of St. Gregory, which was also attached to the cathedral. A quadrangular cloister was erected on the south side of the nave, one of its sides being formed by the walls of the nave, and another by the west wall of the south transept. In the centre of the inclosed area was an octangular chapter house. At the intersection of the transept with the nave and choir rose a square tower; behind the altar rails was a space often met with in ancient churches, called the presbyterium, and here the new work, which was partitioned by a screen from St. Mary's chapel situated still more eastward. The transept had an extra aisle to the east, but contrary to what is usually seen in large churches; there were no attached chapels, or any projection from the main building beyond the buttresses, except the cloister and St. Gregory's church. Within the walls were several chapels denominated Bishop Kempe's chapel, St. George's, and St. Dunstan's, besides the Lady chapel.

From the accurate engravings which have been left of the old church by Wenceslaus Hollar, we are enabled to give a summary view of the architecture. In the first view taken before the repairs in the early part of the seventeenth century, the exterior is shewn to have possessed many elegant specimens of architecture. St. Gregory's church has mullioned windows, the walls are embattled, and the square tower ends in a dwarf spire. The windows of the south aisle of the cathedral appear to have been the workmanship of the fourteenth century, at which time great alterations had been made in the building. The buttresses were carved up pilaster fashion, as in all Norman buildings, shewing that the original wall still remained, and the transept had a splendid window of the above date in its south wall. The alterations which took place under the direction of Inigo Jones amounted to a total modernization of the nave and transepts, and though the architect certainly introduced some fine architecture in his improvements, the want of character, and the absurd mixture of Italian architecture with the old pointed style, destroyed the effect of both.

The west front of St. Paul's had a portico before the entrances of the Corinthian order, consisting of fourteen columns and four pilasters, sustaining an entablature and ballustrade. Eight of the columns, with two insulated pilasters, were ranged in front, and three columns and two pilasters in the flanks: on the ballustrade were statues of Charles II. and James II.

In the wall above the portico were three circular headed windows, over which was a block cornice; a circular window occupied the gable, and obelisks, on pedestals, were applied to the angles, The portico may be regarded as a fine specimen of Italian architecture, but its beauties were lost by its connection with the wall above. The west front of St. Gregory's church had a Venetian window substituted for the original mullioned one. The towers which flanked this front of the cathedral, were raised in height by the addition of an octagonal story and dwarf spire, which possessed considerable claims for approbation. The south side of the cathedral was completely modernized. The windows in St. Gregory's church were changed from pointed into Venetian; the buttresses of the cathedral converted into pilasters, finished with balls; the mullions and tracery of the windows destroyed, and modern ones with semicircular heads, having a cherub's head carved on the key-stone, which, with the addition of two consoles supported a square cornice above the window, similar to numerous examples in the churches of sir Christopher Wren substituted in their place. The clerestory windows were also altered into semicircular headed windows; the walls were covered with a new ashlaring, and finished with a block cornice and parapets. The transept had a new south front, with heavy buttresses and trusses in an anomalous style of architecture, neither assimilating with the ancient or modern works. The window was destroyed and circular headed windows in two series supplied its place.

The doorway was arched and accompanied with two pilasters. The west side of the transept was altered in a style corresponding with the nave.

The choir still retained its pristine features. The windows were pointed and filled with mullions and tracery, in the taste of the fourteenth century, showing how much ornamental work had been then added to the recently erected structure, the buttresses were finished with pinnacles, and united to the choir by flying arches. The flying buttresses built to counteract the weight of the spire, were worthy of attention; the tower had lancet shaped windows in the taste of the period when it was erected.

The north side of the nave had been modernized in the same style as the south, and the whole of this view of the church corresponded in its main features with the opposite one. Between several of the buttresses of the choir on both sides were small vestries, or chapels, which only occupied the recessed space of the buttresses. The eastern side of the transept shewed the original architecture of the fourteenth century, in the windows of the aisle the clerestory had been partially modernized.

The east end of the church, at the period of the fire, appears to have been nearly in the same highly ornamented state, to which it was brought by the additions of the fourteenth century. It was a beautiful architectural composition. In the basement were seen windows, which served to light the crypt and its subchapels. The windows of the superstructure greatly resembled the south transept of Westminster Abbey, a series of arched openings extended along the entire wall, over which was a large Catharine wheel carved in rich and resplendent tracery and inscribed in a circle, the angles being occupied by circles. Above this window was a gallery with a parapet, pierced with quarterfoils. In the gable above the gallery, was a window occupied by tracery. The ailes which were separated from the central division by buttresses, ending on pinnacles, had windows similar to their sides.

The cloisters were made in height into two stories ; the lower was occupied by an arcade, the upper contained a series of windows, upon the whole displaying a rich example of the pointed style. The Chapter House, The Chapter House which stood in the middle of the central area, was octangular, and though evidently defaced, shewed the remains of rich and elegant workmanship, in the same style of architecture as York cathedral. In the interior four pillars sustained the vaulted roof.

The interior of the cathedral, in splendour equalled, if it did not surpass, any church in England; one of its best features was an uninterrupted view from west to east of the grand roof.

The nave was in height made into three stories; the first story consisted of an arcade of considerable altitude, composed of eleven semicircular arches sustained on lofty pillars surrounded with smaller columns. The second, or gallery story, consisted of single arches of the same breadth as the lower ones, but of less height, sustained on clustered columns. The inner column of the main pillar was carried up to sustain the roof. The upper story and vault were in the early pointed style; the vaulting was sustained on ribs consisting of arches and cross-springers with bosses at the intersections, and was probably erected at the same time as the central tower. The semicircular arches were in the plainest but most scientific style of Norman architecture; they possessed all the grandeur without the excess of ornament which marked this singular style of building. This part of the church was evidently the work of bishop de Beaumeis, erected after the fire in 1086.

The upper story and vault were additions of the same period as that in which the central tower was erected. The perspective was beautiful, comprising a vista of nearly seven hundred feet, bounded by the splendid window in the eastern wall. The aisles retained a portion of the original Norman architecture; below the windows was a small arcade of semicircular arches, sustained on Norman columns. The screen to the choir was a beautiful composition of the fourteenth century; it was rich in canopied niches and pannelling in the finest style of pointed architecture. The choir, as well in the ensemble as the detail, strikingly resembled the nave of Westminster abbey. The upright of the walls was made into three stories like the nave, but all trace of Norman architecture had been removed. The first story shewed a lofty arcade of acutely pointed arches sustained on clustered columns. The vaulting consisted of diagonal ribs springing from the side walls, and uniting with one principal rib, continued along the whole vault at the crown of the arch with bosses at the points of juncture, being a counterpart of the nave of Westminster. The style of architecture shewed a building of the thirteenth century ornamented in the style of the succeeding one. The stalls displayed that mixture of pointed and Grecian architecture which marked the early part of the seventeenth century. Behind the altar screen the same style of building was continued; this portion was styled the new work, and was hounded by the screen of the Lady chapel, which was ornamented with upright pannels, and finished with an em battled parapet.

It will be seen from the foregoing description, that the excellent series of engravings by Hollar, allow of a complete idea being formed of the style and arrangement of the ancient cathedral. The whole of the superstructure, like the cathedral at Canterbury, was raised on arched vaults, which comprised not only many chapels, but the parochial church of St. Faith. Of this part Hollar has left a splendid engraving; from which it appears to have been a strongly vaulted building of the thirteenth century, the ribs of the vault springing from massive pillars and the arches acutely pointed. It was separated from the remainder of the crypt by a pierced screen richly ornamented with carving in open work.

When the spire was rebuilt, in the year 1315, an exact measurement was taken of the church, and this was copied by Dugdale from a brass table that was anciently affixed against a pillar in the choir. The entire length of the building was then 690 feet; the breadth, 130 feet; the height of the nave, from the pavement to the top of the vaulting, 102 feet; and the height of the choir, or new fabric, as it was called, was 88 feet. The altitude of the tower, from the level ground, was 260 feet, and of the spire, 274 feet; making a total of 634 feet: yet, according to the table, the whole height of the spire was only 620 feet. This variation has been accounted for, by supposing the height of the tower to have been taken to the summit of the battlements, or pinnacles, and that of the spire to have been reckoned from its base, a mode of measurement which might easily create an excess of fourteen feet in the entire altitude.

The tablet being itself a curiosity, a translation of the Latin inscription is added; it was affixed to a column near the tomb of the duke of Lancaster.Chronicle of London, Notes 181. The church of St. Paul, London, contains within its limits three acres of land and a half. One rood and a half, and six perches, covered. The length of the same church contains DCLXXXX feet. The breadth of the same church contains cxxx feet. The height of the western dome (vault) contains from the altar CIJ feet. The height of the dome (vault) of the new building contains from the altar LXXXVIIJ feet. The whole pile of the church contains in height, CL feet, with the cross. The height of the stone fabric of the belfry of the same church, contains from the level CCLX feet The height of the wooden fabric of the same belfry contains CCLXXIIIJ feet. But, altogether, it does not exceed five hundred and twenty feet. Also the ball of the same belfry is copper, and contains, if it were vacant, ten bushels of corn. The rotundity of which contains XXXVJ inches of diameter, which make three feet. The surface of which, if it were perfectly round, ought to contain four thousand LXVIJ inches, which make XXVIIJ square feet, and the fourth part of one square foot. The staff of the cross of the same belfry, contains in height xv feet The cross beam of which contains six feet. In which cross, in the year of our Lord, one thousand CCCXXXIX, on the XIth of the Kalend of August, namely, on the feast of Saint Mary Magdalene, many precious reliques of several saints were deposited with great solemnity of procession, for the preservation of the same cross, and the whole building beneath them, that the Almighty God, through the glorious merits of all the saints, whose reliques are contained in that cross, might deign to preserve them from tempest and peril, under his protection. Of whose mercy to all the XXVIJ procuring succour to the fabric of this church, CL days are set apart at every time of the year, besides the Roman ordnances, which are XLIIIJ in the year, and many other benefits.

It is impossible to particularize, within the necessary limits of this work, the vast variety of chapels, chantries, shrines, monuments, and ecclesiastical ornaments and vestments, that were to be found within the old cathedral. This, however, is the less to be regretted, as a very full and interesting account, illustrated by numerous excellent engravings, by Hollar, may be seen in Dugdale's history. Some of the chapels and monuments were in the most beautiful style of the pointed architecture. The screen, also, which separated the nave from the choir, was in a similar taste, and remarkably elegant, being enriched with canopied niches and statues. The statues which last adorned this screen, had been executed at the expense of that eminent citizen sir Paul Pindar.

The ancient mode of worship was celebrated in St. Paul's with great magnificence, and the numerous altars were richly adorned. Various statues of the Virgin, and of different saints, stood also in divers parts of the church, and frequent oblations were made before them. One glorious image of the Blessed Virgin, as Dugdale calls it, which stood in the body of the church, had a solemn service performed before it every morning; to institute and support which, Barnet, bishop of Bath and Wells, left certain lands, in 1365. Another statue of the Virgin stood in the Lady Chapel; and to this Hatfield, bishop of Durham, invited all the truly penitent, and confessed of their sins, to come and make offerings, or to say a Paternoster, and an Ave. under promise of an indulgence of pardon for forty days. The blessed Mary had also a chapel and an altar, expressly dedicated to her (independent of the Lady Chapel) where at every celebration of her offices a taper was burnt, weighing three pounds. Before the altar in the Lady Chapel seven tapers, each weighing two pounds, were constantly kept burning during the celebrations in honor of God, our Lady, and St. Lawrence. In the nave also stood a great cross, with a taper burning; and near the north door of the church was a crucifix, to which frequent oblations were made. A picture of St. Paul, which was placed in a tabernacle of wood, on the right side of the high altar, is spoken of as a masterly performance; and may be regarded as an early specimen of oil painting, as it was executed in the year 1398, and cost 12l. 6s.A letter is preserved in Rymer's Foedera, vol. in. p. 1033, which was sent by Edward II. to Bishop Stephen de Gravesend, forbidding him to suffer the continuance of the devotion that was accustomed to be paid to the picture of the earl of Lancaster, which was hung up, among many others, in St. Paul's church; this letter bears date in June, 1823. The earl was grandson to Henry III, and having been engaged in rebellion against the reigning monarch, was beheaded at Pontefract; but he was honoured by the people as a martyr, and was subsequently canonized, in 1398.-Brayley, vol. ii. p. 224.

The number of chantry chapels amounted to seventy-six: of these, full particulars, with the names of the founders, &c. may be seen in Dugdale's history. There were likewise no fewer than sixty endowed anniversary obits. Mr. Brayley observes, that these facts, when combined with the various saints' chapels, and altars, lead to the inference, that the priests belonging to this cathedral, including the regular establishment, could hardly be fewer than two hundred.

Among the splendid treasures of this church, as given by Dugdale, from an inventory taken in 1295, and which occupies thirteen folio pages of the Monasticon, were the following : three morses of gold, fourteen of silver; thirty of copper, gilt, and seven of wood, plated with silver; all of them, richly embellished with jewels: four pair of silver phials, or cruets; four silver ampuls; one silver chrismatory; two pair of silver candlesticks; a silver cup, gilt, with a cover and pyx; two holy-water vessels; nine silver censers; three silver globes, with a plate and ship for frankincense; six silver basons; eleven silver crosses; four golden chalices, or cups; five silver chalices; eleven books, richly bound; five silver biers, with many trunks, boxes, and caskets with relics, decorated with jewels; six silver cups; four horns, enriched with silver; nine mitres, partly adorned with jewels as were also the bishop's gloves; nine pair of rich sandals; eight croziers; ten rich cushions; one hundred copes of the richest silks; many copes of cloth of gold, and others embroidered with curious figures; eighteen amices; one hundred vestments, with proper stoles, manciples, tunics, dalmatics, albes, corporals, canopies, &c. besides a great variety of rich articles belonging to the numerous altars, shrines, and chapels.

Under the ancient form of worship in St. Paul's cathedral, it was the custom, annually, to choose an episcopus puerorum, or boy-bishop, who assumed the state and attire of a bishop, and whose rule continued from St. Nicholas's day (December the sixth) to that of the Holy Innocents, December the twenty-eighth.This was done in commemoration of St. Nicholas, who, according to the Romish calendar, was so piously fashioned, that even when a babe in his cradle, he would fast both on Wednesdays and Fridays, and at those times was well pleased to suck but once a day. However ridiculous it may now seem, the Boy Bishop, who was chosen from among the choristers, is stated to have possessed episcopal authority during the above term; and the other children were his prebendaries. He was not permitted to celebrate mass, but he had full liberty to preach; and however puerile his discourses might have been, we find they were regarded with so much attention, that Dean Colet, in his Statutes of St. Paul's School, expressly ordains that the scholars shall on every Childermas daye, come to Paule's churche, and beare the chylde bishop's sermon, and after be at the hygh masse, and each of them offer a penny to the chylde bishop; and with them the maisters and surveyors of the stole. Probably these orations, though affectedly childish, were composed by the more aged members of the church. If the boy bishop died within the time of his prelacy, he was interred in pontificalibus, with the same ceremonies as the real diocesan; and the tomb of a child bishop, in Salisbury cathedral, may be referred to as an instance of such interment. An article in the Wardrobe Accompts of Edward I. evinces that the episcopus puerorum had the honour of singing vespers before the king.

The boys of St. Paul's were famous for acting mysteries, or holy plays; and were also among the very first of those who performed the more regular dramas. So early as the year 1378, or second of Richard the second, they petitioned the king to prohibit some ignorant and inexpert people from presenting the History of the Old Testament, to the great prejudice of the said clergy, who have been at great expense in order to represent it publicly at Christmas.

One of the most remarkable occurrences that ever took place within the old cathedral, was the attempt made in 1371 by the archbishop of Canterbury and the bishop of London, under the commands of pope Gregory XI, to compel Wickliff, the reformer, to subscribe to the condemnation of some of his own tenets, which had been recently promulgated in the eight articles that have been termed the Lollard's Creed. The pope had ordered the above prelates to apprehend and examine Wickliff; but they thought it most expedient to summon him to St. Paul's, as he was openly protected by the famous John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster; and that nobleman accompanied him to the examination, together with the lord Percy, marshal of England. The proceedings were soon interrupted by a dispute, as to whether Wickliff should sit or stand; and the following curious dialogue arose on the lord Percy desiring him to be seated.

Bishop of London.If I could have guessed, lord Percy, that you would have played the master here, I would have prevented your coming.

Duke of Lancaster.Yes, he shall play the master here, for all you.

Lord Percy.Wickliff, sit down! You have need of a seat, for you have many things to say.

Bishop of London.It is unreasonable that a clergyman cited before his ordinary should sit during his answer. He shall stand.

Duke of Lancaster.lord Percy, you are in the right! And for you, my lord bishop, who are grown so proud and arrogant, I will take care to humble your pride; and not only yours, my lord, but that of all the prelates in England. Thou dependest upon the credit of thy relations; but so far from being able to help thee, they shall have enough to do to support themselves.

Bishop of London.I place no confidence in my relations, but in God alone, who will give me the boldness to speak the truth.

Duke of Lancaster(speaking softly to lord Percy.) Rather than take this at the bishop's hands, I will drag him by the hair of the head out of the church!

Fox's Acts and Monuments.

This harsh language so exasperated the bishop's partizans, that the duke and the earl marshal judged it prudent to withdraw with Wickliff; yet the tumult continued through the day, and the city populace, instigated by some false rumours, forced the gates of the Marshalsea, in Southwark, and released the prisoners; and afterwards proceeding to the duke's palace, in the Savoy, plundered his house, and would have committed violence on his person, had they been able to have found him.

The splendour of the Catholic forms of worship in St. Paul's was gradually abrogated, as the Reformation assumed a decided character. One of the latest of these exhibitions was on Whit-Sunday (June the 13th) 1546, when the peace of Guisnes was proclaimed with great solemnity, and a general procession before the which, says Stow, was borne all the richest silver crosses in London, to wit, of every church one, was made from St. Paul's through Cheapside and Cornhill, to Leadenhall, and back again to St. Paul's.Howe's Stow, p. 591. The procession was composed of all the parish clerkes, condocts, quiristers, and priests in London, with the quire of Paul's, all of them in their richest coapes, singing; the companies of the citie in their best liveries; the lord maior, the aldermen and sheriffs, in scarlet, &c. This was the last shew, continues the historian, of the rich crosses and copes in London; for shortly after they, with other their church plate, were called into the king's treasury and wardrobe.

On the eighteenth of September, in the succeeding year, the litany was chaunted in St. Paul's in the English language, and the epistle and gospel read at the high mass in the same tongue. Within two months afterwards (November the seventeenth) the rood, with Mary and John, and all other images in ye church was begun to be pulled downe ; and the like was done in all the churches in London, and so throughout England ; and texts of Scripture were written upon the walls of those churches, against images, &c. Howe's Stow, p. 593. On the Candlemas day following, February the second, the bearing of candles in the church was left off throughout the whole citie of London«; and various other ceremonies, as the strewing of ashes on Ash Wednesday, the carrying of Palms on palm Sunday, &c. were successively discontinued.

In the beginning of the year 1549, the privy council ordained that the bishop of London should permit no especial masses to be sung in St. Paul's, and but one communion at the high altar, and that to be administered during the celebration of mass. Shortly after, on the 6th of April, proclamation, says Stow, was made for the masse to be put down throughout the whole realms.

The following entry occurs in the journal of the youthful monarch Edward the Sixth.- 1549, Nov. 19. There were letters sent to every bishop to pluck down the altars. These mandates, however, were not immediately attended to; and it was not till the 11th of June (St. Barnabas's day), 1550, that the high altar in this cathedral was removed. A table was then set where the altar stood, with a vayle drawne beneath and steppes, and on the Sunday next a communion was sung at the same table; shortlie after, all the altars in London were taken downe, and tables placed in their roomes.

On the feast of All Saints (November the first) 1552, the new service book of the Common Prayer, was first used in St. Paul's, and in the other churches of the city. On this occasion bishop Ridley preached a sermon in the choir in the forenoon, in his rochet only, without cope or vestment ; and in the afternoon he preached at Paule's Crosse, the lord maior, aldermen, and crafts, in their best liveries, being present; which sermon, tending to the setting forth the saide late newe-made booke of Common Prayer, continued til almost five of the clocke at night, so that the maior, aldermen, and companies entred not into Paul's church, as had bin accustomed, but departed home by torch-light. Howe's Stow, p. 608. The prebendaries of St. Paul's had now left off wearing their hoods, and the use of all copes, crosses, &c. was forbidden; soon afterwards, the upper choir in St. Paul's church, where the high altar stood, was broken downe, and all the choir there about; and the table of the communion was set in the lower [choir] where the priests sing. Ibid. In the following year, the bishop of London, the lord mayor, the lord chief justice, with other, were appointed commissioners for collecting all the remaining church goods in the metropolis, that is to say, jewels of golde and silver, crosses, candlesticks, censers, chalices, and all such like, with their ready money, to be delivered to the master of the king's jewels in the Tower; and all copes and vestments of cloth of golde, cloth of tissue, and silver, to the master of the king's wardrobe in London: the other copes, vestments, and ornaments, to be sold, and the money to be delivered to the king's treasurer, sir Edm. Peckham, knight; reserving to every church one chalice or cup. with tablecloths for the communion board, at the discretion of the commissioners. Ibid, p. 609.

On the accession of queen Mary, Bonner, the deprived bishop of London, was released from imprisonment and reinstated in his see. Shortly afterwards, the Latin service was re-established in St. Paul's; and on the full restoration of the Romish religion and institutions by authority of parliament, Bonner ordered the choristers to proceed to the cathedral tower, and chaunt immediately such psalms as were suitable to the occasion. He had before this commenced his temporary triumph by officiating at high mass, and making a grand and solemn procession of his priests. That the London populace were not pleased with this change in religious affairs, may be inferred from an occurrence related by Stow, in these words:-- The same eighth of April (anno 1554), being then Sunday, a cat, with her head shorn, and the likeness of a vestment thrown over her, with her fore feete tied together, and a round peece of paper like a singing cake betwixt them, was hanged on a gallows in Cheape, neere to the crosse, in the parish of St. Mathew; which cat being taken down, was earned to the bishoppe of London, and he caused the same to be shewed at Paule's Crosse, by ye preacher, Dr. Pendleton. Ibid, p. 628. Whether any punishment awaited the perpetrators of this act does not appear; but Pendleton, most probably through his interference in the business, had a gun fired at him shortly afterwards, whilst preaching at Paul's Cross, the shot of which passed near to him, and struck on the church wall. This occasioned a proclamation to be issued, forbidding the bearing of weapons and the shooting with hand-guns. On the 28th of the November following, a sermon was preached in the choir of St. Paul's, by Dr. Chadsey, one of the prebendaries, in the presence of the mayor, aldermen, and city companies, bishop Bonner and nine other bishops, on account of a letter that had been received from the privy council, ordering Te Deum to be sung in all the churches in the diocese, for that the queene was conceived and quicke with childe. When the sermon was ended, the Te Deum was sung; after which, solemn procession was made of Salve festa dies, all the circuit of the church. Howe's Stow. p 625 Four days afterwards, cardinal Pole having come by water from Lambeth to Paul's wharf, proceeded to St. Paul's, with a cross, two pillars, and, two poll-axes of silver borne before him, where he preached in presence of king Philip of Spain, from the text Fratres, scientes quia hora est iam nos de somno surgere, &c. and declared in his sermon that the king and queen had restored the pope to his supremacy, and that the three estates of parliament, the representatives of the whole body of the realm, had submitted themselves to the same. Brayley's Hist. of London, ii. p. 235.

The accession of queen Elizabeth in November, 1558, again proved propitious to Protestantism, and the church-service was once more read in English at St. Paul's, and the other London churches, by proclamation; and at the same time the elevation of the host was strictly forbidden. When her sister died, Elizabeth was at Hatfield, and on her way thence to town, she was met at Highgate by most of the bishops, who, tendering their allegiance. were permitted to kiss their sovereign's hand, with the single exception of Bonner; the recollection of whose excessive severities induced the queen to treat him with marked disdain. In the following January, the papal supremacy was for ever abolished by parliament, and a general uniformity of worship established agreeably to the new book of Common Prayer, which, on the ensuing Whitsunday (May the eighth) was read generally in all the churches.

On the 24th of December, 1565, the great gates of the west end of the cathedral were blown open in a tremendous storm of wind, which also caused the loss of many lives in the Thames and at sea. Howe's Stow, p. 659. In another dreadful storm of wind, on the 5th of January, 1590, the south-west gate was blown open: all the bolts, bars, and locks being broken by the violence of the blast.Ibid, p. 769.

The thirty-seventh anniversary of Elizabeth's accession to the throne (anno 1595) was celebrated in London with great pomp, and, after a sermon preached by bishop Fletcher at St. Paul's cross, before the lord mayor, aldermen, &c. upon the church leads, the trumpets sounded, the cornets winded, and the quiristers sung an anthem; and on the steeple many lights were burned, This mention of the steeple can only refer to the stone-work that rose immediately above the intersection of the roofs of the nave and transept, as we know that the spire itself was never rebuilt after its destruction by fire in 1561. It is observable, however, that even Ben Jonson, in his comedy of The Devil's an Ass, performed in 1616, has spoken of the steeple as if it was then standing. Iniquity says, I will fetch thee a leap, From the top of Paul's steeple to the Standard in Cheap.It should be remarked here, that far more of the steeple, or central tower, was left standing, than is commonly imagined. Mr. Malcolm has quoted an estimate made in 1608, from the original in the archives of the cathedral, in which the following passage occurs:-- The steeple is to be taken down thirty-three foot, or thereaboute, and to bee made uppe againe, and the sides of the same to be repayred betweene the buttresses, which will conteyne 1032 tunnes of stone, &c.--Lond. Red. vol. iii. 75.

This probably refers to some surprising feats performed at different times from this steeple.

When queen Mary visited St. Paul's, as she passed through the churchyard, a Dutchman of the name of Peter stood on the weathercock of the steeple, holding a streamer in his hand, five yards long, and waving it, stood some time on one foot, at the same time shaking, the other; and then, says Stowe, kneeling on his knees to the great marvail of the people. The Dutchman had, however, adopted the precaution of constructing two scaffolds under him, which would have saved his life, had he fallen from this perilous height. The city gave him twenty-five marks for his cost and paines ; which, though not much, was a better reward than James the First bestowed on the man who climbed to the top of Salisbury cathedral; the king conferring on him a patent for performing the feat exclusively.

On the marriage of Philip and Mary. when the king and queen passed the churchyard, a fellow, says Stowe, came slipping upon a cord as an arrow out of a bow, from Paul's steeple to the ground, and lighted with his feet forwards on a sort of feather bed, and after he climbed up the cord again, and did certain feats ; all of which were performed on the coronation of Edward VI.

It must appear strange to those who are acquainted with the decent order and propriety of regulation now observed in our cathedral churches, and other places of divine worship, that such improper customs and disgusting usages as are noticed in various works, should have been formerly admitted to be practised in St. Paul's church; and more especially that they should have been so long habitually exercised as to be defended on the plea of prescription.

At every door of this church, says Weever, was anciently this verse depicted; and in my time it might be perfectly read at the great south door:--Hic locus hic sacer est, hic nulli mingere fas est. It was customary also for beggars to solicit charity even within the church; which was likewise made a common thoroughfare for porters and carriers, as an admonition to whom, the following lines were sometime affixed to a pillar, over an iron box kept to receive donations: All those that shall enter within the church doore With burden or basket, must give to the poor; And if there be any aske what they must pay, To this box a penny-ere they pass away.

The abuses at length became so flagrant, that an act of common council was issued to restrain them. This act, which was dated the 1st of August, in the first year of the reign of Philip and Mary, gives a curious picture of the manners of the time. It states, that Forasmuch as the material temples of God were first ordained for the lawful and devout assembly of people, there to lift up their hearts, and to laud and praise Almighty God, and to hear his divine service, and most holy word and gospel, sincerely said, sung, and taught: and not to be used as markets, or other profane places or thoroughfares, with carriage of things. And, for that now of late years, many of the inhabitants of the city of London, and other people repairing thither, have, and yet do commonly use and accustom themselves very unseemly and irreverently, the more the pity, to make the common carriage of great vessels full of ale and beer, great baskets full of bread, fish, flesh, and such other things; fardels [packs] of stuff, and other gross wares, and things, through the cathedral church of St. Paul's. And some in leading moyles, [mules,] horses, and other beasts, through the same university, to the great dishonour and displeasure of Almighty God, and the great grief also, and offence of all good people.

The act then proceeds to impose a fine on all future offenders of 3s. 4d. for the first offence, 6s. 8d. for the second, and 10s. for the third, with two nights imprisonment.

This statute, however, must have proved only a temporary restraint (excepting probably as to the leading of animals through the church ;) for in the reign of Elizabeth, we learn, from Malcolm's Londinium Redivivum,Vol. III p. 71. that idlers and drunkards were indulged in lying and sleeping on the benches at the choir door; and that other usages, too nauseous for description, were also frequent.

Among the curious notices relating to the irreverend practices pursued in this church in the time of Elizabeth, collected by the same author from the manuscript presentments on visitations, preserved at St. Paul's, are the following:

1598. We thinke it is verie necessary thinge that every quorister should bringe with him to church a testament in English, and torne to every chapter as it is dayly read, or some other good and godlye prayer-booke, rather than spend theyr tyme in talke, and hunting after spurr-money, whereon they set their whole minds, and do often abuse dyvers if they do not bestow somewhat on them. Spur-money was an exaction from persons who entered the cathedral booted and spurred; the gentlemen of the choir were peremptory in their demand, and threatened imprisonment in the choir for the night to all who refused them a pecuniary gift. The custom is still prevalent among the juvenile members of the chapel royal, at Windsor, the choristers at Lichfield, and some other cathedrals. At the time that the above presentment was made, spurs were generally worn by the bucks and dashers of the age, to whom Ben Jonson alludes in a scene in the Alchymist, where Subtle advises Abel Drugger to place a loadstone under the threshold, To draw in the gallants that wear spurs. In the upper quier wher the co«in [communion] table dothe stande, ther is such unreverente people, walking with their hatts on their heddes, comonly all the service-tyme, no man reproving them for yt.

The notices of encroachments on St. Paul's, in the same reign, are equally curious. The chapels of the different chantrys were used most infamously. St. George's chapel in the chancel, was a receptacle for old stones, and a ladder. Long chapel in the nave received fir poles and lumber, the rubbish of the repairs of 1566; forty-two years had elapsed since they were placed there. St. Katharine's was used as a school-room, and a chapel adjoining Jesus chapel, was let for a glazier's workshop!On the disgraceful uses to which these chapels were placed, Mr. Malcolm makes the following sapient remark!- Shade of Elizabeth! how were these things kept from your notice, when you visited St. Paul's? That you did not see them, I firmly believe. If she did, (and it is highly probable,) she would have cared as much about the desecration as her father did, when he turned the monasteries and churches into warehouses for stolen goods. Part of the vaults beneath the church was occupied by a carpenter; the remainder was held by the bishop, the dean and chapter, and the minor canons. One vault, thought to have been used for a burial-place, was converted into a wine-cellar, and a way had been cut into it through the wall of the building itself.This practice of converting church vaults into wine cellars, it may be remarked, is not yet worn out. Some of the vaults beneath Winchester cathedral are now, or were lately, used for that purpose. The shrowds and cloisters under the convocation house, where not longe since the sermons in foule weather were wont to be preached, were made a common laystall for boardes, trunks, and chests, being lett oute unto trunk-makers; where, by meanes of their daily knocking and noyse, the church is greatly disturbed. More than twenty houses also had been built against the outer walls of the cathedral; and part of the very foundation was cut away to make offices. One of those houses had a closet literally dug in the wall: from another was a way through a window into a ware-room in the steeple; a third, partly formed by St. Paul's, was lately used as a play-house, and the owner of a fourth baked his bread and pies, in an oven excavated within a buttress. Malcolm, vol. iii. p 71-73.

From another presentment we learn the following:-- Yt is a greate disorder in the churche, that porters, butchers, and water-berers and who not? be suffered in special in tyme of service, to carrye and recarrye whatsoever, no man withstandinge them or gaynsayinge them, which is a greate seandalle to honeste mynded men. And boyes (savinge your reverence), p-ge upon stones in the churche, by St. Faithes doore, to slide upon, as upon ysse, and so by that meanes maye hurte themselves quicklye.

The Walker's in Paul's, The young gallants from the inns of court, the western and the northern parts of the metropolis, and those that had spirit enough to detach themselves from the counting-houses in the east, used to meet at the central point, St Paul's; and from this circumstance obtained the appellation of Paul's Walkers. However strange it may seem, tradition says, that the great lord Bacon used in his youth to cry, Eastward, ho! and was literally a Paul's Walker.Moser, in Eur. Mag. July, 1807. during this and the following reigns, were composed of a motley assemblage of the gay, the vain, the dissolute, the idle, the knavish, and the lewd; and various notices of this fashionable resort may be found in the old plays and other writings of the time. Ben Jonson, in his Every Man out of his Humour, has given a series of scenes in the interior of St. Paul's, and an assemblage of a great variety of the characters; in the course of which the curious piece of information occurs, that it was common to affix bills, in the form of advertisements, upon the columns in the aisles of the church, in a similar manner to what is now done in the Royal Exchange: those bills he ridicules in two affected specimens, the satire of which is admirable. Shakespeare, also, makes Falstaff say, in speaking of Bardolph, I bought him in Paul's, and he'll buy me a horse in Smithfield: if I could get me but a wife in the stews, I were mann'd, hors'd, and wiv'd. It would seem, from Massinger's comedy of the City Madam, that even cut-purses might be enumerated among the frequenters of Paul's. Shave «em says, I«ll hang ye both. I can but ride;That is, by way of punishment, in the cart, or tumbril. You for the purse you cut in sermon time at Paul's.

In a scarce tract, intituled Microcosmographie, printed in 1628, Paul's Walk and its visitants are described in the following whimsical terms; to the honour of the fair sex, females do not appear to have formed any part of the company. It is the land's epitome, or you may call it the lesser, isle of Great Brittaine. It is more than this, the whole world's map, which yon may here discerne in its perfect'st motion, justling and turning. It is a heap of stones and men, with a vast confusion of languages; and, were the steeple not sanctified, nothing liker Babel. The noyse in it is like that of bees, a strange humming or buzze, mixt of walking, tongues, and feet. It is a kind of still roare, or loud whisper. It is the great exchange of all discourse, and no business whatsoever but is here stirring and a foot. It is the synod of all pates politicke, joynted and laid together in the most curious posture ; and they are not halfe so busie at the Parliament. It is the anticke of tailes to tailes, and backes to backes; and for vizards, you need goe no further than faces. It is the market of young lecturers, whom you may cheepen here at all rates and sizes. It is the generall mint of all famous lies, which are here. like the legends of popery, first coyned and stamped in the church. All inventions are emptyed here, and not few pockets. The best signe of a Temple in it is, that it is the theeves sanctuary, which robbe more safely in the crowd than in a wilderness, whilst every searcher is a bush to hide them. It is the other expense of the day, after playes, taverne, and a baudy house, and men have still some oathes left to sweare here. It is the eare's brothell, and satisfies their lust and ytch. The visitants are all men, without exceptions; but the principal inhabitants and possessors are stale knights, and captaines out of service; men of long rapiers and breeches, which after all turne merchants here, and trafficke for news; but thriftier men make it their ordinarie, and boord here verie cheape. Of all such places, it is least haunted with hobgoblins, for if a ghost would walke, move he could not.

What is meant by the sentence, thrifty men make it their ordinary, and board here very cheap, alludes, probably, to the common saying (still in use) of Dining with duke Humphrey. Stowe relates, that sir John Beauchamp, son to the great Guy, earl of Warwick, had a faire monument in St. Paul's, which was misnamed Humphrey's, duke of Gloucester's, by ignorant people, who held the duke's memory in such particular veneration, that they were accustomed to assemble (thrice a year) at his tomb, and merily professe themselves to be his servants. The most solemn meeting was on the morning of St. Andrew's day, which, on this occasion, was, most probably, kept as a fast by the more zealous of the duke's servants; though the circumstances are not well explained, either by Stowe or Munday. Stowe's words are, that those who profess to serve duke Humphrey in Powles, are to be punished here, and sent to Saint Alban's, there to be punished againe for theyr absence from theyr master, as they call him. Antony Munday, Stowe's continuator says, that those who met concluded on a breakfast or dinner, assuring themselves to be servants, and to hold diversity of offices under the good duke Humphrey. The other assembly took place on May day, when tankard-bearers, watermen, and some of like quality beside, would use to come to the same tomb, early in the morning, and (according as the other) have delivered serviceable presentation at the monument, by strewing herbes and sprinkling faire water on it, as in the duty of servants, and according to their degrees and changes in office. Brayley, ii. p. 237.

Amidst so many profanations of this sacred place, it will not surprise the reader to find added to them that of lottery gambling.

The first lottery ever known in this country was drawn at the west door of St. Paul's cathedral, in 1569. It consisted of 40,000 tickets, at ten shillings each, the profits of which were to be appropriated to repairing the havens of the kingdom. The drawing began on the 11th of January, and continued day and night until the 6th of May. The prizes were all in plate. Another lottery consisting of rich armour was drawn here in 1586. On both these occasions a temporary wooden house was erected next to the walls for the purpose.

The annexed engraving shews the form of the church and the situation of the tombs.

Plan of St. Paul's Cathedral, 1644 1Portico.24Monument of Lacy, earl of Lincoln. 2, 3Towers.25Brass of bishop Braybroke. 4Convocation court.26Shrine of St. Erkenwald. 5St. Gregory's church.27Monument of dean Nowell. 6Bishop Kempe's chapel.28Monument of sir T. Heneage. 7Beauchamp's monument.29Brass of R. de Hengham. 8Chapter house.30Monument of sir S. Burley. 9Monument of Dr. Donne. Gaunt, duke of Lancaster.31Monument of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster 10Monument of dean Collet.32Monument of W. Herbert, 11Monument of W. Hewet. earl of Pembroke.33High altar. 12Monument of sir J. Cokayne.34Monument of bishop Chishul. 13Monument of sir N. Bacon.35Monument of bishop Niger. 14Brass of bishop Newcourt. shul.36Monument of sir J. Mason. 15Brass of dean Carey.37Monument of W. Aubrey. 16Brass of Dr. Brabazon.38, 39.Monument of king Sebba 17Brass of Dr. Rythyn.40Brass of Thomas de Eure. 18Brass of Simon Edolph.41Brass of W. Greene. 19Brass of Richard Lichfield. and king Ethelred.42Brass of R. Fitzhugh, bishop of London. 20Brass of John Acton.43Chapel of St. George. 21Monument of sir C. Hatton.44Chapel of St. Dunstan. 22, 23Monuments of bishops Fauconberge and Henry de Wengham.45Chapel of the Virgin.

Among the numerous monuments which adorned the old cathedral, the following were the most curious and important:--

In the nave on the south side was the tomb of John de Beauchamp. It was in the form of an altar, on which was his effigy in complete armour, with a surtout, emblazoned with his arms; his hands were joined in prayer, his head supported by a cushion, and his feet rested against a lion. The sides of the monument were divided into four compartments, each containing a quaterfoil, every leaf a trefoil, and, in the centre, a shield of arms.

The tomb of bishop Kemp exhibited a fine specimen of sepulchral architecture of the time of Edward IV. It stood in the north aisle of the nave, in a chapel where service was performed daily. The screen consisted of three open arches, decorated with trefoils, the buttresses with pinnacles and foliage. Above was a frieze with angels, shields of arms, badges, &c. finished with a cornice formed of lozenges pierced into quaterfoils. The basement had delicate arched pannels. At the east end of the screen was a circular arched niche, with a pointed moulding over it, on each side of which were small statues. The effigy of the bishop, arrayed in pontificalibus, lay on an altar tomb within.

On the floor of the nave and choir were numerous brasses, some of particular beauty. Thomas de Eure was represented in a vestment, embroidered with niches and saints. Five circular arches, with rising pinnacles, formed the canopy, above which was a circle, containing a representation of the annunciation. Twelve rich niches with saints, formed the border. John Newcourt had an equally elegant monument, with an engraving of the annunciation. There were also similar monuments, with their effigies, to Robert de Braybroke, bishop Fitzhugh, William Woraley, dean, died August 14th, 1488, Roger Brabazon, canon residentary, died 3d August, 1496, and bishop King, exclusive of numerous brasses for the minor clergy of the cathedral.

In the north aisle of the choir were the following monuments :--

Beneath two flat pointed arches in the wall, (before which were three acutely pointed arches with trefoil heads and foliage capitals, and between the sweeps, circles enclosing quaterfoils,) were the tombs of the Saxon kings Sebba and Ethelred. The sarcophagus of each had a pointed covering fluted, and resting on four dwarf columns.

Above each of their tombs was a tablet with the following inscriptions in black letter: Hic jacet Sebba, rex orientalium Saxonum; qui conversus fuit ad fidem per S. Erkewaldum, Londinens. episcopum, anno Christi DCLXXVI. Vir multum Deo devotus, actibus religious, crebris precibus et piis eleemosynarum fructibus plurimum intentus; vitam privatam et monasticam cunctis regni divitiis et honoribus preferens: qui cum regnasset annos XXX. habitum religiosum accepit, per benedictionum Waltheri Londinens. antistitis, qui prefato Erkenwaldo successit; de quo venerabilis Beda, in historia gentis Anglorum. Hic jacet Ethelredus, Anglorum rex, filius Edgari regis; cui in die consecrationis post impositam coronam, ferter S. Dunstanus, Cantuar. archiepiscopus dira praedixisse his verbis: quoniam aspirati ad regnum per mortem fratris tui, in cujus sanguine conspiraverunt Angli, cum ignominiosa matre tui; non deficiet Gladius de domo tua, saeviens in te omnibus diebus vitae tuae, interficiens de semine tuo, quosque regnum tuum transferatur in regem alienum, cujus ritum et linguam gens cui praesides non novit; nec expiabitur, nisi longa vindicta, peccatum tuum, et peccatum matris tuae, et peccata virorum, qui interfuere consilio illius nequam. Quae, sicut a viro sancto praedicta erant, evenerunt: nam Ethelredus varis praeliis per Swanum, Danorum regem, filinmq; suum Canutum fatigatus et fugatus, ac tandem Londini arcta obsidione conclusus, misere diem obiit, anno Dominicae Incarnationis MXVII postquam annis XXXVI. in magna tribulatione regnasset.

The tomb of William Aubrey, consisted of an arched recess, in which was his effigy between two columns of the composite order resting on a plinth, and sustaining an entablature, in the centre of which were his arms in a scroll, and on either side a winged hourglass and a scull. He was represented with a pointed beard, ruff, and black gown and cap, his left hand resting on a scull and his right holding a roll of parchment. Beneath the effigy was the following inscription:-- Gulielmo Aubraeo, clara familia in Breconia orto; L. L. in Oxonia Doctori, ac regio professori, archiepiscopi Cantuariensis causarum auditori, et vicario in spiritualibus general; exercitus regii, ad S. Quintinum, supremo juridico. In limitaneum Walliae concilium adscito; cancellariae magistro et reginae Elizabethae a supplicum libellis. Viro exquisita eruditione, singulari prudentia, et moribus suavissimis: qui tribus filiis, et sex filiabus, Wilgifforda uxore susceptis, aeternam in Christo vitam expectans, animam Deo XVIII. Julii, 1595. AEtatis suae 66 placide reddidit. Optimo patri, Edwardus et Thomas, milites; ac Johannes armiger, filii mastissimi Posuerunt.

Beneath was represented in basso relievo, six female figures and three male, five being in armour, and all in the attitude of prayer.

On the same side was the monument of John de Chishul, bishop of London, ob. 1280; it was a plain sarcophagus, under two pointed arches.

Bishop Niger's tombThe shrine of this bishop was in great repute. Matthew Paris records, that miracles were frequently wrought at it. was plain, of the altar form, before it were three pointed arches, and in the back wall three pierced quaterfoils. Above the tomb was a light screen of four pointed arches, the heads of each filled with tracery of very delicate execution.

Attached to a tablet was the following inscription:-- Hic requiescit in domino Rogerus, cognomento Niger, quondam canonicus hujus ecclesiae S. Pauli, ac deinde in Londinens. episcopum consecratus, anno salutis. 1228. Vir in literatura profundus, moribus honestus, ac per omnia laudabilis; Christianae religionis amator, ac defensor strenuus. Qui, cum pastorale officium vigilanter ac studiose rexisset annis 14. diem suum clausit extremum, apud manerium suum de Stebunheath, 3 calend. Octob. ann. Christi, 1241, regnante rege Henrico 3. Contigit his diebus dum episcopus iste Rogerus in hac ecclesia ante majus altare staret insulatus, ad celebrandum divina, quod tanta in aere facta et nubium densitas, ut vix alterum discernere possit; quam confestum secuta est tonitrui horribilis concussio, cum tanta fulminis coruscatione, ac foetore intolerabili, ut omnes, qui aderunt, rapide fugientes, nihil verius quam mortem expectarent; solus episcopus cum uno diacono remansit intrepidus. Acre tandem purgato, episcopus residuum rei divinae explevit. Epitaphium. Ecclesiae quondam praesul praesentis, in anno M. bis C. quater X. jacet hic Rogerus humatus. Hujus erat manibus domino locus iste dicatus: Christe, suis precibus veniam des, tolle reatus.

On the same side of the aisle was a handsome monument to the memory of William Herbert, earl of Pembroke, who died, 1569, aged 63. The tomb was formed by a basement and pedestals, on which were seven composite pillars. The three lower had arches, those on the side friezes and cornices only. Under those arches lay the effigies of the earl and his lady, on a sarcophagus; at the head his daughter Anne, lady Talbot, kneeling, and at the foot were two sons in armour, viz. Henry, earl of Pembroke, and sir Edward Herbert; on the middle columns were others of the same order, sustaining the arms and crests of the family; over the lateral columns were obelisks and shields of arms; the whole was decorated with scroll work, foliage, &c.

The next monument of interest was on the same side, to the memory of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, and Constantia and Blanch, his wives. It was not so elegant a design as some others of the same period. The effigies of himself and his first wife Blanch, lay beneath a canopy of pointed pinnacles, which was supported by eight hexagonal pillars on small pedestals. The whole design, as Mr. Malcolm remarks, was rather clumsy. His spear, a curious shield, and his abacof, or cap of state, were suspended before the monument.

On a tablet was the following inscription : Hic in domino obdormivit Johannis Gandavensis, vulgo de Gaunt, a Gandano, Flandriae urbe, loco natali ita denominatus; Edwardi Tertii, regis Angliae, filius, a patre comitis Richmondiae titulo ornatus. Tres sibi uxores in matrimonio duxit; primam, Blancham, filiam et heredem Henrici, ducis Lancastriae, per quam amplissimam adiit hereditatem. Nec solum dux Lancastriae, sed etiam Leicestriae, Lincolnie, et Derbie, comes effects. E cujus sobole imperatores, reges, principles, et proceres propagati sunt plurimi. Alteram habuit uxorem Constantiam (que hic contumulatur) filiam et heredem Petri regis Castillie et Legionis, cujus jure optimo titulo regis Castillie et Legionis usus est. Haec unicam illi peperit filiam Catherinam, ex qua ab Henrico, reges Hispanie sunt propagati. Tertiam vero uxorem duxit Catherinam, ex equestri familia, et eximia pulchritudine feminam, ex qua numerosam suscepit prolem; unde genus ex matre duxit Henricus VII. rex Angliae prudentissimus. Cujus felicissamo conjugio cum Elisabetha, Edwardi quarti regis filla. e stirpe Eboracensi regiae ille Lancastriensium et Eboracensium familie ad exoptatissimum Angliae pacem coaluerunt. Illustrissimus hic princeps Johannes, cognomento Plantagenet, rex Castillie et Legionis, dux Lancastriae, comes Richmondiae, Leicestriae, Lincolniae et Derbiae, locum tenens Aquitaniae. magnas seneschallus Angliae, Obiit Ann. 22 regni regis Richardi 2, annoque domini 1399.

Opposite the last was a handsome monument to the memory of sir Simon Burley ; his effigy in armour lay on an altar tomb, with a canopy at his head, his feet resting on a lion. The front of the tomb was divided into three divisions, by two buttresses ornamented with pinnacles. The middle division was double the width of the lateral ones, and was surmounted with a double arch, from which rose crocketted pinnacles, the spaces between being ornamented with shields of arms, &c.

On a tablet at the back of the tomb was the following inscription :-- Hic requiescit Simon Burley, banerettus, quinq: portuum praefectus, ordinis garterii miles, et regi Ricardo secundo consiliarius longe charissimus. Connubio sibi conjunctas habuit, ex amplissimis familiis, duas uxores; alteram Staffordiae, alterum baronis de Roos filiam; verum difficillimo illo tempore, cum inter Angliae proceres omnia sub juvene principe simultatibus agitarentur, in tantum nonnullorum odium incurrit, ut parliamentaria auctoritate capite plecteretur, anno Domini 1888. Posteri autem, eadem postea auctoritate, sub rege Henrico quarto sunt restituti. Obit anno salutis 1398.

On the north side of this aisle, beneath four acutely pointed arches, the pillars of which rested on the tomb, was the effigy in brass of Ralph de Hengham, lord chief justice of the King's Bench.

Opposite the last, was a monument of the composite order, to the memory of sir Thomas Heneage, knt. chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster, &c., who died October 17, 1594, his effigy in armour and that of his wife were placed under an arch. A kneeling female and a child lying on a tomb, were represented on the basement.

In the chapel of St. George, at the east end of the north aisle, was a curious monument, to the memory of sir John Wolley, ob. 1595. Above a basement was represented the effigies of three persons, and at each corner was a composite column, supporting statues of Time, Fame, &c.;Considerable remains of this monument now lie dispersed in the crypt of the present church.

On the north side of the high altar, was a monument to Alexander Nowell, dean of St. Paul's, died February 13, 1601. In a niche was his bust, in a furred gown, with a cap and ruff, and on each side an obelisk.

In the south aisle were the following monuments, in a niche of black marble surmounted by an inscription and arms, the effigy of John Donne, D.D. (died March 31,1631,) in a winding sheet rising from a vase;The statue of Dr. Donne was sculptured by the celebrated Nicholas Stone, and cost 120l. When near death, the doctor is said to have wrapt himself in a shroud as a corse, and to have had a likeness of himself painted whilst so enveloped, and standing upon an urn; from that painting the statue was executed, and it is still preserved in the vaults of St. Faith's church. near this was dean Colet's tomb. It consisted of a plain altar, with a skeleton stretched on a mat. At the corners were pillars, supporting others of the same order, surmounted with sculls. In the upper intercolumniation was an arched niche, containing a bust of the dean, the hands crossed on a book. Above the arch, was the crest of the Mercer's company, and below the niche 10: COL- LET: DECA: S. PAV: and on either side the following inscriptions: John Collete, doctor of divinitie, deanThe son of sir Henry Collete, of Pawles, and the only fownder of Pawlesknyghte, twyse lord maior of the cytty schole, who departed this lyeffe, Annoof London, and free of the companye Domini, 1519.and misterye of the mercers.

On the front of the tomb below the skeleton was the following : Hic situs est D. Jo. Coletus, hujus ecclesiae decanus, theologus insignia, qui ad exemplum S. Pauli, semper egit gratuitum evangelicae doctrinae praeconem, ac syncerae doctrinae perpetua vitae synceritate respondit. Scholam Paulinam suo sumptu solus et instituit, et annuo reditu dotavit: genus honestissimum Christi dotibus cohonestavit; praecipue sobrietate mira, ac pudicitie: nunc truitur evangelica Margarita, cujus amore neglexit omnia: vixit an. 53, administravit xvi. obiit anno 1519. Morere mundo, ut vivas Deo.

Near this was a composite monument with a recumbent effigy of William Hewit, esq. 1599.

On the same side was a handsome monument, of the composite order, to the memory of sir W. Cockayn, 1626. On a sarcophagus were the effigies of himself and his wife, covered by a pediment, supported by pillars.

In the eastern part of this aisle, was a heavy Ionic monument to sir Christopher Hatton, lord chancellor. On a sarcophagus was his effigy, in armour, with the robe of the order of the garter, his head resting on a mat. At each end of the tomb were four pillars and two pilasters, and between them a large arch; above the cornice, two niches with figures between composite pillars, with the arms and crests of the deceased. On each side of the monument were heavy obelisks.

Near this was the monument of sir Nicholas Bacon, lord keeper, obit 1579. It consisted of six composite pillars, with pedestals elevated on a double basement, forming the support of a triangular pediment, on which were his arms, scrolls, and sculls. The effigies of his two wives lay on the tomb, attired in the costume of the age, and on a table above was the effigy of sir Nicholas in full armour, his head bare, and resting on a rolled mat, at his feet his crest, a boar.

The tombs of Henry de Weugham, 1262, and Eustace de Fauconberge, 1228, bishops of London, were situated beneath five pointed arches. At the commencement of the outward mouldings of these arches were roses, and above them circles inclosing quaterfoils. That of Wengham was a plain tomb, with his effigy recumbent in pontifical robes, and giving the benediction; over his head was a trefoil canopy. Fauconberge's was similar, except that the tomb had a border of foliage, and was divided into five square pannels enclosing quaterfoils. Eustacius de Fauconbrigge, Regis Justiciarius, una atq; altera legatione perfuntus in Gallia, sub Joanne et Henrico tertio, regibus; quibus ab intimis consilis, et supremus Angliae thesaurarius fuit. Post concessionem Gulielmi de sancta Maria, hujus Ecclesiae antistitis, electus est in episcopum Londinensem, Anno verbi incarnati 1221, consecratus a benedicto, Roffensi episcopo sum jam abesset archiepiscopus Cantuariensis. Quumq; sedisset Annos septem menses sex, obiit diem pridie cal. Novembris, anno salutis 1228. Hic jacet Eustachius, redolens ut Assyria nardus, Virtutem multis floribus, et merits. Vir fuit hic magnus et episcopus ut agnus. Vita conspicuous, dogmate precipuus.Pro quo, qui transis, supplex orare memor sis; Ut sit ei saties, Alma Dei facies. De Wengham natus Henricus, ad astra levatus, Hic nece prostratus jacet, anno pontificatus Ter vix, et Domini mil. sexagint. ils que bis C. Huic sis salvamen, Deus O, te deprecor. Amen.

In the chapel of St. Dunstan, at the east end of this aisle, was the monument of Henry de Lacy,This nobleman greatly distinguished himself in the Welsh wars, in the time of Edward the First. He contributed towards the building of the New Work, or Lady Chapel, in which he was buried, after his decease, at the age of threescore, at his house called Lincoln's Inn. The Book of Dunmow gives him this character: Vir illustris in consilio, strenuus in omni guerra et prelo, princeps militie in Anglia, et omni regno ornatissimus. earl of Lincoln. It consisted of an altar tomb, the front being adorned with niches and statues. On it lay the effigy of the earl in chain armour, with a sleeveless surtout. Angels knelt at his head, and at his feet was a lion.

In the nave of this church was a monument to the memory of bishop William, the Norman, though the site of it is not marked in Hollar's plan of the cathedral, neither has Dugdale described it. On it was the following inscription:-- Gulielmo, Viro Sapientia et vitae sanctitate claro, qui primum divo Edwardo regi et confessori familiaris, nuper in episcopum Londinensem erectus, nec multo post apud invictissimum principem Gulielmum, Angliaa regem, ejus nomine primum, ob prudentiam, fidemque singularem, in concilium adhibitus; amplissima huic urbi celebarrimae privilegia impetravit: senatus populusque Londinensis bene merenti posuit. Sadit episcopus annos xx. Decessit anno a Christo nato M.LXX. Haec tibi (clara pater) posuerunt marmora cives, Praemia non meritis aequiparanda tuis: Namque sibi populus te Londinensis amicum Sensit et huic, urbi non leve praesidium:Reddita Libertas duce te, donataque multis Te duce, res fuerat publica muneribus. Divitias, genus, et formam brevis opprimat hora, Haec tua, sed pietas et benefacta manent.

Near this, attached to a column, was the following inscription, placed there by Edward Barkham, lord mayor, 1622:-- Walker's whoso«er you be! If it prove you chance to see Upon a solemne scarlet day, The city Senate pass this way,Their grateful memory for to show, Which they the reverend ashes owe, Of bishop Norman here intum'd, By whom this city hath assum'dLarge priviledges: Those obtain'd, By him when Conquerour William reign'd This being by Barkham«s thankfull mind renew'd, Call it the monument of gratitude.

Among the numerous eminent men who were buried in this church without monuments were sir John Poulteney, four times mayor, ob. 1348; Hamond Chychwell, six times mayor, ob. 1328; the duchess of Bedford, sister to Philip duke of Burgundy, ob 1433; sir Francis Walsingham, ob. 1590; sir Philip Sidney, ob. 1586; Dr. Thomas Lynacre, the famous physician to Henry VIII., ob. 1524: William Lilly, the grammarian, first master of St. Paul's school, ob. 1522; sir William Dethick, garter king at arms, ob. 1612; sir Anthony Vandyke, the celebrated painter, ob. 1641; and most of the Saxon bishops of London, besides those already mentioned.

Among the abundant decorations of the old church, the high altar, and the shrine of St. Erkenwald, are celebrated as prodigies of splendour, in costly materials and workmanship. The former stood between two columns in the eastern part of the choir: it was adorned with rich jewellery, and surrounded with images, most beautifully wrought; over it was a curious canopy of wood, depicted with the figures of saints and angels. Near the altar was St. Erkenwald's Shrine, which rested on a plain tomb, and was enriched with gold, silver, and precious stones; among which were the best sapphire stones, of Richard de Preston, of London, grocer, there to remain for curing diseases of the eyes.Dugdale's St, Paul's, p. 23. This shrine was for many ages the resort of the pious, and the gifts made to it were exceedingly valuable. Here king John, of France, when prisoner in England, offered four basons of gold at the high altar; and Dugdale records, that the dean and chapter, in 1339, employed three goldsmiths during a whole year, to work on this venerated monument. The remains of St. Erkenwald were first removed into the new church in the year 1140.

The neglected state of the old cathedral during the latter years of Elizabeth, and in the reigns of James the First and Charles the First, has been already noticed, yet a few additional particulars of the several attempts made to effect a restoration of the building during the domination of the two last sovereigns, may not be unacceptable.

In an estimate made in 1608, the total of the required expenditure for repairs amounted to 22,536l. a sum much too great to be obtained by the unsupported endeavours of the bishop and the dean and chapter; and the king at that period seemed wholly indifferent to the deplorable state of the fabric. At length, however, after several years of indefatigable though ineffectual exertions, a gentleman named Henry Farley had the honour to excite the sovereign to patronize the intended reparation.

James, as a preliminary step, visited the cathedral in great state, on Sunday the twenty-ninth of March 1620, on horseback, attended by a numerous train of the nobility, state officers, courtiers, &c. He was met, agreeably to the ancient custom, at the posts and chains, called the bars, near the Temple gate, Fleet-street, by the lord mayor, sir William Cockain, the recorder, alderman, and other officers of the city, and presented with a purse of gold. On entering at the west door of St. Paul's, the king kneeled, and pronounced a prayer for the success of the undertaking. Thence he-proceeded to the choir under a canopy borne by the dean and three residentary canons, accompanied by the clergy, and others, singing. The choir was adorned with some of the king's own arras (tapestry hangings) which had been sent for the purpose from Whitehall. Hence after an anthem had been sung, the royal visitor proceeded to St. Paul's cross, where a sermon from an appropriate text (Psalm cii. verses 13 and 14) was preached by Dr. King, the then bishop of London, who had afterwards the honour to entertain the king with a sumptuous repast at his palace, which nearly adjoined to the church on the south side.

In the November following a royal commission was issued for prosecuting the repairs, and soon afterwards a general subscription was commenced, in the progress of which large sums of money were received, and considerable quantities of stone provided:The subscriptions received are particularized in large vellum books, which stand in a press, over the dean's vestry. The total amount was 101,330l. 4s. 8d. yet nothing of moment was then done ; much of the money was wasted, and the stone was misapplied; some of the latter was borrowed by the duke of Buckingham for the erection of the Water-gate at York House.Mal. Lond. Red. Vol.. iii p. 77.

After the accession of Laud to the see of London, the business proceeded with greater vigour and effect, as has been already shewn; and under the direction of Inigo Jones, the work went rapidly on, till the breaking out of the civil war threw all things into confusion, and the parliament confiscated the unexpended money and materials to their own use.The rubbish removed on laying the foundation of the portico was conveyed to Clerkenwell fields.

One of the first orders of the house of commons after the abolition of episcopacy was, that the committee for pulling down all monuments of superstition and idolatry, should take into their custody the copes in the cathedrals of Westminster and Paul's, and those at Lambeth, and have them burnt, that the gold and silver with which they were embroidered might be converted to the relief of the poor in Ireland. A few months afterwards, namely, December the fifteenth, 1643, it was also voted by the same house, that the committee for taking away superstitious monuments do open Paul's church; and that they have power to remove out of the said church, all such matters as are justly offensive to godly men; and that there shall be a lecture set up there, to be exercised every Lord's day in the afternoon, to begin when other sermons usually end, and one day in the week. The famous Dr. Burges was afterwards appointed lecturer, and had a yearly salary of 400l. settled on him from the revenues. His discourses were delivered towards the east end of the church, which, with part of the choir, was separated from the body by a brick wall; and the congregation entered through one of the north windows, which had been converted into a doorway. The elegant portico at the west end was fitted up with a range of shops below for milliners and others, and above were lodging rooms, which, if detraction has not usurped the pen of truth, were appropriated to purposes of a description far less commendable. About this time, also, as sir John Hawkins informs us, there was a music house at the west end of St. Paul's, known by the sign of the Mitre, which was frequented by persons of consequence, and who occasionally danced there.

The re-establishment of the regular cathedral service took place as soon as it was possible for the members of the church to complete the necessary arrangements after the restoration. New subscriptions were solicited, and a commission for repairing and upholding the ruinous fabric, was issued under the king's letters patent, dated April the eighteenth, 1663; the repairs were begun on the first of August following, under the direction of sir John Denham, K. B. who received 6s. 8d. a day as surveyor-general of the works, and who continued to hold that office till his death in 1669, when Dr. Wren, afterwards sir Christopher, was unanimously chosen to succeed him: the salary of the latter was, on the seventh of October, 1675, fixed at the sum of 200l. per anuum.

After the consumption of much fruitless labour, and the expenditure of 3,586l. 5. 1 1/4d. the principal part of which was for the portico, the great fire of 1666 destroyed the chief part of the building, and irreparably damaged the remainder. Still, however, the vast magnitude of the work, and the contemplation of the great expense requisite for building a new cathedral, occasioned a lapse of several years, as well as a further loss of considerable labour and materials, before it was finally determined that all attempts at reparation were hopeless. This, indeed, had long been the opinion of sir Christopher Wren, whose sagacious and penetrating judgment will be at once estimated from the following extract of a letter directed to him when at Oxford, in April, 1668, by Dr. Sancroft, the then dean of St. Paul's, and afterwards archbishop of Canterbury. As was said of old, Prudentia est quaedam divinatio, so science, at the height you are master of it, is prophetick too. What you whispered in my ear at your last coming hither, is now come to pass. Our work, at the west end of St. Paul's, is fallen about our ears. Your quick eye discerned the walls and pillars gone off from their perpendiculars, and I believe other defects too, which are now exposed to every common observer. About a week since, we being at work about the third pillar from the west end on the south side, which we had new cased with stone where it was most defective, almost up to the chapitre, a great weight falling from a high wall, so disabled the vaulting of the side aisle by it, that it threatened a sudden ruin, so visibly, that the workmen presently removed: and the next night the whole pillar fell, and carried scaffolds and all to the very ground. The second pillar, which you know is bigger than the rest, stands now alone, with an enormous weight on the top of it, which we cannot hope should stand long, and yet we dare not venture to take it down. The dean then notices various defects in the new casing of the upper walls by Inigo Jones, and proceeds thus: What we are to do next is the present deliberation, in which you are so absolutely and indispensably necessary to us, that we can do nothing, resolve on nothing without you. You will think fit, I know, to bring with you those excellent draughts and designs you formerly favoured us with, and in the mean time till we enjoy you here, consider what to advise, that may be for the satisfaction of his majesty and the whole nation.

Another letter, sent by the dean to sir Christopher, in July, commences with these words: Yesterday my lords of Canterbury, London, and Oxford, met on purpose to hear your letter read once more, and to consider what is now to be done, in order to the repairs of St. Paul's. They unanimously resolved, that it is fit immediately to attempt something, and that without you they can do nothing. I am therefore commanded to give you an invitation hither, in his grace's name and the rest of the commissioners, with all speed. Parentalia, p: 258-9.

That this great man had been perfectly steady in his opinion of the necessity which existed for constructing a new edifice, may be seen by the following passage from sir John Evelyn's account of architects and architecture, published in 1706, and addressed to sir Christopher: I have named St. Paul's, and truly, not without admiration, as oft as I recall to mind (as I frequently do) the sad and deplorable condition it was in, when (after it had been made a stable of horses, and a den of thieves) you (with other gentlemen and myself) were by the late king Charles named commissioners to survey the dilapidations, and to make report to his majesty, in order to a speedy reparation. You will not, I am sure, forget the struggle we had with some, who were for patching it up any how (so the steeple might stand) instead of a new building, which it altogether needed : when (to put an end to the contest) five days after, that dreadful conflagration happened, out of whose ashes this Phoenix is risen, and was by Providence designed for you.

At a meeting of the commissioners, in the latter part of the same month (namely, July the twenty-fifth) a letter from the king was read, which stated that the ruins had been examined by experienced workmen, who found the walls in so dangerous a state, that they were judged altogether insufficient for bearing another roof, or any new work. His majesty then proceeds to order the old wall to be taken down to the foundation of the east end, the old choir and the tower to be replaced with a new choir, of a fair and decent fabrick, near or upon the old foundations; and also that care be taken to preserve the cornices, ashlers, and such other parts to the former work, towards the west, as shall be deemed usefull for the new fabrick, lest they be spoiled by the fall of more of the walls, which seeme to threaten immediate ruine. Mal. Lond. Red vol. iii. p. 85.

The taking down of the parts mentioned in the king's letter was soon afterwards commenced, under the direction of a sub-committee, composed of the following persons: sir John Denham, Leolin Jenkins, L.L.D. judge of the high court of admiralty, Dr. Sancroft, Dr. Pory, Dr. Donne, residentiary, and Christopher Wren, L.L.D. Savilian professor of astronomy, Oxford. In August, the king requested that all the stony rubbish, unfit for the church, should be applied to the raising of the ground near Fleet-bridge, &c. where quays and wharfs were to be erected, which required hard and substantiall matter; Ibid. p. 86. and during the subsequent months of the same year, many coffins, and bones of the dead, were removed, and re-buried in other parts of the church and church-yard. It is to be lamented that sufficient attention was not given to the preservation of such of the monuments as had escaped the ravages of the great fire; for, with little exception, these appear to have been regarded as old alabaster, a great quantity of which was, in the progress of the work, beaten into powder for making cement. Ibid. p. 104.

The impracticability of restoring the ancient church had now become so apparent, that Dr. Wren was ordered to prepare the requisite plans for a new cathedral; and, in the following year, we learn that he was presented with 100 guinea pieces (valued at 107l. 10s.) for his directions in the works, and for the design of a model. Ibid. p. 99.

In the construction of the model here spoken of both the architect and his employers acted under the persuasion that the expense of the intended building would be defrayed by voluntary contributions alone, and it was therefore deemed expedient to restrict the design to an edifice of moderate bulk. This first model, however, though of a beautiful figure, and of good proportion, with a convenient choir, a vestibule, porticoes, and a dome conspicuous above the houses, did not satisfy the public wish; though it was applauded by persons of good understanding, as containing all that was necessary for the church of a metropolis, and of an expense that might reasonably have been compassed; but being contrived in the Roman style, was not so well understood and relished by others, who thought it deviated too much from the old gothic form of cathedral churches: others observed that it was not stately enough, and contended that, for the honour of the nation and the city of London, the new fabric ought not to be exceeded in magnificence by any church in Europe. Parentalia, p. 282

Shortly afterwards it was determined by parliament that a duty of two shillings per chaldron should be levied on sea-coal, the produce to be partly applied to the erection of the intended church. The means of an augmented expenditure being thus secured, the architect drew various sketches, by way of consulting the prevailing taste, and finding that the generality were for grandeur, he extended his ideas, and endeavoured to gratify the connoiseurs and critics' with a colossal and beautiful design, well studied, after the best style of Greek and Roman architecture. From that design, which was much admired by some persons of judgment and distinction, Dr. Wren made a large and highly finished model, in wood, with all its proper ornaments; yet, though he himself appeared to set a higher value on this performance than on any other of his plans, it consisting only of one order, the Corinthian, like St. Peter's at Rome, and being laboured with more study and success, and as what he would have put in execution with the more cheerfulness and satisfaction, the preference given by the clergy to what was called a cathedral fashion, obliged him to form new designs: but these he endeavoured so to modify, as to reconcile, as nearly as possible, the gothic to a better manner of architecture. Mal. Lond. Red. vol. iii. p. 87. The model which sir Christopher best approved of was for many years kept under a shed in the office of the works at St Paul's; but on the completion of the building, it was deposited in a large apartment on the north side, over the morning prayer chapel, where it yet remains, and it is with the strongest feelings of indignation, that the Editor of this work, notices the disgraceful condition of this exquisite model; not alone is it kept so filthy and dirty, that it is almost impossible to make out any of the ornaments that adorn it, but the most reprehensible system of plunder has been permitted, the whole of the columns forming the western portico, which were of the Corinthian order, are gone, and all the caps of the pilasters. Surely some of the establishment of this cathedral, if they must turn exhibitors, ought to preserve and protect such an exquisite specimen of art: it is not decay but wilful destruction that has made so dreadful a havoc, in sir C. Wren's original design. Hence arose the plan of the present church, which, in December, 1672, was finally approved by the king, who ordered a model to be constructed sufficiently large to admit a man within it, and the commissioners directed the chapter-house to be roofed, ceiled, and glazed, as a receptacle for the model. After that period, says the Parentalia, the surveyor resolved to make no more models, nor publicly expose his drawings, which, as he had found by experience, did but lose time, and subjected his business many times to incompetent judges. Parentalia, p. 283. As the building was proceeded with, various minor alterations were made in the original plan, yet these were principally in the ornamental parts.Ibid. The pulling down of the remaining walls of the old structure, and the removal of the rubbish, proved excessively laborious, as well as dangerous, and several men were killed in the progress of the work. It was intended that the choir should be first erected, and, in consequence, the clearance was commenced at the east end, the demolition of which, with its beautiful rose window and pinnacles, Parentalia, p. 202. furnished employment for ten men during eighty days. The demolition of the ruined tower was a business of yet greater difficulty, as its height was nearly 200 feet, and the labourers were afraid to work above. The architect therefore felt it necessary to facilitate its destruction by art; and gunpowder and the battering ram were in succession employed to propel the fall of its massive piers, each of which were about fourteen feet in diameter.

In using the gunpowder Dr. Wren is said to have acted under the direction of a gunner from the Tower;Mal. Lond. Red. vol. iii, p. 99. The gunner was paid 4l. 10. for placing the powder, laying the train, and setting fire to it. and he commenced his experiments with the north-west pier, in the centre of the foundation of which a hole, two feet square, was wrought, with crows and tools made on purpose. Parentalia, p. 284. Into this cavity a deal box, containing only eighteen pounds of powder, was put by the gunner, and the communication being preserved by a quick match. or cane full of dry powder the mine was carefully closed up again with stone and mortar, and a proper train laid. The effects of the ignition are thus detailed in the Parentalia: This little quantity of powder not only lifted up the whole angle of the tower, with the two arches that rested upon it, but also the two adjoining arches of the aisles, and all above them; and this it seemed to do somewhat leisurely, cracking the walls to the top, lifting visibly the whole weight about nine inches, which suddenly jumping down, made a great heap of ruin in the place, without scattering: it was half a minute before the heap already fallen, opened in two or three places, and emitted some smoke.» The mass thus raised, was above 3000 tons, and it saved the work of 1000 labourers. The fall of so great a weight gave a concussion to the ground that the inhabitants round about took for an earthquake.Ibid.

In a subsequent attempt to expedite the fall of the walls, a person to whom the direction of the mine had been entrusted, charged the hole with too large a quantity of powder, through which, and from not closing it sufficiently, a stone was shot out into a house on the opposite side of the church-yard: this alarmed the neighbouring inhabitants so greatly, that the architect was ordered, by his superiors, to use no more powder. He therefore, to save time and labour, determined to try a battering-ram, which he caused to be formed of a strong mast, about forty feet in length, strengthened with iron bars and ferrels, and headed with a great spike. It was then suspended beneath a triangular prop, and thirty men were employed to vibrate it with force against one part of the wall; and this they did with such effect, that on the second day the wall fell: the same engine was used, and with similar success, in beating down all the more lofty ruins. The vast quantity of rubbish, which covered the ground in heaps, considerably impeded the digging and laying out of the foundations, and so much as 47,000 loads were removed from the site of the church:Mal. Lond. Red vol. iii, p. 101. most of the Kentish rag-stone found among it was purchased by the city to repave the streets with.Parentalia, p. 284.

On searching for the natural ground, that he might have a secure foundation for the new fabric, Dr. Wren discovered that the old cathedral had stood upon a stratum of very close and hard pot-earth, about six feet deep on the north side, but gradually declining towards the south, till on the declivity of the hill it was scarcely four feet: be concluded, however, that the same ground which had borne so weighty a building before might reasonably be trusted again. On boring beneath the pot-earth, he found a stratum of loose sand; and lower still, at low water mark, water and sand, mixed with periwinkles, and other sea-shells; under this a hard beach, and below all, the natural bed of clay, that extends, far and wide, under the city, county, and river.Ibid.

The ancient burying-place, and the various Roman and other antiquities that were found on digging the foundations, have already been noticed, as well as the pit under the north-east angle of the present choir, which was excavated by the Roman potters, and afterwards filled up with fragments of broken vessels, urns, &c. This pit occasioned much additional labour, for the hard crust of pot-earth, having been taken away, the architect felt himself compelled to dig through all the intervening strata, till he came to the sea-beach at the depth of forty feet; here he commenced a pier of solid masonry, ten feet square, and carried it up to within fifteen feet of the present surface, where he turned a short arch to connect the work with the foundations of the new church, the line of which had been interrupted by the excavation. Plan of the present Site of St. Paul's, shewing the Site of the ancient Church.

The commission for rebuilding the cathedral was issued on the twelfth of November, 1673; and on the fourteenth of May, 1675, the king signed an order for the work to be commenced, at the east end, or choir, a sufficient stock of money having been raised to put it in great forwardness. In the same year, on the twenty-first of June, the first stone was laid in the new foundation, at the north-east corner of the choir, by T. Strong, mason; and, though various difficulties occurred in the course of the business, from want of money, the work was prosecuted with so much success and diligence, that within ten years afterwards the walls of the choir and side aisles were finished, together with the circular porticoes on the north and south sides; and the great pillars of the dome were carried to the same height. During this time the several bishops were strongly urged by the commissioners, not only to contribute towards the funds for the new church themselves, but also to procure subscriptions in their respective dioceses; and orders of council were issued, directing that no feasts should take place at the consecration of future bishops, but that the bishop-elect should pay 50l. out of the customary expense on those occasions in aid of the work; as well as an additional 50l. in lieu of the gloves given at the consecration dinners. The archbishop of Canterbury, the bishop of London, and the lord mayor were likewise enpowered to borrow money on the credit of the coal duties; and though further inconveniences were occasionally experienced from a deficiency of receipts, the gradual operation of those easy duties proved so generally successful, that the last, or highest stone of the building was laid at the top of the lantern, by Mr. Christopher Wren, the surveyor's son, in the year 1710; and shortly afterwards the queen and both houses of parliament, with an immense concourse of gentry, &c. were present at the celebration of divine service in the new cathedral. Robert Trevet, a painter of architecture, and master of the company of painter-stainers, was employed in the same year, by the commissioners, to make drawings and engrave them, of the outside and inside views of the church and the choir, representing the time when the queen and parliament were present, for which he received 300l. The last commission, for finishing and adorning the church, was issued by George the First, in the year 1715.

An incident that occurred soon after the commencement of the work, and was regarded as a memorable omen, is thus noticed in the Parentalia: when the surveyor, in person, had set out upon the place the dimensions of the great dome, and fixed upon the centre, a common labourer was ordered to bring a flat stone from the heaps of rubbish (such as should first come to hand) to be laid for a mark and direction to the masons: the stone, which was immediately brought and laid down for that purpose, happened to be a piece of a grave-stone, with nothing remaining of the inscription but this single word in large capitals RESURGAM. This circumstance made so strong an impression on the mind of the architect, that he caused a Phoenix, rising from the flames of the motto Resurgam inscribed beneath, to be sculptured in the tympanum of the south pediment, above the portico, as emblematical of the re-construction of the church after the fire. It is finely executed, and is in length eighteen feet, and in height nine feet ; it was sculptured by Caius Gabriel Cibber, who was paid 6l. for the model, and 100l. for the sculpture.Mal. Lond. Red. vol. iii, p. 170. It is not improbable but that the stone brought to Dr. Wren was the same that had been provided in commemoration of Dr. King, who preached the sermon for promoting the rebuilding of St. Paul's, before James the First, and who directed by his will that a plain stone only with the word Resurgam, should record his memory.

The general form, or ground plan, of St. Paul's Cathedral, is that of a Latin cross, with an additional arm, or transept, at the west end, to give breadth to the principal front, and a semi-circular projection at the east end, for the altar. At the extremities of the principal transept there are also semicircular projections for porticoes, and at the angles of the cross are square projections, which, besides containing staircases, vestries, &c. serve as immense buttresses to the dome. The dome itself rises from the intersection of the nave and transept, and is terminated by a lantern, surmounted by a ball and cross, gilt.

On entering into a detailed examination of the exterior of this fabric, the first subject that demands regard is the west front, which consists of a noble portico of two orders, the Corinthian and the composite, resting on a basement formed by a double flight of steps, of Irish black marble, and surmounted by a spacious pediment; on each side also is a lofty tower, or steeple, the one serving as the belfry, and the other as the clock-tower. The lower division of the portico is composed of twelve lofty Corinthian columns, and the upper of eight composite columns (with their proper entablatures, &c.) all of which are coupled and fluted. In the tympanum of the pediment is a very large sculpture in basso relievo representing the conversion of St. Paul (which is regarded as the most spirited work of the artist, Francis Bird,)Why Bird was employed to decorate the west front in preference to C. G. Cibber, who was a much superior sculptor, is now, probably, inexplicable; yet the circumstance is the less to be lamented, when we refer to the sooty and discoloured aspect, which the combined effects of smoke and weather has given to the building. All the natural lights and shades in the sculptures are completely destroyed by the clouds and streaks of black arising from the soot; and even the great architectural masses of the front itself, are deprived of their due effect, through the accumulated blackness that overwhelms them. The abilities of a Praxiteles would have been exerted in vain, to render art triumphant over evils like these. For the Sculpture of St. Paul's Conversion, Bird received 650l. The space it occupies is sixty-four feet in length, and seventeen in height. It contains eight large figures, six of which are on horseback: and several of them are imbost two feet and a half. The bas-reliefs, in the panels over the door-ways beneath the portico, were also executed by this artist; and are all designed from the life of the patron saint. That over the great west door, or principal entrance, represents St. Paul preaching to the Beraeans; and the figures are from nine to eighteen inches in relief: for this the artist was paid 300l. for the two others 75l. each. The pines for the towers, and the scrolls, ball, and cross, for the lantern of the cupola, were all of them modelled by Bird; and these generally speaking, are in a good taste, and well designed. The great capitals for the west portico were sculptured by Samuel Fulks, who had 60l. for each. See Mal. Lond. Red. pp. 107-109. and on the apex is a gigantic statue of St. Paul; whilst on either hand, at different distances, along the summit of this front, are other colossal statues of St. Peter, St. James, and the four Evangelists. The entablature of the upper order is remarkable, inasmuch as the consoles of the cornice occupy the whole of the frieze; an example, in which, as in many other instances, we see sir Christopher Wren sacrificing a particular to a general effect; for this cornice, considered as the general termination of the body of the building, required to be treated in a bold and striking style, rather than with the delicacy proper to the order of which it constitutes a part:Fine Arts of the English School p. 11. both the entablatures are continued round the whole fabric. The towers, which, singly considered, may be said to want repose and harmony, are yet picturesque, and their spiring forms not only compose well with the cupola in any distant view, but also give effect and elevation to the western front, to which they particularly belong: nor are they without parts of considerable beauty. Ibid, p. 10. Each tower is decorated with columns, urns, statues, &c. and terminated by a majestic pine.

On the north and south sides of the cathedral, at each end of the principal transept, is a grand semi-circular portico, formed by six Corinthian columns, four feet each in diameter, supporting a half dome, above which rises a well-proportioned pediment, having a sculpture in the tympanum; that on the north side, represents the royal arms, and regalia, supported by angels; and that on the south, the phoenix rising from the flames, before described. The ascent to the north portico is by a semi-circular flight of about twelve steps, of Irish black marble; but on the south side, where the ground is considerably lower, the ascent is formed by a flight of twenty-five similar steps. It has been judiciously observed of these porticoes, that they are objects equally beautiful, whether considered separately or in connection with the total mass of the building, which they adorn and diversify, by the contrast of curved with straight lines, and of insulated columns with engaged pilasters. Ibid. p. 11.

The projecting semi-circle which terminates the east end, is of fine proportion, and properly enriched with architectural ornaments. The remainder of the vast outer walls of the fabric is of excellent masonry, strengthened as well as decorated by two stories of coupled pilasters, arranged at regular distances; those above being of the composite order, and those below of the Corinthian. The intervals between the Corinthian pilasters are occupied by large windows, serving to light the side aisles, &c. and those between the composite pilasters by ornamented niches, in the pedestals of which are singularly inserted windows, belonging to rooms and galleries over the aisles. In the whole surface of the walling, the joints of the stones are marked by horizontal and perpendicular channels; a simple decoration, which, while it gives a vigorous expression of strength and stability, has the advantage of defining and rendering conspicuous the pilasters and entablatures. Fine Arts, &c. p. 11. The entire summit of the side walls is surmounted by a regular ballustrade; but the continuity of line is judiciously broken by the superior elevation of the pediments of the transept, and by the large statues of the apostles (five on each side) which stand upon them.

The dome, or cupola, as it may with more propriety be termed, is the most remarkable and magnificent feature of the building. This rises from a huge circular basement, which, at the height of about twenty feet above the roof of the church, gives place to a Corinthian colonnade, formed by a circular range of thirty-two columns; every fourth intercolumniation being filled up with masonry, so disposed as to form an ornamental niche, or recess; an arrangement by which the projecting buttresses of the cupola are most judiciously concealed, and thus, by a happy combination of profound skill and exquisite taste, a construction, adapted to oppose with insuperable solidity the enormous pressure of the dome, the cone, and the lantern, is converted into a decoration of the most grand and beautiful character. The columns being of a large proportion, and placed at regular intervals, are crowned with a complete entablature, which continuing without a single break, forms an entire circle, and thus connects all the parts into one grand and harmonious whole. It has been said, with some justice, that these columns are too high in proportion to those of the body of the building; as they are indeed but little less than the lower, and larger than the upper order. This incongruity would not have existed had circumstances allowed the architect to construct the main edifice of a single order; but being baffled in this, his original intention, it would have been too great a sacrifice to have given up the peristyle, the noblest feature of the building, or to have considerably diminished the proportion of the cupola. Ibid. p. 12. As all the buttresses are pierced with arcades, there is a free communication round this part of the cupola; and the entablature of the peristyle supports a circular gallery, surrounded with a ballustrade. Above the colonnade, but not resting upon it, rises an attic story with pilasters and windows, from the entablature of which springs the exterior dome; this is »of a bold and graceful contour, covered with lead, and ribbed at regular intervals. Round the aperture, at its summit, is another gallery, or balcony, and from the center rises the stone lantern, which is surrounded with Corinthian columns, and crowned by the majestic ball and cross, that terminate the fabric.

On viewing the interior of St. Paul's from the great west entrance, the eye dwells with much admiration on the grandeur of the perspective; though, on a more attentive examination, the ponderous masses of its vast piers are found to give a heaviness to the prospect, and the side aisles are discovered to be disproportionably narrow. In its interior form, the edifice is entirely constructed upon the plan of the ancient cathedrals, viz. that of a long cross, having a nave, choir, transepts, and side aisles; but, in place of the lofty tower, the dome in this building rises in elevated grandeur from the central intersection. The architectural detail is in the Roman style, simple and regular. The piers and arches which divide the nave from the side aisles, are ornamented with columns and pilasters, both of the Corinthian and of the composite orders, and are further adorned with shields, festoons, chaplets, cherubim, &c.

The vaulting of this part of the church merits great praise for its light and elegant construction: in this, each severy forms a low dome, supported by four spandrils, the base of the dome being encircled by a rich wreath of artificial foliage. This peculiar disposition of the vaulting is noticed in the Parentalia, which, after stating that sir Christopher chose hemispherical vaultings, as being demonstrably much highter than diagonal cross vaults, proceeds thus: The whole vault of St. Paul's consists of twenty-four cupolas cut off semi-circular, with segments to join to the great arches one way, and which are cut across the other way with elliptical cylinders, to let in the upper lights of the nave; but in the aisles, the lesser cupolas are both ways cut into semi-circular sections, altogether making a graceful geometrical form (distinguished by circular wreaths) which is the horizontal section of the cupola; for the hemisphere may be cut all manner of ways into circular sections: the arches and wreaths are of stone, carved; the spandrils between are of sound brick, invested with stucco of cockle-shell lime, which becomes as hard as Portland stone, and which having large planes between the stone ribs, are capable of the further ornaments of painting. Parentalis, pp 290, 291. The circular pannels, and the spandrils, of the vaulting of the aisles, are separated by shields, bordered with acanthus leaves, fruits, and flowers. The alcoves for the windows are finely disposed; and have their arches filled with sexagon, octagon, and other pannels. The whole church, above the vaulting, is substantially roofed with oak, covered with lead. The Morning-Prayer Chapel, on the south side, and the Consistory Court, on the north, occupy the respective extremities of the western transept, which is an elegant part of the building: these are divided from the aisles by insulated columns, and screens of ornamental carved work.

On proceeding forward, the central area below the dome next engages attention: this is an octagon, formed by eight massive piers, with their correllative apertures, four of which being those which terminate the middle aisles, are forty feet wide, while the others are only twenty-eight feet; but this disparity only exists as high as the first order of pilasters, at which level the smaller openings are expanded in a peculiar manner, so that the eight main arches are all equal.Fine Arts of the English School, p. 14. The cathedral of Ely is, perhaps, the only other church, in this country, in which the central area, being pierced by the side aisles, has eight openings, instead of four, which is the usual number. This mode of construction has the advantage of superior lightness, it affords striking and picturesque views in various directions, and gives greater unity to the whole area of the building; yet, on the other hand, the junction of the side aisles in this fabric presented difficulties which have caused various defects and mutilations in the architecture. Ibid. The spandrils between the arches above, form the area into a circle, which is crowned by a large cantilever cornice, partly supporting by its projection the Whispering Gallery. At this level commences the interior tambour of the dome, which consists of a high pedestal and cornice, forming the basement to a range of (apparently) fluted pilasters of the composite order, the intervals between which are occupied by twenty-four windows and eight niches, all corresponding in situation with the intercolumniations and piers of the exterior peristyle: all this part is inclined forward, so as to form the frustrum of a cone. Above, from a double plinth, over the cornice of the pilasters, springs the internal dome; the contour being composed of two segments of a circle, which, if not interrupted by the opening beneath the lantern, would have intersected at the apex.

The general idea of the dome was confessedly taken from the Pantheon at Rome,Parentalia, p. 291 excepting, that in the latter, the upper order is there hut umbratile; not extant out of the wall, as at St. Paul's, but only distinguished by different coloured marbles. It differs also in its proportions, both from the cupola of the Pantheon, and from that of St. Peter's; the former of which is no higher within than its diameter, while St. Peter's is two diameters; this shows too high, the other too low: the surveyor at St.Paul's took a mean proportion, which shows its concave every way, and is very lightsome, by the windows of the upper order, which strike down the light through the great colonnade that encircles the dome, and serves for its butment. The concave of the dome was turned upon a center, which was judged necessary to keep the work even and true (though a cupola might be built without a center); but this is observable, that the center was laid without any standards from below to support it; and as it was both centering and scaffolding, it remained for the use of the painter. Every story of this scaffolding being circular, and the ends of all the ledgers meeting as so many rings, and truly wrought, it supported itself; this machine was an original of the kind. Parentalia, p. 291. The dome is of brick, two bricks thick, but as it rises, at every five feet, it has a course of excellent brick of eighteen inches long, banding through the whole thickness; for greater security, also, in the girdle of Portland stone which encircles the lower part, and is of considerable thickness, an enormous double chain of iron, strongly linked together at every ten feet, and weighing 95cwt. 3qrs. and 23 lbs. was inserted in a channel cut for the purpose, and afterwards filled up with lead.

In the crown of the vault of this cupola is a circular opening (surrounded by a neatly railed gallery) through which the light is transmitted with admirable effect from the cone and lantern above, which, in compliance with the general wish, the architect found it necessary to construct, in order to give a greater elevation to the fabric. In this respect, says the Parentalia, the world expected that the new work should not fall short of the old; he was therefore obliged to comply with the humour of the age, and to raise another structure over the first cupola; and this was a cone of brick, so built as to support a stone lantern of an elegant figure, and ending in ornaments of copper, gilt.

Both the cone and the lantern are very ingeniously constructed; and the mechanism of the roof which supports the outward covering of lead, is contrived with equal skill and judgment. The cone is two bricks in thickness, and is banded at different distances by a girdle of stone, and four iron chains: here three ranges of small elliptical apertures, and eight semi-circular headed windows above, admit the light from the lantern and from the openings round its pedestal. Between the lower part of the cone and the outer wall, at intervals of about eight feet, are strong cross wedges of stone (pierced with circles, &c.) each of which supports two upright timbers, about one foot square, and reaching to the fourth gradation [of the roof] in the great arch of the enternal dome. The second horizontal timber is the base of the great ribs: under this are two ranges of scantling, the whole circumference of the circle; the lower one supported by two uprights between each wedge, and the other by eight, resting on the stone-work. The remaining horizontal pieces in the ascent, four in number, rest upon strong brackets of stone, inserted quite through the brick cone. Another series of uprights spring from the second row of brackets, which are secured by angular timbers, and the whole, at proper intervals, by strong bands of iron. Mal. Lond. Red. vol. iii. p. 116. The ribs, which are about seventy in number, are closely covered with oaken boards, and those again by the lead which forms the outward covering.

The choir is of the same form and architectural style as the body of the church. The east end is terminated by a bold sweep, or semi-circular apsis, with three large windows below, and three smaller ones above: the soffits of these windows, as well as those of the aisles, are ornamented with sculptured foliage, and have festoons over them.

The prices that were paid for these, and for various other sculptures, in this part of the church, will be seen from the following particulars, extracted by Mr. Malcolm, from the books at St. Paul's.Mal. Lond. Red. Vol. iii. pp. 100, 103, and 104. Thomas Strong, mason, was paid as follows:-- For plain Portland stone-work, of the pilasters and rustics, window jams, architraves, and bosks, 16 1/2d. per foot. For carving faces of impost capitals. 61. each; pannels with flowers and enrichments, 3l. 5s. each; escalops in the heads of the outside niches, 31. 10. Two large compartments and festoons, each twelve feet in length, 451.; 75 great flowers, in the soffits of the five windows at the east end, 15s. each; and 60 smaller, 5s. each. Pendant strings, 3 feet 9 inches in length, and one foot in breadth, 51. each. Cherubim, 20s.; flowers in the architrave, 9s. each. Four festoons, over the two straight windows at the east end, 20l. each. Six festoons, over the three circular windows at the east end, 20l. each. Five cherubim, on the key-stones of the five east windows, at 13l. each key-stone. Three shields, each three feet high and four wide, 7l. each. Jasper Lathom, mason, received for work done on the north side, the door case, and two of the round pillars, the three-quarter pillar, and little three-quarter pillar, and for working and setting 1124 1/2 feet of Portland stone in the bodies of two pillars, the three quarters, and half the architraves of the door case, &c. 1121. 8s. 6d. For the ornaments over the same, 2s. per foot superficial. For masoning one three-fourth composite capital, one face and one half, 16. 6d.; for carving it, 121. A scroll and festoons, 151.; a cartouch under the cornice of the door-case, 4l. Half the long festoons and candlesticks over the doors, 17l. 10s. The capitals of the great pillars of the north and south porticoes, cost 60l. each, for the carving.

The difference between the dimensions of St. Peter's church, at Rome, and St. Paul's, in London, extracted from Wren's Parentalia. St. Peter'sSt. Paul's Roman Palms.English Feet.Fraction of a FootExcess of St. Peter's above St. Paul's Long within91466948500169 Broad at the entrance310226920100126 Front without540395280180215 Broad at the cross604442128223219 Cupola clear190 3/413962910831 Cupola and lantern high591432612330102 Church high20014640411036 Pillars in the front1259150040051Parentalia, p. 294. The proportion of the Roman palm to the English foot is as 732 is to 1000.--1000 = 732, 914 = 669, 048, and so of the rest, et infra.

In the Gentleman's magazine,Vol. xx. p, 580. the dimensions of the two cathedrals are thus stated; but Mr. Brayley observes, with great truth, that there is evidently some mistake in respect to those of St. Peter's, as will be easily seen on comparing them with the measurements given above from the Parentalia. St. Peter'sSt. Paul's Feet.Feet. Length of the church and porch729500 Length of the cross510250 Breadth of the front with the turrets364180 Breadth of the same without the turrets318110 Breadth of the church and three naves255130 Breadth of the same and widest chapels364180 Length of the porch within21850 Breadth of the same within4020 Length of the platea at the upper steps291100 Breadth of the nave at the door6740 Breadth of the nave at the third pillar and tribuna7340 Breadth of the side aisles2917 Distance between the pillars of the nave4425 Breadth of the same double pillars at St. Peter's29 Breadth of the same single pillars at St. Paul's10 The two right sides of the great pilasters of the cupola65 : 7 1/225 : 35 Distance between the same pilasters7240 Outward diameter of the cupola189146 Inward diameter of the same138108 Breadth of the square by the cupola43 Length of the same328 From the door within the cupola313190 From the cupola to the end of the tribuna167170 Breadth of the turrets7735 Outward diameter of the lantern3618 St. Peter'sSt. Paul's Feet.Feet. From the ground without, to the top of the cross437 1/2340 The turrets, as they were at St. Peter's, and are at St. Paul's289 1/2222 To the top of the highest statues on the front175135 The first pillars of the Corinthian order7433 The breadth of the same94 Their bases and pedestals1913 Their capitals105 The architrave, frieze, and cornice1910 The composite pillars at St. Paul's, and Tuscan at St. Peter's25 1/225 The ornaments of the same pillars, above and below14 1/216 The triangle of the mezzo-relievo, with its cornice22 1/218 Width9274 The basis of the cupola to the pedestals of the pillars36 1/238 The pillars of the cupola3228 Their bases and pedestals45 Their capitals, architrave, frieze and cornice1212 From the cornice to the outward slope of the cupola25 1/240 The lantern, from the cupola to the hall6350 The ball in diameter96 The cross, with its ornaments below146 The statues upon the front, with their pedestals25 1/215 The outward slope of the cupola8950 Cupola and lantern, from the cornice of the front to the top of the cross280240 Height of the niches in front2014 Width of the same95 The first windows in the front2013 Width of the same107

From a printed sheet relating to St. Paul's, published in 1685, by Mr. John Tillison, clerk of the works, it appears that the general depth of the foundations below the surface of the church-yard is twenty-two feet, and in many places thirty-five feet, that the fair, large, and stately vaults beneath the church, are eighteen feet six inches high from the ground to the crown of the arch; that each of the great piers that sustain the dome stands upon 1360 feet of ground. superficial measure, and each lesser one upon 380 feet; and that the whole space of ground occupied by the same piers, and covered by the dome itself, contains half an acre, half a quarter of an acre, and almost four perches.

It was the intention of sir Christopher to have beautified the inside of the cupola with the more durable ornament of Mosaicwork, Parentalia, p. 292, note. instead of having it decorated by painting, as it now is; but in this he was unfortunately over-ruled, though he had engaged to have procured four of the most eminent artists from Italy to execute the work. This spacious concave has, in consequence, been separated into eight compartments, by a heavy fictitious architecture, Fine Arts, &c. p. 14. serving as a frame to as many pictures, by sir James Thornhill, from the most prominent events in the history of the patron saint; which, however excellent they may have been in their original designs, are now, either through the damps or some other cause, in a most lamentable state of decay. The subjects are as follow: The Conversion of St. Paul; his Punishing Elymas, the Sorceror, with Blindness; his Preaching at Athens; his Curing the poor Cripple at Lystra, and the reverence paid him there by the priests of Jupiter, as a God; his Conversion of the Jailor; his Preaching at Ephesus, and the burning of the Magic Books in consequence of the Miracles he wrought there; his Trial before Agrippa; and his Shipwreck on the Island of Melita, with the Miracle of the Viper. For these performances, which seem to have been executed with much animation and relief, we are informed, by Walpole, that the artist could obtain only 40s. a square yard. Anec. of Painting, vol. iv, p. 43. All the lower parts of these paintings have utterly perished, through some cause which has affected the plastering in a deep circle round the whole of the concave. Mr. Malcolm supposes it to have arisen from the admission of the external damp, probably occasioned by the platform on the great pillars without the dome; yet, as we find from the Parentalia that, besides other precautions, the architect had all the joints run with lead, wherever he was obliged to cover with stone only; this conjecture would seem to be incorrect. Mr. Brayley conceives that the vibrations given to the dome by the thundering sound produced by the violently closing the door of the whispering gallery (for the amusement of the numerous visitors to this fabric) has shaken the stucco into dust through the frequent repetitions of the concussion. It is to he regretted, says Mr. Aikin, that, instead of placing historical paintings, in a situation where the spectator can distinguish nothing but the most obvious and general effect, some other system of decoration had been adopted, such as the caissons of the Pantheon, which following and according with the architecture, instead of contradicting it, would have defined and embellished its forms. Fine Arts, p. 14.

The best station for viewing the paintings and other decorations of the cupola, is the whispering gallery, the ascent to which is by a spacious circular stair-case, constructed in the south-west projection of the principal transept. This gallery encircles the lower part of the dome, and extends to the extreme edge of the great cantilever cornice, but is rendered perfectly safe by a strong and handsomely wrought gilt railing, that surrounds the inner circumference. Here the forcibly shutting the door causes a strong reverberating sound, not unlike the rolling of thunder, accompanied by a sensible vibration in the building; and a low whisper breathed against the wall, in any part of this vast circle, may be accurately distinguished by an attentive ear on the opposite side. Round the space between the railing and the wall are two steps and a stone seat. The decayed state of the paintings, and the mutilations of the stucco-work, are very apparent from this gallery, but the dome itself is completely sound, not a single stone being either deranged or broken; a circumstance that must be regarded as demonstrative of the admirable manner in which it is constructed, particularly when considered in reference to the very considerable settlement that took place among the sustaining piers.The arch which crosses the north aisle at the east end, says Mr. Malcolm, is two feet three inches in thickness, yet such is the derangement occasioned by the settling, that two of the twenty great stones composing the arch have yawned asunder full an inch and a quarter, and the great stones of the wall of the nave, ten paces westward, are rent in their joints, and three are broken. A person standing on the great cornice of the nave will perceive that the north-west pier has sunk at least four inches; the sinking of the other is discernible on the side next the choir, in the two transepts, and in the wall of the stair-case, from the top to the bottom. The fissures are almost wholly confined to the junctions of the choir, nave, and transepts, with the dome. Lond. Red. Vol. iii p. 115.

From the gallery upward to the next range of cornice, the surrounding wall is quite plain and unornamented; the cornice is enriched with sculptures of shells, and acanthus leaves, most richly gilt, as are the bases and capitals of the thirty-two pilasters above, which correspond with the outward colonnade. The pannels under the eight niches, and the compartments over them, are finely sculptured with festoons and foliage, well gilt; but the festoons beneath the windows, like the flutings of the pilasters, are only painted resemblances, and are now sadly decayed. The architrave and cornice which surmount the pilasters are superbly gilt; as also are the scrolls, festoons, wreaths, and other decorations of the fictitious frame-work to the paintings by sir James Thornhill. The ornamental pannels and roses above them, to the opening of the vault, and the cornice, festoons, shells, roses, &c. in the upper part of the cone which is seen through it, and terminate the view, are likewise highly enriched by gilding.

The circular stair-case, which leads to the whispering gallery, contracts on approaching it, to give room for various passages, through the apertures of which the immense buttresses of the dome may be seen. It communicates besides with the long galleries over the side aisles; these are paved with stone, and crossed at intervals by the enormous strong arches and buttresses which support the walls and roof of the nave.

From the end of the south gallery, the passage continues through the substance of the wall into the northern transept, in the south angle of which, and immediately over the consistory, is the library.

The north and south sides of this apartment are formed by strong piers or pilasters, whose fronts are finely sculptured into sculls, crowns, mitres, books, fruits, and flowers. Mal. Lond. Red. Vol. III. p. 126. The cantalivers, and other ornaments of the oaken gallery in this room, were carved by Jonathan Maine, who was paid 6l. 10s. for each of the former. The ceiling is plain; but the floor, with more ingenuity than elegance, is entirely constructed with small pieces of oak, without either nail or peg, disposed into various geometrical figures. Over the chimney is a half-length portrait, said to be by sir James Thornhill, of Dr. Henry Compton, the worthy bishop who held this see during the principal part of the time of the erection of the cathedral. He is represented sitting, with flowing hair, and a grave countenance, and in his hand is a plan of St. Paul's. This prelate bequeathed his books to the library, which is not, however, valuable as a collection, and contains but few manuscripts; among them are several ancient calendars and missals, on vellum, and a curious, illuminated manuscript, or ritual, in old English, respecting the government of a convent, the performance of offices, &c. which belonged to the ancient catholic establishment of this church. The oldest printed books are, Callistrati Ecphrases Gr ; Luciana Opera, Edit, Col. 1477, fol. et Ven. 1503; Ambrosii Divi Episc. Mediolanensis Opera, Bas. 1492; and Baptiste F. Mantuani Opera; 1495. Here are also, Walton's Polyglot bible; and eighteen English bibles, printed between the years 1539 and 1586. One of the latest works added to the library is the Nov. Test.Graec. in three folio volumes, interleaved, cum notis MSS. et lectionibus variantibus collectis A. T. Mangey; this was presented, in 1780, by the Rev. Mr. Mangey, a prebendary of the church, and son to the learned doctor who made the notes and collections.

At the opposite extremity of the transept, and exactly corresponding in situation and dimensions with the library, is another spacious apartment, in which is kept the beautiful model constructed by sir Christopher Wren, and before noticed. Here, also, is the remains of a model, designed by sir Christopher for the altar-piece, but never executed.

Westward from the library is a door, communicating with the grand geometrical stair-case, which leads down to the lower part of the church, and appears to have been more especially intended for the use of persons of distinction, but is now seldom beheld, excepting by the eye of curiosity. This is, perhaps, the finest specimen of the kind in Great Britain; the stairs are 110 in number, and go round the concave in a spiral direction; the base being formed by a platform, inlaid with black and white marble, to represent a star, inclosed by a circle. Here, facing the door that connects the lower part with the church, is a beautiful niche, decorated with grotesque pilasters, and rich iron-work.

In the south-western tower is the clock, and the great bell on which it strikes. The former is of great magnitude: it is wound up daily, and the outward dial is regulated by a smaller one withinside. The length of the minute hand is eight feet, and its weight seventy-five pounds;From the small apertures pierced through the circumference of the west dial the motion of this hand is plainly visible. Though the clock is here described as having only a single dial, there are, in fact, two, one on the west side, and the other on the south; but the dimensions of both are similar. the length of the hour hand is five feet five inches, and its weight forty-four pounds; the diameter of the dial is eighteen feet ten inches; and the length of the hour figures is two feet two inches and a half. The great bell is sustained by a strong frame of oak, admirably contrived to distribute the weight on every side of the tower, within a cylinder of stone, pierced with eight apertures. The diameter of this bell is about ten feet, and its weight is generally stated at four tons and a quarter:In a pamphlet sold at the cathedral, the weight is said to be only 11,474 pounds; and that of the clapper 180 pounds. Mr. Malcolm has given the following extract from the Protestant Mercury of July the thirty-first, 1700; yet as the bell itself has the date of 1716, it would argue that it must have been afterwards re-cast. The great bell, formerly called Tom of Westminster, was new cast by Mr. Philip Wightman, at his melting-house, and proves extraordinary well. It weighs about five tons, having an addition made to it of the weight of a ton. It will be erected again at St. Paul's cathedral in a short time. Brayley, ii. p. 271. in the direction of the wind its sound may be heard many miles; on it are the words, RICHARD PHELPS MADE ME, 1716. The quarters are struck on two smaller bells, that hang near the former one. The great bell is never used, excepting for the striking of the hour, and for tolling at the deaths and funerals of any of the royal family, the bishops of London, and the lord mayor, should the latter die in his mayoralty.

The ascent to the whispering gallery is sufficiently convenient, but the avenues contract on approaching the stone gallery which surrounds the exterior dome above the colonnade. The view from hence is extensive and impressive, yet by no means equals the prospect that is obtained at the superior elevation of the golden gallery, which crowns the apex of the cupola, at the base of the lantern. From this height, when the atmosphere is clear, the surrounding country, to a great extent, seems completely under the eye, and even the capital, extensive as it is, with all its dependant villages, appears to occupy but an inconsiderable portion of the vast expanse that lies spread out before the sight. This view, though, perhaps, the finest in all London, can seldom be enjoyed, owing to the clouds of smoke which, arising from the numerous coal fires, almost continually hang over the city; the best time is early on a summer morning.

The occasional gloom and partial inconvenience of the ascent to the golden gallery, which is carried up between the outward roof and the cone, by steep flights of stairs, is another cause of the prospect being seldom beheld; for many of the visitors to the cathedral cannot prevail on themselves to undergo the fatigue, and apprehended danger. Still fewer are induced to explore their way into the copper ball which crowns the lantern, though the additional exertion is sufficiently repaid to the curious, by the inspection of the ingenious contrivances and mechanism that may be seen in the ascent; this is principally by ladders, and a step or two in one of the enormous brazen feet that partly sustains the ball itself, which is capacious enough to contain eight persons without particular inconvenience. The weight of the ball is stated to be 6600 lbs.; and that of the cross, to which there is no entrance, 3360 lbs.; the diameter of the ball is six feet two inches. The entire ascent to this elevation is said to include 616 steps; of which the first 280 lead to the whispering gallery, and the first 534 to the golden gallery.

The choir and its aisles are separated from the body of the church by iron rails and gates, curiously and even elegantly wrought. The entrance to the choir is immediately beneath the organ gallery; this is supported by eight small Corinthian columns of blue and white veined marble, for each of which Mr. Edward Strong was paid 52l. 10s. In front is the following inscription (in gold letters) which formerly appeared only over the grave of the great architect whom it commemorates, but has been repeated here, as the more appropriate situation, in accordance with the suggestion of the late Robert Mylne, esq. clerk of the works to St. Paul's. SUBTUS . CONDITUR . HUJUS . ECCLESIAE . ET . URBIS CONDITOR . CHRISTOPHORUS WREN. QUI. VIXIT ANNOS . ULTRA . NONAGINTA . NON . SIBI . SED BONO . PUBLICO . LECTOR . S1. MONUMENTUM . REQUIRIS CIRCUMSPICE. OBIIT. XXV. FEB. ANNO . MDCCXXIII . AETAT 91.

Translation.

Beneath lies Christopher Wren, the builder of this church, and of this city; who lived upwards of ninety years, not for himself, but for the public good. READER! wouldst thou search out his monument?

Look Around!

The organ is one of the finest instruments of the kind in the kingdom: it was constructed by a German, named Bernard Smidt, or Schymdt, (Smith) who, in December 1694, entered into a contract with the commissioners to erect the great organ, (and a choir organ) for 2000l. and, so faithfully was his engagement performed, that it is supposed that a similar one could not now be built for less than double that sum. The pipes, the original gilding of which appears perfectly fresh and brilliant, are preserved from dust by a heavy-looking case, with old-fashioned sashes; the glazing of which cost 103l. and is formed by forty-eight glass plates of chrystal, two feet one inch long, and eighteen inches broad, at twenty-six shillings each ; twenty-six others, twenty-five inches by twenty-one, at thirty shillings each; and two, twenty-one inches by fourteen, at sixteen shillings each. * The caryatides, fruits, flowers, and other figures which adorn the organ-case, are admirably carved, but the sashes have the effect of impeding the sound. The organ was entirely taken to pieces and repaired in the year 1802, by a Swedish artist and his partner, and the tones are said to have been improved into exquisite softness and harmony. Mal. Lond. Red. Vol. iii. p. 105.

The choir was completed about the year 1688. On each side is a range of fifteen stalls, independent of the bishop's throne on the south side, and the lord mayor's on the north. These, though not remarkable for their elegance of design, are most beautifully ornamented with carvings, by Grinling Gibbons, of whose unrivalled excellence Walpole thus eloquently speaks: There is no instance of a man, before Gibbons, who gave to wood the loose and airy lightness of flowers, and chained together the various productions of the elements, with a free disorder, natural to each species. Anec. of Paint. Vol. iii. p. 149.

The sums paid to Gibbons are thus stated in extracts from the books at St. Paul's, made by Mr. Malcolm. See Lond. Red. Vol. iii. pp. 104, 105.

Payments to Grinling Gibbons for the carvings inside the choir.

For two upper cimas of the great cornice, carved with leaves, at 2s. 6d. per foot, over the prebends' stalls.

The chaptering of the parapet, upper cimas, and member of the corona, with lace and leaves, at 1s. per foot.

The moulding in the cistals, one member enriched, 7d. per foot.

Coping on the cartouches, one member enriched, 14d. per foot.

The small O. G. on the corona of the bishop, and lord mayor's thrones, 4d. per foot.

For the lower cima in the bottom of the nine-inch cornice, at 7d. per foot.

The cima and casements round the stalls, 9d. per foot.

The small cima on the top of the imposts over the prebends' heads, 8d. per foot.

The hollow of the impost leaves, 5s. per foot.

The swelling friezes, with grotesque enrichments, 5s. per foot; and the grotesque enrichments round the openings in the women's gallery, 4s. 3d. per foot.

The scrolls in the partition pilasters in the stalls, 9s. 6d. per foot.

The leaning scrolls, or elbows, 1l. 5s. each; the frieze on the thrones, 5s. per foot; pedestals, grotesque in the front, 1l. 4s. each.

The great modillion cornices, six members enriched, 10. per foot.

The leaved cornice on the stone pilasters, 9s. per foot.

The Corinthian three quarter capitals, 5l. 6s. each; the whole ones, 7l. each.

Grotesque capitals in the choir, 7l. each.

Total charge, 1,33l. 7s. 5d.

The general effect on entering the choir is magnificent; yet the interest is partially destroyed by the insignificance of the altar, and the want of grandeur in the chancel; for though the original decorations were showy, they were not impressive, and are now disfigured. The railing which encloses the chancel is clumsy and inelegant; the ceiling has been painted in imitation of veined marble, as well as the semicircular recess, excepting the pannels below the windows, which are of white marble, set in dark variegated borders; but these are now much corroded, and have lost their polish. This is also the case with the chancel-pavement, which is also laid in geometrical figures, with porphyry and other rich-coloured marbles. The altar-piece is decorated with four fluted pilasters, painted with ultra-marine and veined with gold, in imitation of lapis lazuli, and their capitals are richly gilt: the foliage of the frieze, the palm and laurel branches, &c. are also resplendent with gilding.The gilding round the altar cost 1681. the glory 3l. the foliage 30l. and the palm and laurel branches 5l. the painting of the pilasters cost 160l. and the painting of the east end, &c. in resemblance of veined marble, 4s. per square yard. Mal. Lond. Red. vol. iii, p. 105. The marble pannelling between the intercolumniations consists of nine squares, three under each window. The painting and gilding of the architecture of the east end of the church, over the communion-table, was intended only to serve the present occasion, till such time as materials could have been procured for a magnificent design of an altar, consisting of four pillars, wreathed, of the richest Greek marbles, supporting a canopy hemispherical, with proper decorations of architecture and sculpture; for which the respective drawings and a model were prepared. Information, and particular descriptions of certain blocks of marble, were once sent to the right hon. Dr. Henry Compton, bishop of London, from a Levantine merchant in Holland, and communicated to the surveyor, but unluckily the colours and scantlings did not answer his purpose; so it rested, in expectance of a fitter opportunity, else probably this curious and stately design had been finished at the same time with the main fabric. The model here spoken of was that of which a part is now remaining in the trophy-room, as before mentioned. The present pulpit was designed by the late Mr. Mylne, and erected about twenty-eight years ago; it is a costly fabric, and not inelegant in parts, yet rather heavy; the rich carving is by Wyatt and an ingenious Frenchman. The reader's desk, which is a fine example of its kind, is entirely of brass, richly gilt, and consists of an eagle, with expanded wings, supported by a pillar, and inclosed within a handsome gilt brass railing.

The pavement, as well of the choir as of the body and aisles of the church, is of black and white marble, neatly disposed, and particularly so in the area below the dome: here, round a brass plate in the centre, pierced (to throw light into the vaults) with lyre-shaped openings, and otherwise ornamented, a large diamond star, of thirty-two points, is formed with black and variegated marble; this again is surrounded by a double circle, inclosing lozenge-shaped squares, and more outward to the extremity of the area, one extensive circle of black marble bounds the whole; the systematic arrangement is continued by smaller circles and other figures.

The sullen grandeur, as it has been aptly styled, of the interior of St. Paul's, is not in any degree to be attributed to sir Christopher Wren, who was fully sensible of its deficiency in ornament, and greatly wished to have relieved the architectural masses both by sculptures and by paintings; but being subjected to the restrictions of men utterly devoid of taste, he was unable to carry his intentions into practice. An attempt to remedy this objectionable destitution was made, about the year 1773, by the president and principal members of the Royal Academy, who most liberally offered to paint various pictures, without charge, to fill some of the vacant compartments.The names of those who were foremost in this meritorious design are deserving of the lasting estimation of every admirer of art and superior talents, they are here recorded:--Sir Joshua Reynolds, Angelica Kaufman, and Messrs. West, Barry, Cipriani, and Dance. This offer, however, was not solely made through the wish of supplying the want of ornament in the cathedral, but partly from a feeling that the art of painting would never meet with due encouragement in England till it was admitted into churches, where grand religious subjects contribute to exalt the ideas of the multitude to a just conception of the divinity. The dean and chapter highly approved of the offer, which was first communicated to bishop Newton by sir Joshua Reynolds; his majesty also concurred with the proposal. The then archbishop of Canterbury, however, and Dr. Terrick, who was promoted to this see in May, 1774, thought proper to discountenance the whole plan (which fell to the ground in consequence of their opposition) on the futile principle, that popular clamours would be excited by the idea that popery and the saints were again to be admitted into our churches. Brayley, in. p. 278.

Within the space of twenty years after the above period, another scheme was suggested, and has happily been carried into effect, for breaking the monotonous uniformity of the architectural masses. This was the admission into the cathedral of those monuments of the great deceased, which may, with strict propriety, be denominated national; not altogether from their being always executed at the public expense, and thus announcing the admiring veneration of a grateful country, but from their being raised in commemoration of characters either eminent for their virtues, for their talents, or for their heroism; and long, very long, may the time be distant, when the mere circumstance of rank or of office shall be judged sufficient to give the privilege of monumental record in this sacred fane!

The decease of Howard, the philanthropist, who expired at Cherson, in Russian Tartary, in 1790, was the immediate event that led to the erection of monuments in this church. It was then suggested by the late Rev. John Pridden, one of the minor canons of St. Paul's, that the dean and chapter should be solicited for permission to erect a statue of this excellent man in the cathedral; a requisition which, with the according consent of the late bishop, Dr. Beilby Porteus, was readily granted; but it was at the same time intimated, that as this would become a precedent for future applications, no monument should be erected without the design being first approved of by a committee of the royal academicians, a determination which has been hitherto strictly abided by; though it was very early seen, that from the influence of some unexplained imperium in imperio, the ultimate decision was not intended to be given to the committee.See Barry's Letter to the Dilettanti Society, p. 47; and Bacon's Letter to Mr. J. Nichols, in Gent.«s Mag. for the year 1796.

Though the permission for Howard's statue was first granted, that of the celebrated Dr. Johnson was first erected. This was executed by the late excellent artist John Bacon, esq. R. A. in the year 1795. In this figure the sculptor has acknowledgedly aimed at a magnitude of parts, and a grandeur of style, that should accrue with the masculine sense and nervous phraseology which characterizes the writings of our great moralist. He is represented in a Roman toga, with the right arm and breast naked, and in an attitude of intense study. The expression of his countenance is mingled with severity, as being most suitable to his vigour of thinking, and the complexional character of his works; and he appears leaning against a column, to express the firmness of his mind, and the stability of his maxims. The inscription on the pedestal was written by Dr. Parr; it is as follows: *a*R *x*w Samuel Johnson, Grammatico. et Critico. Scriptorvm. Anglicorum, Litterate. perito. poetae. lvminibus. Sententiarvm et. ponderibvs. verborvm. admirabili magistro. virtvtis. gravissimo homini. optimo. et. singvlaris. exempli qvi visit. ann. lxxv. mens. iI. dies. xiiil decessit. idib. Decembr. Ann Christ cIC.Iccc.lxxxiiil. sepvlt. in. aed. Sanct. Petr. Westmonasteriens xiiI. kal. Janvar Ann. Christ. cIc.Iccc.lxxxv amici. et. sodales. litterarii pecvnia. conlata H. M facivnd. cvraver.

The statue of Howard, which occupies a situation corresponding with that of Dr. Johnson, viz. an angle in front of one of the smaller piers of the dome, is also from the chisel of Bacon, who agreed to execute it for the sum of 1300 guineas. The Roman costume is again employed in this figure; the attitude is intended to give the idea of motion, by the body being advanced upon the right foot, which is placed considerably forward: in one hand is a key, to express the circumstance of his exploring dungeons, and in the other a scroll of papers, with the words- Plan for the Improvement of Prisons, written on one; and on the corner of a second, the word Hospitals. Under the feet of the statue are chains and fetters, and behind another paper, with the word Regulations: on the pedestal in front, is a bas-relief, representing a scene in a prison, where Mr. Howard having broken the chains of the prisoners, is bringing provision and cloathing for their relief. Over the bas-relief is John Howard; and on the left of the pedestal the following inscription, from the pen of the late Samuel Whitbread, esq. This extraordinary man had the fortune to be honoured. whilst living, in the manner which his virtues deserved. He received the thanks of both Houses of the British and Irish Parliaments, for his eminent services rendered to his country and to mankind, our national prisons and hospitals, improved upon the suggestions of his wisdom, bear testimony to the solidity of his judgment, and to the estimation in which he was held in every part of the civilised world, which he traversed to reduce the sum of human misery. From the throne to the dungeon, his name was mentioned with respect, gratitude, and admiration! His modesty alone defeated various efforts that were made during his life to erect this statue, which the public has now consecrated to his memory! He was born at Hackney, in the county of Middlesex, Sept. 2, 1726. The early part of his life he spent in retirement, residing principally on his paternal estate at Cardington, in Bedfordshire, for which county he served the office of sheriff in the year 1773. He expired at Cherson, in Russian Tartary, on the 20th Jan. 1790, a victim to the perilous and benevolent attempt to ascertain the cause of, and find an efficacious remedy for, the plague. He trod an open, but unfrequented, path to immortality , in the ardent and unintermitted exercise of Christian charity. May this trbute to his fame excite an emulation of his truly glorious achievements!

In another correspondent angle below the dome is a third statue by Bacon, erected in the year 1799, to the memory of sir William Jones, one of the judges of the supreme court of judicature at Fort William, Bengal, where he died on the 27th of April, 1794. This, like the two former, is a standing figure (having in the left hand a roll of paper, inscribed, Plan of the Asiatic Society; and in the right a pen,) resting upon a volume, inscribed Translation of the Institutes of Menu, which is placed, with two others, on a square pedestal, sculptured with a lyre, armillary sphere, compass, sword and scales, &c. all intended as emblems of the various acquirements of this learned man. In front of the pedestal is a bas-relief, representing Study and Genius unveiling oriental science; on the right, is the following inscription: To the memory of sir William Jones, knight, one of the judges of the supreme court of judicature at Fort William in Bengal. This statue was erected by the hon. East-India Company, in testimony of their grateful sense of his public services, their admiration of his genius and learning, and their respect for his character and virtues. He died in Bengal, on the 24th April, 1794, aged 47.

The base of the north-west pier is occupied by the statue of sir Joshua Reynolds, the first president of the royal academy, in the doctor of law's gown, his right hand holding his discourses to the royal academy. and his left resting on a pedestal, attached to which is a medallion of M. Angelo.

Sir Joshua Reynolds was buried in the crypt of this cathedral, A. D. 1792. Joshua Reynolds, pictorum sui seculi facile pricipi, et splendore et commissuris colorum, alternis vicibus luminis et umbrae sese mutuo excitantium, vix ulli veterum secundo; qui cum samma artis gloria uteretur et morum suavitate et vitae elegantia perinde commendaretur; artem etiam ipsam per orbem terrarum languentem et prope intermortuam exemplis egregie venustis suscitavit, praeceptis exquisite conscriptis illustravit, atque emendatiorem et expolitiorem posteris exercendam tradidit; laudum ejus fautores et amici hanc statuam posuerunt A. S. MDCCCXIII. nalus die xvi mensis julii MDCCXXIII. mortem obiit die XXIII Februarii MDCCXCII.

At one corner of the ledge above the pedestal Flaxman, R. A. sculptor.

The monumental honours for lord Nelson, by Mr. Flaxman, occupy a distinguished place against one of the great piers between the dome and the choir.

The statue of lord Nelson, dressed in the pelisse received from the Grand Signor, leans on an anchor. Beneath, on the right of the hero, Britannia directs the attention of two young seamen to Nelson, their great example. The British lion on the other side guards the monument.

The figures on the pedestal represent the North Sea, the German Ocean, the Nile, and the Mediterranean. On the cornice are the words Copenhagen, Nile, Trafalgar. Erected at the public expense to the memory of Vice-Admiral Horatio Viscount Nelson, K. B. to record his splendid and unparallelled achievements during a life spent in the service of his country, and terminated in the moment of victory by a glorious death, in the memorable action off Cape Trafalgar, on the XXI of October MDCCCV. Lord Nelson was born on the XXIX of September, MDCCLVIII. The battle of the Nile was fought on the 1 of August, MDCCXCVIII. The battle of Copenhagen on the 11 of April, MDCCCI.

In a pannel above this monument is a mural tablet in commemoration of captain Duff, who was killed in the same battle. It is by J. Bacon, jun. and consists of a small antique sarcophagus (on the front of which is a sculptured medallion of the deceased) a figure of Britannia on the right, holding a wreath of laurel over the sarcophagus, and on the left asailor, relieved from a naval flag, reclining his head, in sorrow, upon the edge of the pedestal. Erected at the public expense to the memory of Captain George Duff. who was killed XXI of Oct. MDCCCV, commanding the Mars in the battle of Trafalgar, in the forty-second year of his age, and the twenty-ninth of his service.

Opposite to lord Nelson's monument, is that to the memory of Marquis Cornwallis, by Mr. Charles Rossi.

The design consists of a pyramidical group. On a circular pedestal (or rather a truncated column) is placed the figure of lord Cornwallis standing in the robes of the most noble order of the garter. The two principal figures forming the base of this group, are personifications of the British empire, in Europe and in the east; represented, not as mourners, but as doing honour to the memory of a faithful servant of the state, whose virtues and talents, during a long life, had been so eminently useful to his country.

The third figure of the group is the Bagareth, one of the great rivers in India; and the small one on his right hand is the Ganges, being the right branch of the Bagareth. The Ganges is seated on a fish and a calabash. To the memory of Charles Marquis Cornwallis, governor-general of Bengal, who died 5th October, 1805, aged 66, at Ghazeepore in the province of Benares, in his progress to assume the command of the army in the field. This monument is erected at the public expense, in testimony of his high and distinguished public character, his long and eminent public services, both as a soldier and a statesman, and the unwearied zeal with which his exertions were employed in the last moment of his life to promote the interest and honour of his country.

In the pannel above is an alto relievo by Mr. Westmacott, to the memory of captain John Cooke, of the Bellerophon.

Britannia mourning her hero, is consoled by one of her children bringing her the trident; while another is playfully bearing her helmet. In the back ground is the prow of a vessel, to mark the work as a naval monument. Erected at the public expense to the memory of Captain John Cooke, who was killed commanding the Bellerophon in the battle of Trafalgar, in the forty-fourth year of his age, and the thirtieth year of his service.

In the south transept, against the south-west pier, is a monument by Mr. Banks in memory of captain Burgess, who gloriously fell in the battle fought with the Dutch, off Camperdown, by admiral Duncan. The faults and the excellences of this expansive piece of sculpture are singularly blended; yet it must be confessed that the former affect the conception or invention more than the execution; which, generally speaking, is deserving of high praise. The principal figures are those of Victory and the deceased, both of whom are standing on the opposite sides of a cannon, near which are coils of rope, balls, &c. Victory, who is a meagre and insipid figure, is in the act of presenting a sword to the brave Burgess, whose statue is finely expressive of heroic animation, but almost literally naked, a slate by far mote befitting the goddess herself than the representation of a naval officer. On the circular base or pedestal, in front, beneath the pannel with the inscription, is an aged captive, with a log-line and compass, sitting between the prows of two ships, one of which is antique, the other modern. At the sides are other figures, male and female, beautifully sculptured, and in a classical taste, expressive of disgrace, discomfiture, and captivity; and in the spaces are antique shields, clubs, &c. All these figures are in bold relief, and their actions and attitudes finely indicative of defeat and shame.Brayley, ii. p. 285. The inscription is as follows:-- Sacred to the memory of Richard Rundle Burgess, Esq. commander of His Majesty's ship Ardent, who fell in the 43d year of his age, while bravely supporting the honour of the British flag, in a daring and successful attempt to break the enemy's line, near Camperdown, on the 11th of October, 1797. His skill, coolness, and intrepidity, eminently contributed to a victory equally advantageous and glorious to his country. That grateful country, by the unanimous act of her legislature, enrolls his name high in the list of those heroes, who, under the blessing of Providence, have established and maintained her naval superiority and her exalted rank among nations.

Above this monument, on a pannel, is a group of sculpture to the memory of captain Hardinge.

The sanguinary and successful action which this monument records, having taken place in the East Indies, where the captain died, the Indian warrior bearing the victorious British standard, is seated by the side of the sarcophagus, while Fame, recumbent on its base, displays her wreath over the hero's name. National, to Geo. N. Hardinge, Esq. captain of the St. Fiorenza, 26 guns, 186 men, who attacked on three successive days La Piedmontaise 50 guns 566 men, and fell near Ceylon in the path to victory, 8th March 1808, aged 28 years.

This monument was the work of the late Mr. Charles Manning.

Against the opposite pier is another large monument, by Mr. C. Rossi, commemorating the fate and gallant exploit of the lamented captain Faulknor, who fell in battle in the West Indies. This intrepid officer (who is very injudiciously represented with a Roman sword in his right hand, and a Roman shield on his left aim, as if intended for a gladiator) is exhibited as in the moment of death, and falling into the arms of Neptune; the latter is a gigantic figure seated on a rock, with a slight portion of drapery thrown over his left knee and middle, and occupying the most central and prominent place in the composition; his form appears somewhat uncouth and his attitude ungracious: below him is a dolphin, and on his left the goddess Victory with a palm branch in her left hand and a wreath in her right, which she holds over the head of the dying hero.Ibid, p. 286. The lassitude resulting from the approach of death is well expressed in the figure of the captain; and the statue of Victory has merit. On the pedestal is the following inscription:-- This monument was erected by the British parliament to commemorate the gallant conduct of Captain Robert Faulkner, who on the 5th of January, 1795, in the thirty-second year of his age, and in the moment of victory, was killed on board the Blanche frigate, while he was engaging La Pique, a French frigate of very superior force. The circumstances of determined bravery that distinguished this action, which lasted five hours, deserves to be recorded Captain Faulknor having observed the great superiority of the enemy, and having lost most of his masts and rigging, watched an opportunity of the bowsprit of La Pique coming athwart the Blanche, and with his own hands lashed it to the capstern, and thus converted the whole stern of the Blanche into one battery; but unfortunately soon after this bold and daring manoeuvre, he was shot through the heart.

The pannel above contains a tabular monument by Mr. Flaxman, in which Britannia and Victory unite in raising captain Miller's medallion against a palm tree. The head of the Theseus, in which vessel the captain died off the coast of Acre, is by the side of Victory. On the palm tree under the medallion are the following words, St. Vincent's. Nile.

Round the head represented on the medallion, is written, To Captain Willet Miller this monument is inscribed by his companions in victory.

Against the south side of this pier is the statue of lord Heathfield, by Mr. Rossi. It represents the hero in a standing attitude, resting; in the uniform of the times, and wearing the order of the bath. In front of the pedestal, in alto relievo, is represented the British power at Gibraltar, by the warrior and the lion reposing, after having defended the rock, and defeated their enemies.

The female figure, holding two wreaths in her right hand, and a palm branch in her left, presenting them to the hero, represents Victory and Peace. Erected at the public expense to the memory of General Geo. Aug. Elliott, Lord Heathfield, K. B. In testimony of the important services which he rendered his country by his brave and gallant defence of Gibraltar, of which he was governor, against the combined attack of the French and Spanish forces, on the 13th of September, 1782. He died on the 6th July, 1790.

The monument to earl Howe, by Mr. Flaxman, is under the east window of the south transept. Britannia is sitting on a rostrated pedestal, holding the trident in her right hand; the earl stands by her, leaning on a telescope; the British lion is watching by his side.

History records in golden letters the relief of Gibraltar, and the defeat of the French fleet, 1st June,1794. Victory (without wings) leans on the shoulder of History, and lays a branch of palm on the lap of Britannia. Erected at the public expense, to the memory of Admiral Earl Howe, in testimony of the general sense of his great and meritorious services, in the course of a long and distinguished life, and in particular for the benefit derived to his country by the brilliant victory which he obtained over the French fleet off Ushant 1st June, 1794. He was born 19th March, 1726, and died 5th August, 1799, in his 74th year.

Against the south wall of the same transept is a monument erected in memory of lord Collingwood, by Richard Westmacott, R. A.

The moment for illustration chosen in this composition is the arrival of the remains of lord Collingwood on the British shores. The body, shrouded in the colours torn from the enemy, is represented on the deck of a man-of-war; in the hands of the hero is placed the sword, which he used with so much glory to himself, and to a grateful country.

On the foreground, attended by the genii of his confluent streams, is Thames, in a cumbent position, thoughtfully regarding Fame, who from the prow of the ship reclines over the illustrious admiral, and proclaims his heroic achievements.

The alto-relievo on the gunwale of the ship illustrates the progress of navigation. The genius of man discovering the properties of the nautilus, is led to venture on the expansive bosom of the ocean: acquiring confidence from success, he leaves his native landmarks, the stars his only guide. The magnet's power next directs his course; and now, to counteract the machinations of pirates and the feuds of nations, he forges the instruments of war. Erected at the public expense to the memory of Cuthbert lord Collingwood, who died in the command of the fleet in the Mediterranean on board the Ville de Paris, VII March, MDCCCX, in the LXI year of his age. Wherever he served he was distinguished for conduct, skill, and courage; particularly in the action with the French fleet, 1 June, MDCCXCIV, as captain of the Barfleur: in the action with the Spanish fleet XIV Feb. MDCCXCVII, as captain of the Excellent; but most conspicuously in the decisive victory off Cape Trafalgar, obtained over the combined fleets of France and Spain, to which he eminently contributed as vice admiral of the Blue, commanding the larboard division, XXI October, MDCCCV.

Adjoining the south door is a monument by Mr. Westmacott to the memory of General Pakenham and General Gibbs, who were killed at the battle of New Orleans. They are represented in their full uniforms, the arm of the one resting on the shoulder of the other.

The statue of general Gillespie is on the other side of the door. He is represented in full military uniform, one hand resting on a sword, and the other holding a roll of paper. The figure is very commanding, and was executed by Mr. Chantrey. Erected at the public expense to the memory of MAjor-General Robert Rollo Gillespie, who fell gloriously on the 31st of October, 1814, at the fortress of Kalunga, in the kingdom of Nepaul.

The monument of sir John Moore, by Mr. Bacon, represents his interment by the hands of Valour and Victory, while the genius of Spain (distinguished by the shield bearing the Spanish arms) is planting the victorious standard on his tomb. Victory lowers the general to his grave by a wreath of laurel. Sacred to the memory of LIeutenant-General Sir Jr Moore, K. B. who born at Glasgow in the year 1761. He fought for his country in America, in Corsica, in the West Indies, in Holland, Egypt, and Spain: and on the 16th of January 1809, was slain by a cannon ball at Corunna.

Under the west window of this transept is the very noble equestrian monument of sir Ralph Abercromby, who was mortally wounded in Egypt, soon after the landing of the British troops in that country, in the year 1801. This was erected in consequence of a vote of parliament, by R. Westmacott, R. A. about 1809. The brave and able general, who is the subject of this memento, is represented as wounded, and falling from his horse into the arms of an attendant Highlander. Both figures are arrayed in the proper costume of their respective stations: and below the fore-feet of the horse, which is springing forward in a very spirited attitude, is the naked body of a fallen foe. The position of the Highland soldier is well conceived and judiciously balanced, so as to sustain the additional weight of the general without exhibiting any indication of weak or inefficient power. The countenance of the immortal Abercromby, though languid, displays a placid dignity, highly expressive of the strength of mind and undaunted heroism which distinguished his character. Upon the freestone plinth of this monument, and on each side of the principal group, is a large figure of the Egyptian sphinx; and the following inscription is on the circular base, below the principal figures--: Erected at the public expense, to the memory of Lieut. Gen Sir Ralph Abercromby, K. B. commander-in-chief of an expedition directed against the French in Egypt; who, having surmounted with consummate ability and valour, the obstacles opposed to his landing, by local difficulties, and a powerful and well-prepared enemy, and, having successfully established and maintained the successive positions necessary for conducting his further operations, resisted, with signal advantage, a desperate attack of chosen and veteran troops, on the 21st of March, 1801, when he received, early in the engagement, a mortal wound; but remained in the field, guiding by his direction, and animating by his presence, the brave troops under his command, until they had atchieved the brilliant and important victory obtained on that memorable day. The former actions of a long life, spent in the service of his country, and thus gloriously terminated, were distinguished by the same military skill, and by equal zeal for the public service, particularly during the campaigns in the Netherlands, in 1783 and 94; in the West Indies, in 1796 and 97; and in Holland, in 1799; in the last of which the distinguished gallantry and ability with which he effected his landing on the Dutch coast, established his position in the face of a powerful enemy, and secured the command of the principal fort and arsenal of the Dutch republic, were acknowledged and honoured by the thanks of both houses of parliament. Sir Ralph Abercromby expired on board the Foudroyant, on the 28th of March, 1801, in his 66th year.

In the western ambulatory of the south transept is a tabular monument to the memory of sir Isaac Brock, by Mr. Westmacott: it represents a military monument, on which are placed the sword and helmet of the deceased; a votive record, supposed to have been raised by his companions to their honoured commander.

His corpse reclines in the arms of a British soldier, whilst an Indian pays the tribute of regret his bravery and humanity elicited. Erected at the public expense to the memory of Major General Sir Isaac Brock, who gloriously fell on the 13th of October, M.D.CCCXII. in resisting an attack on Queenstown, in Upper Canada.

In the east ambulatory of the same transept, over the door leading to the crypt, is a tabular monument, by Mr. J. Kendrick, to the memory of Major General Ross, who was killed at Baltimore in the last American war. The design represents Valour laying an American flag upon the tomb of the departed warrior, on which Britannia is recumbent in tears; while Fame is descending with the laurel to crown his bust.

The monument, executed by Mr. Chantrey, to the memory of colonel Cadogan, occupies the opposite pannel. The design is historical. When colonel Cadogan was mortally wounded at the battle of Vittoria, he caused his men to place him on an eminence, whence he might contemplate the victory he had assisted to achieve. He is here represented borne off in the arms of his soldiers with his face to the enemy; his troops having broken the enemy's ranks with their bayonets. One of the enemy's eagles, with its bearer, is represented as trodden on the ground, while another standard bearer is turning to fly. The soldiers who support their leader appear waving their hats in the moment of victory. Erected at the public expense to the memory of Colonel the Honble. Henry Cadogan, who fell gloriously in the command of a brigade in the memorable battle of Vittoria, 21st June 1813, when a complete victory was gained over the French army by the allied forces under the marquis of Wellington. Colonel Cadogan was son of Charles Sloane Earl Cadogan, born 28th Feb. 1780.

Against the east pier of the north transept is a magnificent group of sculpture, in commemoration of major-general Thomas Dundas, who died of the yellow fever in the West Indies, on the third of June, 1794. It was executed in 1805, by J. Bacon, jun. and is a very fine and spirited performance. Britannia, with her attendant lion couchant, is here represented in the act of encircling the bust of the deceased with a laurel wreath, whilst at the same time she is receiving under her protection the genius of the captured islands, another full-length female figure bearing the produce of the various settlements, having a youthful form, and a countenance expressive of sensibility. At her feet is an infant boy with an olive branch, and behind a trident. The bust is sustained on a circular pedestal, on which is a bas-relief of Britannia giving protection to a fugitive female against the pursuit of two other figures representing Deceit and Oppression. Major-General Thomas Dundas died June 3rd, 1794, aged 44 years; the best tribute to whose merit and public services will be found in the following vote of the House of Commons for the erection of this memorial. 5th June, 1795. Resolved, nemine contradicente, that an humble address be presented to his Majesty, that he will be graciously pleased to give directions, that a monument be erected in the cathedral church of Saint Paul, London, to the memory of major-general Thomas Dundas, as a testimony of the grateful sense entertained by this House of the eminent services which he rendered to his country, particularly in the reduction of the French West-India islands.

Above this a tabular monument to generals Mackenzie and Langworth. Victory laments the loss of her heroes, while the sons of Britain recount their valiant achievements. Against the tomb are two wreaths, intimating the fall of two warriors. One of the boys bears the broken French imperial eagle, which he is displaying to the other. The helmet on the one boy, and the wreath of oak on the head of the other, imply the military service, connected with its honours and rewards in the sons of Britain.

This monument was executed from a design by the late Mr. Charles Manning. National monument to Major-General J. R. Mackenzie and Brigadier-General R. Langworth, who fell at Talavera July 26, M.DCCC.IX.

Immediately opposite is a monument by the late J. Banks, R. A. executed 1805, to the memory of Captain Westcott, who was killed in the battle of the Nile. The dying hero, a fine figure, in a falling attitude, is here supported by Victory; whose own position, however, is apparently very unstable, and excites the idea of comparative weakness. On the basement, in the centre, is a bas-relief of a gigantic figure intended for the god Nilus, with numerous naked boys, indicative of the various streams of the river Nile; and on each side are basso-relievos, representing the explosion of the L«Orient, and a vessel under sail. Erected at the public expense to the memory of George Blagdon Westcott, captain of the Majestic; who after 33 years of meritorious service fell gloriously in the victory obtained over the French Fleet off Aboukir, the first day of August, in the year MDCCXCVIII, in the forty-sixth year of his age.

Above this monument is a tablet to the memory of generals Crauford and Mackinnon, by Mr. Bacon, junior.

The sculpture represents the hardy Highlander weeping over the tombs of his fallen commanders, while planting the standard between them. Victory alights, and places her wreath on the top of the standard, to mark the spot as sacred to the ashes of successful valour. The British lion, the imperial eagle, and the shield on which is embossed the arms of Spain, denote that the talents and operations of the generals when they fell, were directed against the French power in the Spanish dominions. Erected by the Nation to Major-General Robert Crauford and Major-General Henry Mackinnon, who felt at Ciudad Rodrigo, Jan. 18, 1812.

Against the same pier, on the north side, is a colossal statue by Mr. Baily, of the late earl of St. Vincent, in full uniform, standing on a pedestal, and resting on a telescope. The bas-relief represents History recording the name of the deceased hero on a pyramid, while Victory laments his loss. Erected at the public expense to the memory of John Earl of St. Vincent, as a testimony of his distinguished eminence in the naval service of his country, and as a particular memorial of the glorious and important victory which he gained over the Spanish fleet off Cape St. Vincent, on the 14th of February, 1797. He died on the 13th of March, 1823.

The recess under the west window of the north transept is occupied by a group in honour of lord Rodney, by Mr. Charles Rossi.

The principal figure is standing on a square pedestal, while Clio, the historic muse (who is seated), instructed by Fame, records the great and useful actions of this naval hero. Erected at the public expense to the memory of George Brydges Rodney, K. B. lord Rodney, vice-admiral of England, as a testimony of the gallant and important services which he rendered to his country in many memorable engagements, and especially in that of 12 April, 1782, when a brilliant and decisive victory was obtained over the French fleet; and an effectual protection was afforded to the West Indian Islands, and to the commercial interest of this kingdom, in the very crisis of the American war. Lord Rodney was born in 1718. Died 24th May, 1792.

On the north side of this transept is a monument to general Picton. It is by Mr. Gahagan; the design represents Genius and Valour rewarded by Victory. The group is surmounted by a bust of the general. Erected at the public expense, to Lieutenant-General Sir Thomas Picton, K. G. C. B. who after distinguishing himself in the victories of Buzaco, Fuentes de Onor, Cuidad Rodrigo. Badajoz, Vittoria, the Pyrenees, Orthes, and Toulouse, terminated his long and glorious military service in the ever-memorable battle of Waterloo, to the splendid success of which his genius and valour eminently contributed, on xviii of June, MDCCCXV.

Near the north door is a monument by Mr. H. Hopper, to the memory of major-general Andrew Hay. He is represented falling into the arms of Valour, while a soldier stands lamenting the loss of his commander. Erected at the public expense to the memory of Major-General Andrew Hay. He was born in the county of Banff in Scotland, and fell on the 14th April, 1814, before the fortress of Bayonne in France, in the 52d year of his age, and the 34th of his services, closing a military life marked by zeal, prompt decision, and signal intrepidity.

On the opposite side of the north door of the cathedral is a monument by Mr. Chantrey, in honour of Generals Gore and Skerrett. The design by the late Mr. Tollemache, represents Fame consoling Britannia for the loss of her heroes. Erected at the public expense to the memory of Major-Generals Arthur Gore and John Byrne Skerrett, who fell gloriously while leading the troops to the assault of the fortress of Bergen-op-Zoom, in the night of the 8th and 9th of March, 1814.

The monument to the honourable sir William Ponsonhy was designed by William Theed, R. A., and since his death executed by Mr. E . H. Baily, A. R A. The composition represents the hero receiving a wreath from the hand of Victory in the moment of death. Erected at the public expense to the memory of Major General the Hon. Sir William Ponsoney, who fell gloriously in the battle of Waterloo, on the 18th of June, 1815.

The recess under the east window of the north transept is occupied with a monument to the memory of captains Mosse and Rion, by Mr. Charles Rossi. An insulated base contains a sarcophagus, on the front of which, Victory and Fame place the medallions of the two deceased officers. The services and death of two valiant and distinguished officers, James Robert Mosse, captain of the Monarch, and Edward Riou, of the Amazon, who fell in the attack upon Copenhagen, conducted by lord Nelson 2nd April, 1801, are commemorated by this monument, erected at the national expense. James Robert Mosse was born in 1746; he served as lieutenant several years under lord Howe, and was promoted to the rank of post captain in 1790. To Edward Riou, who was born in 1762, an extraordinary occasion was presented, in the early part of his service, to signalize his intrepidity and presence of mind, which were combined with the moat anxious solicitude for the lives of those under his command, and a magnanimous disregard of his own. When his ship the Guardian struck upon an island of ice, in December, 1789, and afforded no prospect but that of immediate destruction to those on board, lieut. Riou encouraged all who desired to take their chance of preserving themselves in the boats to consult their safety; but judging it contrary to his duty to desert the vessel, he neither gave himself up to despair, nor relaxed his exertions; whereby, after ten weeks of the most perilous navigation he succeeded in bringing his disabled ship into port; receiving this high reward of fortitude and perseverance from the Divine Providence, on whose protection he relied.

Immediately opposite, a monument has been lately erected to the memory of lord Duncan, by Mr. Westmacott.

This tribute consists simply in a statue of the admiral, with his boat cloak or dreadnought thrown around him: his hands being engaged in holding his sword, which rests across his body.

On the pedestal to the statue is an alto relievo of a seaman with his wife and child, illustrative of the regard in which lord Duncan's memory is held by the poor but gallant companions of his achievements. Erected at the public expense to the memory of Adam Lord Viscount Duncan, as a testimony of his distinguished eminence in the naval service of his country, and as a particular memorial of the glorious and important victory which he gained over the Dutch fleet on the 11th October, 1797. He died on the 4th August, 1804.

In the eastern ambulatory of the north transept, is a tabular monument by Mr. Chantrey, to the memory of major-general Bowes. The design represents the general storming the forts of Salamanca; a shattered wall presents a steep breach crowded with the enemy, and covered with their slain. The general conducts his troops to charge its defenders with the bayonet; the French standard and its bearer fall at his feet, and victory is already secure, when he receives a mortal wound, and falls into the arms of one of his soldiers. Erected at the public expense to the memory of Major-General Foord Bowes, who fell gloriously on the 27th June, 1812, while leading the troops to the assault of the forts of Salamanca.

The opposite pannel is filled with a monument to major-general Le Marchant, designed by the late James Smith; and executed alter his decease by Mr. Rossi.

The figure of Spain is represented placing the trophies of victory on the tomb of the warrior, at the same time she mourns his fall.

Britannia, seated, is pointing to the monument raised to his memory by a grateful nation, and is instructing her youth, a military cadet, to emulate his brave example. Erected at the public expense to the memory of Major-General John Gaspard le Marchant, who gloriously fell in the battle of Salamanca.

In the western ambulatory of the north transept, is a tabular monument erected by Mr. Chantrey, to the memory of major-general Hoghton.

The design is simple, and arises out of the peculiar circumstances of the event it celebrates.

General Hoghton, while leading his troops to a successful charge on the French at Albuera, received a mortal wound; but lived for a moment to witness the total defeat of the enemy. The design, therefore, represents general Hoghton starting from the ground, eagerly stretching out his hand, directing his men, who are rushing on the enemy with levelled bayonets; while Victory, ascending from the field of battle, sustains with one hand the British colours, and with the other proceeds to crown the dying victor with laurel. Erected at the public expense to the memory of Major-General Daniel Hoghton, who fell gloriously 16th May, 1811, at Albuera.

The opposite pannel is to the memory of sir William Myers.

The design is intended to represent the union of wisdom and valour in the deceased, whose bust is placed on the top of the tomb. The figures introduced are Minerva for wisdom, and Hercules for valour, who points with one hand to the bust, while the other clasps that of wisdom.

This monument is the performance of Mr. Kendrick. Erected at the public expense to the memory of Lieutenant-Colonel Sir William Myers, Bart., who fell gloriously in the battle of Albuera, May 16th 1811, aged 27 years. His illustrious commander, the duke of Wellington, bore this honourable testimony to his services and abilities, in a letter to lady Myers, written from Elvas, May 20, 1811: It will be some satisfaction to you to know that your son fell in the action, in which, if possible, the British troops surpassed all their former deeds, and at the head of the Fusileer Brigade, to which a great part of the final success of the day was to be attributed. As an officer he had already been highly distinguished, and, if Providence had prolonged his life, he promised to become one of the brightest ornaments to his profession, and an honour to his country.

The entrance to the vaults is by a broad flight of steps in the south-east angle of the great transept. In these gloomy recesses, which receive only a partial distant light from grated prison-like windows, the vast piers and arches that sustain the superstructure, cannot be seen without interest. They form the whole space into three main avenues, the principal inner one under the dome being almost totally dark. Nelson's Sarcophagus

Here, in the very centre of the building, repose the mortal remains of the great lord Nelson, a man whose consummate skill and daring intrepidity advanced the naval superiority of the British nation to a height and splendour before unparalleled. The funeral of this hero has been amply described in another portion of the work.Vol. ii. p. 153. The colours of the Victory, the ship which he commanded were deposited with the chieftain who so gloriously fell under them, and whose revered reliques have since been inclosed within a base of Scotch granite, built upon the floor of the vault, and supporting a large sarcophagus, formed of black and dark-coloured marbles, brought from the tomb-house of cardinal Wolsey, at Windsor. Viro Immortali! Near the tomb of Nelson, the remains of his gallant and much-esteemed friend and companion in victory, Cuthbert lord Collingwood, have since been interred.

Of the other persons buried in the vaults, the priority of notice is certainly due to sir Christopher Wren, whose low tomb in the south aisle of the crypt, is supposed to mark the spot where the high altar formerly stood. HERE LIETH SIR CHRISTOPHER WREN, KNT. THE BUILDER OF THIS CATHEDRAL CHURCH OF ST. PAUL, WHO DIED IN THE YEAR OF OUR LORD M.D.CCXXIII AND OF HIS AGE XCI.

On the adjacent wall, at the head of the tomb, within a border of ovals, is the inscription, Subtus conditur, &c. a repetition of which is over the entrance to the choir.

Near the tomb of sir Christopher is a monumental tablet, sculptured with flowers, and cherubim withdrawing a curtain, inscribed in memory of the Rev. Dr. William Holder, a residentiary of this church, and Susannah his wife, the daughter of dean Wren, and sister to the architect. H. S. E. Gulielmus Holder, S. T. P. sacelli regalis sub-decanus, sereniss' regiae mati sub-eleemosynarius, ecclesiarum S. Pauli et Eliens, canonicus, societatis regiae Lond. sodalis, &c. amplis quidem titulis donatus, amplissimis dignus, vir perelegantis et amoeni ingenii scientiae industria sua illustravit, liberalitate te promovit; egregie eruditus theologicis, mathematicis, et arte musica. Memoriam excolite, posteri, eta lucubrationibus suiis editis coquelae principia agnoscite, et harmonica. Ob. xxivto Jan. A. D. M.DC.CVII. AET. XCII. Susannah Holder, late wife of William Holder, D. D. residentiary of this church, daughter of Dr. Christopher Wren, late dean of Windsor, and sister of Sir Christopher Wren, knt. After 15 years happily and honourably passed in conjugal state and care, at the age of LXI years she piously rendered her soul to God the last day of June, A. D. M.DC.LXXXVIII.

Against the opposite pier a small tabular monument commemorates his only daughter. M. S. Desideratissimae virginis Jane Wren, clariss' D«ni Christopheri Wren filiae unicae Paterniae, indolis literis deditae, piae, benevolae, domisedae, arte musica peritissimae. Here lies the body of Mrs. Jane Wren; only daughter of sir Chr. Wren, kt. by Dame Jane his wife, daughter of William lord Fitzwilliams, baron of Lifford in the kingdom of Ireland; ob. XXIX Dec. Anno M.D.C.C. III. ET. XXV.

And adjoining to it is the following memorial for the wife of Christopher Wren, esq. D. O. M. S. Hic requiescit in pace Maria Conjux Christopheri Wren, ARM. Filia Philippi & Constantiae Musard, Foemina omnium virtutum foecandissima. Puerperio decessit X Decembris, A.D. 1712:

Nearly adjoining sir Christopher's tomb a flat tomb bears this inscription: In a vault beneath this stone are deposited the remains of Thomas Newton, D.D. Lord Bishop of Bristol and Dean of this Cathedral, who died Feb. 14, 1782, aged 78.

The great painters, sir Joshua Reynolds, Barry, Opie, and West, are buried near the same spot. Here lie the remains of Sir Joshua Reynolds, Knt. President of the Royal Academy of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture. He was born at Plympton, in Devonshire, the 16th July, 1723, and died at London the 23rd of Feb. 1792. ere lie the remains of John Opie, Esquire, Professor of Painting to the Royal Academy of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture. He was born May 1761, at St. Agnes, in Cornwall, and died at his house in Berner's-street, London, the 29th of April 1807. *a*r*w *x The great historical Painter, James Barry, died 22d February, 1806, aged 64. Here lie the remains of Benjamin West, Esquire, President of the Royal Academy of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture. He was born at Springfield, in Chester County, in the State of Pennsylvania, in America, the 10th of October 1788, and died at London the 11th of March, 1820.

Within the recess of the first window in the south aisle is an altar tomb, inscribed, To the memory of Robert Mylne, Architect, F. R. S. a native of Edinburgh; born Jan.4,1733, O S.; died May 5,1811. He designed and constructed the magnificent bridge over the Thames at Blackfriars. From the year 1762 he was the sole engineer to the New River aqueduct, London; and for the same period had the superintendence of the Cathedral, as Architect and Paymaster of the works. His remains now repose under the protection of this edifice, which was so long the object of his care.

On an altar-tomb of beautiful polished Peterhead granite is the following inscription to the late John Rennie: Here lie the mortal remains of John Rennie, F. R. S. F. A. S. Born at Phantassie in East Lothian, 7th July, 1761. Deceased in London 4th Oct. 1881. This stone is dedicated to his private virtues, and records the affection and the respect of his family and his friends; but the many splendid and useful works by which, under his superintending genius, England, Scotland, and Ireland, have been adorned and improved, are the true monuments of his public merit. Waterloo and Southwark bridges, Plymouth Breakwater, Sheerness Docks, &c. &c.

Under the middle aisle of the crypt is a slab for the Lord Chancellor Rosslyn. Alexander Weddereburne Earl of Rosslyn, Baron Loughborough, born lath February, 1783. Died 2d January, 1805.

The following memorial is placed over the grave of Dr. Boyce: William Boyce, Mus. D. Organist, Composer, and Master of the Band of Music to their Majesties King George II. and III. Died February 7, 1779, aged 69.

At a short distance is a neat tabular monument to the memory of Thomas Newton, ESQ. Benefactor to the Literary Fund. Born Dec. 21, 1719. Ob. 6th Feb. 1807.

The learned but eccentric Abraham Badcock, who died in 1797, at the age of forty-eight, and the yet more eccentric John Benoist de Mainaudoc, M. D. the upholder of animal magnetism, who died in Southampton-street, Bloomsbury, at the age of fifty-nine in the year 1797, are also buried in these vaults in that part appropriated to the parish of St. Faith.

In the nave of St. Paul's, and round the area of the dome, are displayed numerous flags or colours, that have been taken at different periods by our brave seamen and soldiers from the discomfited foes of Old England. Those captured by our land forces were won from the French, at Louisbourg, Martinique, and Valenciennes: and are generally in a most shattered and decayed state. Formerly, there were several large naval colours, consisting of nine flags, trophies of the signal victories obtained by the fleets commanded by the lords Howe, St. Vincent, and Duncan, during the first revolutionary war; two of them were French, three Spanish, and four Dutch. They were brought to the cathedral with much solemnity, on the nineteenth of December, 1797, by detachments of seamen and marines, that day having been appointed for the celebration of a general thanksgiving for the great triumphs of the British arms by sea. On this occasion, their majesties and the royal family, with both houses of parliament, many admirals, and other naval officers, the lord mayor and corporation of London, &c. were present in St. Paul's at the celebration of divine service; and the colours having been first placed upon the altar, in acknowledgment of the protection afforded by the Deity, were afterwards suspended around the dome. The whole of the large flags were removed on cleaning the church in 1822.

There are two annual celebrations in this cathedral, of an imprsssive and important nature: these are the anniversary meetings of the sons of the clergy, and of the charity children of the metropolis and its vicinity. The former had its origin in the year 1655, when a worthy divine, the Rev. G. Hall, preached on November 8th to an assembly of the sons of the clergy, whose fathers or whose families had been reduced to indigence through the sequestrations made in consequence of non-conformity with the ordinations of parliament. The relief obtained on that occasion, suggested the propriety of an annual sermon; and the promoters of the institution were afterwards incorporated by a charter granted by Charles the Second, July the first, 1678, under the title of the Governors of the Charity for the Relief of the Poor Widows and Children of Clergymen; with license to hold an estate, not exceeding the annual value of 2,000l.; a further license was granted in 1714, to extend to the additional sum of 3,000l. above all charges and reprises. The anniversary meetings were chiefly held at Bow church, Cheapside, till 1697, since which time they have been at St. Paul's; and the governors, as a means of rendering the receipts more extensive, have, for upwards of a century, had the service combined with a grand performance of sacred music, principally Handel's: this performance is also preceded by a rehearsal. The collections are generally from 800l. to 1,000l.: the meetings are held in the beginning of May.Mal. Lond. Red. vol. iii, pp. 145, 146.

The assembly of the charity children generally takes place in the month of June. The entire circle beneath the dome is by temporary seats and scaffolding converted into an amphitheatre, where between five and six thousand children, boys and girls, are stationed during the ceremony, and occasionally join in the singing and hallelujah chorusses. The seats in the area, and along the nave of the church to nearly the great west door, are appropriated to the society of patrons of the anniversary, the society for promoting

Christian Knowledge, and the public generally; but none are admitted without tickets. Independently of the higher feelings which such a congregation is calculated to excite, the whole scene is strikingly beautiful, especially when beheld from the elevation of the Whispering Gallery. On one occasion, the children were expressly assembled here by royal command; this was on the 23rd of April, 1789, the day of the general thanksgiving for the king's recovery. Their majesties, and the royal family, with both houses of parliament, the lord mayor and corporation of London, the chief officers of state, and most of the dignified clergy, were at the same time present; and the whole ceremony was of the most solemn and affecting description.

The cathedral font is of veined alabaster, standing under the second arch from the west door between the nave and the south aisles. It is very large, and in form like an oval vase, fluted, with a cover of the same character. It should have been mentioned, in the account of the paintings of the dome, that the highly finished sketches made for them in oil, by sir James Thornhill, to shew to queen Anne, are now in the possession of the dean and chapter, and hang in the chapter room; and that others on paper, in bistre, are preserved in the dean's vestry.

In the area before the west front, within a circular railing, is a statue of queen Anne, in her regal robes, standing upon a sculptured pedestal, at the lower angles of which are four figures, representing Britannia, Hibernia, America, and France. This is a very indifferent performance of Bird's, (who received 350l. for the queen's statue, and 1180l. for the whole).

The whole extent of the area upon which St. Paul's stands, is stated to contain two acres, sixteen perches, twenty-three yards, and one foot. The entire expense of erecting the cathedral was 736,752l. 2s. 3 1/4d. exclusive of the charge for the iron balustrade, which stands upon the dwarf wall surrounding the church-yard. This balustrade, which is very strong and well-wrought, has seven iron gates, and altogether weighs 200 tons and eighty-one pounds: it cost 11,202l. 0s. 6d.

Though St. Paul's cathedral was intended to be the grand ornament of the metropolis, there is not, unfortunately, a single point of view from which it can be seen in its entire proportions; and it is from this cause that its effect is much less imposing than it would otherwise be, and that the comparison which travellers make between this edifice and St. Peter's at Rome, is so greatly to the advantage of the latter. The houses surrounding the church are in general lofty dwellings, and so nearly contiguous to the cathedral, that they completely prevent the spectator from viewing it as a whole. The most adjacent spot from which it may be be held with any thing of its due grandeur, is from near the end of Foster-lane, in Cheapside, but by far the best view is obtained from about the centre of Blackfriars-bridge, whence it appears to rise in all its majestic elevation and dignity, yet even in this prospect all the lower part of the edifice is excluded from sight by intervening buildings. In the approach from Ludgate-street, the west front is seen under much disadvantage, as the avenue is not only too contracted for the extent of the front, but the lines in respect to each other have an oblique direction. A right line drawn east and west with St. Paul's, would cross Bridge-street, near Bridewell. The height of the ground, combined with the altitude of the building, is such, that this edifice, as the Parentalia has remarked, may be discerned at sea eastward, and at Windsor westward.

 

It has been judiciously remarked, that

among the modern works of architecture which adorn and dignify the British empire,

this stupendous fabric holds the most distinguished rank;

that even with foreigners it has obtained great celebrity, and in any enumeration or comparison of the religious edifices of Europe, is always mentioned immediately after the church of St. Peter, at Rome.

The popular tradition, that a temple, dedicated to Diana, once occupied the site of , has already been mentioned, as well as the small degree of credit which sir Christopher Wren, the architect of the present structure, was inclined to give to the common report.

It may not be improper to mention what Stow, the most accurate of all the historians of London, states on the subject of a Roman temple having once stood on the site of .

Some have noted,

says this author,

that on digging the foundation of this newe worke (namely, the Lady Chapel, built by bishop Baldock, about

1313

), there were found more than a

hundred

scalpes of oxen, or kine, which thing (say they) confirmeth greatly the opinion of those which have reported, that of olde time there had beene a

temple of Jupiter, and that there was daily sacrifice of beasts. Other some, both wise and learned, have thought the buck's head, borne before the procession of Paule's, on St. Paule's day, to signifie the like: but true it is, that I have read an auncient deed to this effect.

Sir William Baude, knt. the of Edward the , in the year , on Candlemas day,

graunted to Harry de Borham, dean of Powles, and to the chapter there, that in consideration of

two

acres of ground or land, granted by them within their manor of West-ley, in Essex, to be inclosed into his park of Curingham he would for ever, upon the Feast-day of the Conversion of St. Paul, in winter, give unto them a good doe, seasonable and sweete; and upon the feast of the commemoration of St. Paul, in summer, a good bucke, and offer the same at the high altar, the same to be spent amongst the canons residents. The doe to be brought up by

one

man at the houre of procession, and through the procession to the high altar; and the bringer to have nothing: the bucke to be brought by all his meyney in like manner; and they to have payd unto them by the chamberlaine of the church

12 pence

onely, and no more to be required.

This graunt he made, and for performance

bound the lands of him and his heirs to be distrained on; and if the landes shoulde be evicted, that yet hee and his heires shoulde accomplishe the gift. Witnesses, Robert Tilbery,

&c. His son, sir William Baude, knt. confirmed his father's gift in the thirtieth of the same reign.

Thus much for the grant. Now what I have heard by report, and have partly seene, it followeth. On the feast-day of the commemoration of St. Paul, the bucke being brought up to the steps to the high altar in Powles church, at the houre of procession, the deane and chapter, being apparelled in copes and vestments, with garlands of roses on their heads, they sent the body of the bucke to baking, and had the head, fixed on a pole, borne before the crosse in their procession, untill they issued out of the west doore, where the keeper that brought it blowed the death of the bucke, and then the homers that were about the cittie presentlie answered him in like manner; for the which paines they had each

one

, of the dean and chapter, fourpence in money, and their dinner; and the keeper that brought it was allowed during his abode there, for that service, meat, drink, and lodging, and

five shillings

in money at his going away, together with a loafe of bread, having the picture of St. Paule uppon it, &c. There was belonging to the church of St. Paul for both the days

two

special sutes of vestments, the

one

imbrodered with buckes, the other with does; both given by the said Baudes, as I have heard.

Though sir Christopher controverted the idea of Diana's temple, he was of opinion that a Christian church had stood upon this spot at a very early period, agreeably to the statements of different ecclesiastical writers; yet as venerable Bede, in his account of the establishment of Christianity in London, under bishop Mellitus, gives

271

no intimation of such a fact, its accuracy is liable to be questioned. Bede, who lived nearest to the time, ascribes the foundation of the original to Ethelbert king of Kent, to whom all the country, south of the Humber, was feudatory. This munificent prince, after his conversion by St. Augustine, besides greatly contributing to the establishment of the cathedral at Canterbury, founded the abbey of St. Augustine in that city, and afterwards, in the year , began the building of ; to which church he granted the manor of Tillingham, with other lands. Erkenwald, the bishop, expended large sums upon the new fabric, but whether for additions, or to Ethelbert's plan, cannot be ascertained.

He also augmented its revenues, and procured for it considerable privileges from the Pope, and the Anglo-Saxon princes, who then reigned in England.

During the successive centuries, from that time to the conquest, the immunities and possession of the cathedral were greatly increased by different sovereigns; among whom were Kenred, king of Mercia,, Athelstan, Edgar and his queen, Ethelred, Canute, and Edward the confessor. William, the Norman, following the example of his Saxon predecessors, confirmed to all its estates and privileges by a charter, which concludes with the words,

for I will that the church, in all things,

be as free as I would my soul should be at the day of judgment.

He afterwards granted to Maurice, the bishop, and his successors for ever, the castle of Stortford, in Hertfordshire, with all its appurtenances.

In the year , the old cathedral was destroyed by a destructive fire, which enveloped the greater part of the city in similar ruin. After this event, bishop Maurice, who had been chaplain and chancellor to the conqueror, conceived the

vast design of erecting the magnificent structure which immediately preceded the present cathedral;

a work, says Stow,

that men of that time judged would never have bin finished, it was to them so wonderfull for length and breadth.

Much of the stone used in that edifice was brought from Caen, in Normandy; and

king William gave toward the building of the east end, the choyce stones of his castle, standing neere to the bank of the river Thames.

The magnitude of the new edifice was so great, that neither Maurice, nor de Belmeis, his successor, were able to complete the undertaking; though each of them presided years, and expended great sums in furthering it. The latter appropriated the whole revenue of his bishopric for carrying on the work, supporting himself and his family by other means. Bishop Belmeis II. following the example of his uncle, proceeded with the work, and his successors

in process of time,

completed the undertaking; though not in all parts in accordance with the original plan.

In the conflagration of the city in the year or , the eastern part, or choir of the new church, appears to have been burnt: when it was restored is uncertain, though Dugdale

273

conjectures it to have been executed in the time of bishop Richard de Ely, who expended great sums on this fabric in the reign of Henry the . The erection of the central tower was probably carried on at the same time, yet this was not completed till , in the last year of bishop de Sancta Maria. In , bishop Niger undertook to rebuild and extend the choir, in the pointed style of architecture, then becoming prevalent. The expense of this was partly defrayed by collections made throughout England and Ireland, and by the sale of indulgences. On the completion of the work, in the year ,

the grand ceremony of consecration was performed by bishop Niger, assisted by cardinal Otho, the pope's legate, the archbishop of Canterbury, and

six

bishops, in the presence of Henry the

Third

, and a vast concourse of dignitaries, nobles, and citizens.

In the year ,

the newe work of Pauls, to wit, the cross yles, were begun to be new builded.

This must have been to adapt them to the style of the new choir. In the same year, the foundation of the Lady Chapel was begun by Fulk Basset, the then bishop: bishop Baldock gave towards completing it; and the rest of the charges were principally defrayed by the sale of indulgences. This chapel appears to have been completed within a year or after , as Dugdale has preserved a contract bearing that date, for paving it with marble, at per foot. Beneath it, and extending also under part of the choir, was the extensive crypt known as St. Faith's church.

The upper part of the spire, which was of timber, being greatly decayed, and the old cross that crowned its apex having fallen down, a considerable repair in this part was made in the years and , and a new cross was then set up, in the ball of which, the bishop, Gilbert de Segrave, enclosed numerous holy relics, in the vain hope of preserving the spire from storms. This may be considered as the period of the completion of the ancient church, and years had now intervened from the time of its foundation by Maurice.

In , a beautiful clock, of curious mechanism, was erected. The hour hand, or rather the hand of an angel, revolved past the numerals. If contrived with graceful attitude and easy motion, the thought was singularly appropriate, a heavenly messenger marking the progress of time.

On Candlemas eve () in the year -, in

274

a great tempest of wind, bail, snow, and rain, accompanied by thunder, the towering spire of this edifice

was fired by lightning, in the midst of the shaft,

first

on the west side and then on the south; and the people, espying the fire, came to quench it in the steeple, which they did with vinegar,

at least in appearance,

so that all men withdrew themselves to their houses, praising God: but betweene

eight

and

nine

of the clock in the same night, the fire brast out again more fervently than before, and did much hurt to the lead and timber, till by the great labour of the maior and people that came thither, it was thoroughly quenched.

The subsequent repair was not completed till , when a man was killed on the pinnacles, through the breaking of a rope with which he was raising the weather-cock; which was an eagle, with expanded wings, made of copper, gilt, feet in length, and feet and a half in breadth over the wings.

In the year , , the spire was again set on fire, though not by lightning, as at supposed, and as Stow has recorded in his Annals; for Dr. Heylin affirms, that an aged plumber, when at the point of death, confessed that the fire had been occasioned by his own carelessness, in leaving a pan of coals and other fuel in the steeple whilst he went to dinner; and that he had judged it better, for his own safety, not to divulge the real cause, as the flames had got so high before his return that he found them impossible to be quenched.

This fire,

says Stow,

brast forth, as it seemed to the beholders,

two

or

three

yardes beneath the foote of the crosse, and from thence, brent down the spere to the stone works and bels, so terribly, that within the space of

four

houres, the same steeple, with the roofes of the church, so much as was timber, or otherwise combustible, were consumed; which was a lamentable sight and pittiful remembrance to the beholders thereof.

After this mischance, the Q. Majestie [Elizabeth] being much grieved for ye losse of so beautiful a monument,

directed the mayor to assemble the citizens for the purpose of taking the requisite measures for an immediate repair,

and for the furtherance thereof, did herself presently give, and deliver in gold

1000 marks

, and a warrant for a

thousand

load of timber, to be taken out of her majestie's woods or elsewhere.

The citizens and the clergy contributed very liberally after this example, and the work was so immediately proceeded with, that, within a month after the fire, a complete covering of boards and lead,

after the manner of a false roofe, and the greatness of the worke, dispatched in so short time, was for feare of raine, which might have perished the vaults to the destruction of the whole church.

So much expedition was practised on this occasion, that the roofs of all the aisles were fully

275

completed and covered with lead before the expiration of the year; as well as

the great roofe of the west end, which was framed and made of new and great timber in Yorkshire, and brought to London by sea.

In like manner,

within the sayd yeere, the whole roofe, and frame of the east end, was made in Yorkshire, and brought by sea to London, and after set uppe as the rest of the roofes; but the roofes of the north and south end of the same church, remained covered with boards till

1564

, when the bishop (as I am informed) tooke upon him the charge of repairing them, and for the same laid out

720l.

and so that worke ceased to proceed any further.

In this latter sentence, the historian alludes, probably, to the spire, which was never rebuilt, though divers models were devised, and sufficient monies collected for the execution.

There must have been some very considerable defect of solidity in the original construction of this immense fabric, for, in the time of James the First, it appears to have become ruinous throughout; and though large sums of money were collected, and materials provided, it remained in the same state till the elevation of Laud to the see of London. This prelate exerted himself zealously and successfully in favour of the neglected building, and a general subscription, supported in a munificent manner by king Charles, was soon collected to the amount of 104,330l. 4s. 8d. Having thus amply provided the necessary means for an entire restoration of the church, the celebrated Inigo Jones was appointed to superintend the important undertaking. His repairs were begun in 1633, end being diligently prosecuted, in the course of nine years a magnificent portico was erected at the west end: the whole exterior of the body of the church was new cased with stone, and the roofing and lead covering were completed. The vaulting, which stood greatly in need of reparation, was well centered and upheld with some hundred of tall masts.

Such was the situation of the building when the dissentions between the king and the parliament broke out into civil war. From that period so fatal to the monuments of ecclesiastical antiquity, most of the cathedrals in the kingdom date considerable oss; but the cathedral of London, whose citizens had adopted the popular side, both in politics and religion, with peculiar zeal, suffered beyond all example. Having confiscated the revenues of the church, the parliament seized all the remaining money and materials which had been appropriated to the repairs. The scaffolds and centres were granted to the soldier's of colonel Jephson's regiment for arrears of pay, and they removed them with so little caution, that great part of the vaulting fell down in consequence. The choir was still used for public worship, but the rest of the building was converted into stables and barracks for dragoons, whilst the pavement was, in various parts, broken up for saw-pits.

The portico was converted into shops for seamstresses and milliners, with lodging rooms over them; the pillars being hacked and mangled, in order to make room for the tranverse beams that were placed between them. Some other enormities, though by no means the worst, were the subject of the following proclamation, issued during the time of the commonwealth, and dated May 27, 1651.

Forasmuch as the inhabitants of St. Paul's church-yard are much disturbed by the souldiers and others calling out to passingers and examining them, (though they goe peaceably and civilly along); and by playing at nine-pinnes at unseasonable hours; these are therefore to command all souldiers and others whom it may concern, that hereafter there shall be no examining and calling out to persons that go peaceably on their way, unless they do approach the guards; and to forbeare playing at nine-pinnes and other sports, from the hour of nine o'clock in the evening until six in the morning, that so persons that are weak and indisposed to rest may not be disturbed.

Thus this grand and venerable edifice continued exposed to every wanton, fanatical, or rapacious injury, until the restoration of the ancient order of things under Charles the Second, when the regular government of the church having been re-established, the dean and chapter proceeded immediately to remove the incroachments, and to restore the stalls and other appendages of cathedral worship; but their revenues not affording the means for a general reparation without liberal assistance, another subscription was solicited and received, and the repairs were re-commenced in 1663. Sir John Denham, the surveyor-general, had the superintendence of the works; but it appears, from the Parentalia, that sir Christopher, then doctor Wren, was employed to make a survey of the building, the result of which is given in an elaborate report contained in the work referred to. In that paper, the architect, after remarking on the original bad construction of the body of the church, and recommending a new and massy casing of stone, pronounces a final condemnation upon the tower, which, together with the adjacent parts, he represents as such a heap of deformities that no judicious architect mill think it corrigible, by any expense that can be laid out upon the dressing it, but that it will remain unworthy the rest of the work, infirm and tottering. He therefore proposes a bold alteration of the primitive form, by cutting off the inner corners of the cross, to render the middle part into a spacious dome or rotunda, with a cupola or hemispherical roof; and upon this cupola for the outward ornament, a lantern with aspiring top to rise proportionably, but not to that unnecessary height of the former spire.

This proposal of the great architect does not appear to have been much approved by his employers, and the public opinion was expressed strongly for retaining the tower in th ancient form; but the great fire of London occurring in 1666, at length decided the question. Again this unfortunate building became a prey to the flames, which consuming the roof and precipitating the vaulting, weakened, cracked and ruined the walls and piers in such a manner, that they were judged incapable of repair. Still some years of irresolution and fruitless labour elapsed, till it was finally determined to erect a new cathedral, in a style worthy of the nation and of the occasion.

Such was the fate of the ancient church ; and like many other monuments of antiquity, it might have passed into oblivion, had not that meritorious antiquary, Dugdale, with the assistance of that clever draughtsman and engraver, Hollar, preserved in his History of some considerable memorials of its form and decorations.
A chronological view of the History of the Fabric ofSt. Paul's Cathedral.
Bishop Mellitus610The cathedral founded.
Bishop Erkenwald675Continued the building.
Bishop Maurice  
King William I. and II.1086The body of the church and transept rebuilt, after a fire in 1086.
King Henry I1107
Bishop Richd. de Bealmeis I1108There building proceeded with.
King Henry I1127
Bishop Richard de Ely1189Began to rebuild the choir after a second fire in 1135.
King Henry II
Bishop William de St. Maria1198The central tower
King John1221
King Henry III .  
Bishop Roger Niger1229The choir rebuilt.
King Henry III1240
Bishop Fulk Basset1255Roof repaired.
Ibid.1256New work, and Lady chapel at the east end of the cathedral, and St. Faith's church commenced.
Bishop John de Chishul1277New work going on.
Bishop Richard Gravesend1283
King Edward I1294
 1303
Bishop Ralph de Baldock1309High altar.
King Edward II1312Lady chapel completed. New work paved, and timber spire repaired.
Bishop Gilbert de Segrave1314Spire repaired.
Ibid1315
 1316West Belfry.
Bishop Steph. de Gravesend1332Chapter house.
King Edward III.
Bishop Simon de Sudbury1371General repair.
Ibid
Bishop Robert Gilbert1462Steeple repaired, after damage by lightning 1444.
King Edward IV.  
Bishop Edmund Grindall1566Repaired after the fire on 4th of June, 1561.
Queen Elizabeth  
Bishop William Juxon1633Western portico. Altar screen.
King Charles I1642 
   
Bishop Humphry Henchman1668Repairs re-commenced.
King Charles II.1666Destroyed by the great fire.
 1675First stone of new cathedral laid on 21st June.
Bishop Compton1675The last stone laid.
Queen Anne1710
Bishop William Howley1822New ball and cross. Interior cleansed throughout.
King George IV

The ancient church was cruciform in plan, consisting of a body with north and south aisles, having square towers attached to the north and south sides of the west front, the southern being the steeple of the parochial church of St. Gregory, which was also attached to the cathedral. A quadrangular cloister was erected on the south side of the nave, of its sides being formed by the walls of the nave, and another by the west wall of the south transept. In the centre of the inclosed area was an octangular chapter house. At the intersection of the transept with the nave and choir rose a square tower; behind the altar rails was a space often met with in ancient churches, called the presbyterium, and here the

new work,

which was partitioned by a screen from chapel situated still more eastward. The transept had an extra aisle to the east, but contrary to what is usually seen in large churches; there were no attached chapels, or any projection from the main building beyond the buttresses, except the cloister and St. Gregory's church. Within the walls were several chapels denominated Bishop Kempe's chapel, , and St. Dunstan's, besides the Lady chapel.

From the accurate engravings which have been left of the old church by Wenceslaus Hollar, we are enabled to give a summary view of the architecture. In the view taken before the repairs in the early part of the century, the exterior is shewn to have possessed many elegant specimens of architecture. St. Gregory's church has mullioned windows, the walls are embattled, and the square tower ends in a dwarf spire. The windows of the south aisle of the cathedral appear to have been the workmanship of the century, at which time great alterations had been made in the building. The buttresses were carved up pilaster fashion, as in all Norman buildings, shewing that the original wall still remained, and the transept had a splendid window of the above date in its south wall. The alterations which took place under the direction of Inigo Jones amounted to a total modernization of the nave and transepts, and though the architect certainly introduced some fine architecture in his improvements, the want of character, and the absurd mixture of Italian architecture with the old pointed style, destroyed the effect of both.

The west front of had a portico before the entrances of the Corinthian order, consisting of columns and pilasters, sustaining an entablature and ballustrade. of the

279

columns, with insulated pilasters, were ranged in front, and columns and pilasters in the flanks: on the ballustrade were statues of Charles II. and James II.

In the wall above the portico were circular headed windows, over which was a block cornice; a circular window occupied the gable, and obelisks, on pedestals, were applied to the angles, The portico may be regarded as a fine specimen of Italian architecture, but its beauties were lost by its connection with the wall above. The west front of St. Gregory's church had a Venetian window substituted for the original mullioned . The towers which flanked this front of the cathedral, were raised in height by the addition of an octagonal story and dwarf spire, which possessed considerable claims for approbation. The south side of the cathedral was completely modernized. The windows in St. Gregory's church were changed from pointed into Venetian; the buttresses of the cathedral converted into pilasters, finished with balls; the mullions and tracery of the windows destroyed, and modern ones with semicircular heads, having a cherub's head carved on the key-stone, which, with the addition of consoles supported a square cornice above the window, similar to numerous examples in the churches of sir Christopher Wren substituted in their place. The clerestory windows were also altered into semicircular headed windows; the walls were covered with a new ashlaring, and finished with a block cornice and parapets. The transept had a new south front, with heavy buttresses and trusses in an anomalous style of architecture, neither assimilating with the ancient or modern works. The window was destroyed and circular headed windows in series supplied its place.

The doorway was arched and accompanied with pilasters. The west side of the transept was altered in a style corresponding with the nave.

The choir still retained its pristine features. The windows were pointed and filled with mullions and tracery, in the taste of the century, showing how much ornamental work had been then added to the recently erected structure, the buttresses were finished with pinnacles, and united to the choir by flying arches. The flying buttresses built to counteract the weight of the spire, were worthy of attention; the tower had lancet shaped windows in the taste of the period when it was erected.

The north side of the nave had been modernized in the same style as the south, and the whole of this view of the church corresponded in its main features with the opposite . Between several of the buttresses of the choir on both sides were small vestries, or chapels, which only occupied the recessed space of the buttresses. The eastern side of the transept shewed the original architecture of the century, in the windows of the aisle the clerestory had been partially modernized.

280

 

The east end of the church, at the period of the fire, appears to have been nearly in the same highly ornamented state, to which it was brought by the additions of the century. It was a beautiful architectural composition. In the basement were seen windows, which served to light the crypt and its subchapels. The windows of the superstructure greatly resembled the south transept of , a series of arched openings extended along the entire wall, over which was a large Catharine wheel carved in rich and resplendent tracery and inscribed in a circle, the angles being occupied by circles. Above this window was a gallery with a parapet, pierced with quarterfoils. In the gable above the gallery, was a window occupied by tracery. The ailes which were separated from the central division by buttresses, ending on pinnacles, had windows similar to their sides.

The cloisters were made in height into stories ; the lower was occupied by an arcade, the upper contained a series of windows, upon the whole displaying a rich example of the pointed style.

which stood in the middle of the central area, was octangular, and though evidently defaced, shewed the remains of rich and elegant workmanship, in the same style of architecture as York cathedral. In the interior pillars sustained the vaulted roof.

The interior of the cathedral, in splendour equalled, if it did not surpass, any church in England; of its best features was an uninterrupted view from west to east of the grand roof.

The nave was in height made into stories; the story consisted of an arcade of considerable altitude, composed of semicircular arches sustained on lofty pillars surrounded with smaller columns. The , or gallery story, consisted of single arches of the same breadth as the lower ones, but of less height, sustained on clustered columns. The inner column of the main pillar was carried up to sustain the roof. The upper story and vault

281

were in the early pointed style; the vaulting was sustained on ribs consisting of arches and cross-springers with bosses at the intersections, and was probably erected at the same time as the central tower. The semicircular arches were in the plainest but most scientific style of Norman architecture; they possessed all the grandeur without the excess of ornament which marked this singular style of building. This part of the church was evidently the work of bishop de Beaumeis, erected after the fire in .

The upper story and vault were additions of the same period as that in which the central tower was erected. The perspective was beautiful, comprising a vista of nearly feet, bounded by the splendid window in the eastern wall. The aisles retained a portion of the original Norman architecture; below the windows was a small arcade of semicircular arches, sustained on Norman columns. The screen to the choir was a beautiful composition of the century; it was rich in canopied niches and pannelling in the finest style of pointed architecture. The choir, as well in the ensemble as the detail, strikingly resembled the nave of . The upright of the walls was made into stories like the nave, but all trace of Norman architecture had been removed. The story shewed a lofty arcade of acutely pointed arches sustained on clustered columns. The vaulting consisted of diagonal ribs springing from the side walls, and uniting with principal rib, continued along the whole vault at the crown of the arch with bosses at the points of juncture, being a counterpart of the nave of . The style of architecture shewed a building of the century ornamented in the style of the succeeding . The stalls displayed that mixture of pointed and Grecian architecture which marked the early part of the century. Behind the altar screen the same style of building was continued; this portion was styled the

new work,

and was hounded by the screen of the Lady chapel, which was ornamented with upright pannels, and finished with an em battled parapet.

It will be seen from the foregoing description, that the excellent series of engravings by Hollar, allow of a complete idea being formed of the style and arrangement of the ancient cathedral. The whole of the superstructure, like the cathedral at Canterbury, was raised on arched vaults, which comprised not only many chapels, but the parochial church of St. Faith. Of this part Hollar has left a splendid engraving; from which it appears to have been a strongly vaulted building of the century, the ribs of the vault springing from massive pillars and the arches acutely pointed. It was separated from the remainder of the crypt by a pierced screen richly ornamented with carving in open work.

When the spire was rebuilt, in the year , an exact measurement was taken of the church, and this was copied by Dugdale from a brass table that was anciently affixed against a pillar in the choir. The entire length of the building was then feet; the

282

breadth, feet; the height of the nave, from the pavement to the top of the vaulting, feet; and the height of the choir, or new fabric, as it was called, was feet. The altitude of the tower, from the level ground, was feet, and of the spire, feet; making a total of feet: yet, according to the table, the whole height of the spire was only feet. This variation has been accounted for, by supposing the height of the tower to have been taken to the summit of the battlements, or pinnacles, and that of the spire to have been reckoned from its base, a mode of measurement which might easily create an excess of feet in the entire altitude.

The tablet being itself a curiosity, a translation of the Latin inscription is added; it was affixed to a column near the tomb of the duke of Lancaster.

The church of St. Paul, London, contains within its limits

three

acres of land and a half.

One

rood and a half, and

six

perches, covered. The length of the same church contains DCLXXXX feet. The breadth of the same church contains cxxx feet. The height of the western dome (vault) contains from the altar CIJ feet. The height of the dome (vault) of the new building contains from the altar LXXXVIIJ feet. The whole pile of the church contains in height, CL feet, with the cross. The height of the stone fabric of the belfry of the same church, contains from the level CCLX feet The height of the wooden fabric of the same belfry contains CCLXXIIIJ feet. But, altogether, it does not exceed

five hundred and twenty

feet. Also the ball of the same belfry is copper, and contains, if it were vacant,

ten

bushels of corn. The rotundity of which contains XXXVJ inches of diameter, which make

three

feet. The surface of which, if it were perfectly round, ought to contain

four thousand

LXVIJ inches, which make XXVIIJ square feet, and the

fourth

part of

one

square foot. The staff of the cross of the same belfry, contains in height xv feet The cross beam of which contains

six

feet. In which cross, in the year of our Lord,

one thousand

CCCXXXIX, on the XIth of the Kalend of August, namely, on the feast of Saint Mary Magdalene, many precious reliques of several saints were deposited with great solemnity of procession, for the preservation of the same cross, and the whole building beneath them, that the Almighty God, through the glorious merits of all the saints, whose reliques are contained in that cross, might deign to preserve them from tempest and peril, under his protection. Of whose mercy to all the XXVIJ procuring succour to the fabric of this church, CL days are set apart at every time of the year, besides the Roman ordnances, which are XLIIIJ in the year, and many other benefits.

It is impossible to particularize, within the necessary limits of this work, the vast variety of chapels, chantries, shrines, monuments, and ecclesiastical ornaments and vestments, that were to be found within the old cathedral. This, however, is the less to be regretted, as a very full and interesting account, illustrated by numerous excellent engravings, by Hollar, may be seen in Dugdale's history. Some of the chapels and monuments were in the most beautiful style of the pointed architecture. The screen, also, which separated the nave from the choir, was in a similar taste, and remarkably elegant, being enriched with canopied niches and statues. The statues which last adorned this screen, had been executed at the expense of that eminent citizen sir Paul Pindar.

283

 

The ancient mode of worship was celebrated in with great magnificence, and the numerous altars were richly adorned. Various statues of the Virgin, and of different saints, stood also in divers parts of the church, and frequent oblations were made before them.

glorious image of the Blessed Virgin,

as Dugdale calls it, which stood in the body of the church, had a solemn service performed before it every morning; to institute and support which, Barnet, bishop of Bath and Wells, left certain lands, in . Another statue of the Virgin stood in the Lady Chapel; and to this Hatfield, bishop of Durham, invited all

the truly penitent, and confessed of their sins,

to come and make offerings, or to say a Paternoster, and an Ave. under promise of an indulgence of pardon for days. The blessed Mary had also a chapel and an altar, expressly dedicated to her (independent of the Lady Chapel) where at every celebration of her offices a taper was burnt, weighing . Before the altar in the Lady Chapel tapers, each weighing , were constantly kept burning during the celebrations in honor of God, our Lady, and St. Lawrence. In the nave also stood a great cross, with a taper burning; and near the north door of the church was a crucifix, to which frequent oblations were made. A picture of St. Paul, which was

placed in a tabernacle of wood,

on the right side of the high altar, is spoken of as a masterly performance; and may be regarded as an early specimen of oil painting, as it was executed in the year , and cost

The number of chantry chapels amounted to : of these, full particulars, with the names of the founders, &c. may be seen in Dugdale's history. There were likewise no fewer than endowed anniversary obits. Mr. Brayley observes, that these facts, when combined with the various saints' chapels, and altars, lead to the inference, that the priests belonging to this cathedral, including the regular establishment, could hardly be fewer than .

Among the splendid treasures of this church, as given by Dugdale, from an inventory taken in , and which occupies folio pages of the Monasticon, were the following : morses of gold, of silver; of copper, gilt, and of wood, plated with silver; all of them, richly embellished with jewels: pair of silver phials, or cruets; silver ampuls; silver chrismatory; pair of silver candlesticks; a silver cup, gilt, with

284

a cover and pyx; holy-water vessels; silver censers; silver globes, with a plate and ship for frankincense; silver basons; silver crosses; golden chalices, or cups; silver chalices; books, richly bound; silver biers, with many trunks, boxes, and caskets with relics, decorated with jewels; silver cups; horns, enriched with silver; mitres, partly adorned with jewels as were also the bishop's gloves; pair of rich sandals; croziers; rich cushions; copes of the richest silks; many copes of cloth of gold, and others embroidered with curious figures; eighteen amices; vestments, with proper stoles, manciples, tunics, dalmatics, albes, corporals, canopies, &c. besides a great variety of rich articles belonging to the numerous altars, shrines, and chapels.

Under the ancient form of worship in , it was the custom, annually, to choose an , or boy-bishop, who assumed the state and attire of a bishop, and whose rule continued from St. Nicholas's day () to that of the Holy Innocents, .

The boys of were famous for acting mysteries, or holy plays; and were also among the very of those who performed the more regular dramas. So early as the year , or of Richard the , they petitioned the king to prohibit some ignorant and

inexpert people from presenting the History of the Old Testament, to the great prejudice of the said clergy, who have been at great expense in order to represent it publicly at Christmas.

of the most remarkable occurrences that ever took place within the old cathedral, was the attempt made in by the archbishop of Canterbury and the bishop of London, under the commands of pope Gregory XI, to compel Wickliff, the reformer, to subscribe to the condemnation of some of his own tenets, which had been recently promulgated in the articles that have been termed the Lollard's Creed. The pope had ordered the above

285

prelates to apprehend and examine Wickliff; but they thought it most expedient to summon him to , as he was openly protected by the famous John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster; and that nobleman accompanied him to the examination, together with the lord Percy, marshal of England. The proceedings were soon interrupted by a dispute, as to whether Wickliff should sit or stand; and the following curious dialogue arose on the lord Percy desiring him to be seated.

This harsh language so exasperated the bishop's partizans, that the duke and the earl marshal judged it prudent to withdraw with Wickliff; yet the tumult continued through the day, and the city populace, instigated by some false rumours, forced the gates of the Marshalsea, in , and released the prisoners; and afterwards proceeding to the duke's palace, in the Savoy, plundered his house, and would have committed violence on his person, had they been able to have found him.

The splendour of the Catholic forms of worship in was gradually abrogated, as the Reformation assumed a decided character. of the latest of these exhibitions was on Whit-Sunday () , when the peace of Guisnes was proclaimed with great solemnity, and a general procession

before the which,

says Stow,

was borne all the richest silver crosses in London, to wit, of every church

one

,

was made from through and , to Leadenhall, and back again to . The procession was composed of

all the parish clerkes, condocts, quiristers, and priests in London, with the quire

of Paul's, all of them in their richest coapes, singing; the companies of the citie in their best liveries; the lord maior, the aldermen and sheriffs, in scarlet, &c.

This was the last shew, continues the historian, of the rich crosses and copes in London; for shortly after they, with other their church plate, were called into the king's treasury and wardrobe.

On the eighteenth of September, in the succeeding year, the litany was chaunted in in the English language, and the epistle and gospel read at the high mass in the same tongue. Within months afterwards () the rood,

with Mary and John, and all other images in ye church was begun to be pulled downe ;

and

the like was done in all the churches in London, and so throughout England ; and texts of Scripture were written upon the walls of those churches, against images, &c.

On the Candlemas day following, , the bearing of candles in the church was left off throughout the whole citie of London«; and various other ceremonies, as the strewing of ashes on Ash Wednesday, the carrying of Palms on palm Sunday, &c. were successively discontinued.

In the beginning of the year ,

the privy council ordained that the bishop of London should permit no especial masses to be sung in

St. Paul's

, and but

one

communion at the high altar, and that to be administered during the celebration of mass.

Shortly after, on the , proclamation, says Stow,

was made for the masse to be put down throughout the whole realms.

The following entry occurs in the journal of the youthful monarch Edward the .-

1549

,

Nov. 19

. There were letters sent to every bishop to pluck down the altars.

These mandates, however, were not immediately attended to; and it was not till the (St. Barnabas's day), , that the high altar in this cathedral was removed. A table was then set where the altar stood,

with a vayle drawne beneath and steppes, and on the Sunday next a communion was sung at the same table; shortlie after, all the altars in London were taken downe, and tables placed in their roomes.

On the feast of All Saints () , the new service book of the Common Prayer, was used in , and in the other churches of the city. On this occasion bishop Ridley preached a sermon in the choir in the forenoon,

in his rochet only, without cope or vestment ;

and in the afternoon

he preached at Paule's Crosse, the lord maior, aldermen, and crafts, in their best liveries, being present; which sermon, tending to the setting forth the saide late newe-made booke of Common Prayer, continued til almost

five

of the clocke at night, so that the maior, aldermen, and companies entred not into Paul's

church, as had bin accustomed, but departed home by torch-light.

The prebendaries of had now left off wearing their hoods, and the use of all copes, crosses, &c. was forbidden; soon afterwards,

the upper choir in

St. Paul's church

, where the high altar stood, was broken downe, and all the choir there about; and the table of the communion was set in the lower [choir] where the priests sing.

In the following year, the bishop of London, the lord mayor, the lord chief justice,

with other,

were appointed commissioners for collecting all the remaining

church goods

in the metropolis,

that is to say, jewels of golde and silver, crosses, candlesticks, censers, chalices, and all such like, with their ready money, to be delivered to the master of the king's jewels in the Tower; and all copes and vestments of cloth of golde, cloth of tissue, and silver, to the master of the king's wardrobe in London: the other copes, vestments, and ornaments, to be sold, and the money to be delivered to the king's treasurer, sir Edm. Peckham, knight; reserving to every church

one

chalice or cup. with tablecloths for the communion board, at the discretion of the commissioners.

On the accession of queen Mary, Bonner, the deprived bishop of London, was released from imprisonment and reinstated in his see. Shortly afterwards, the Latin service was re-established in ; and on the full restoration of the Romish religion and institutions by authority of parliament, Bonner ordered the choristers to proceed to the cathedral tower, and chaunt immediately such psalms as were suitable to the occasion. He had before this commenced his

temporary triumph by officiating at high mass, and making a grand and solemn procession of his priests.

That the London populace were not pleased with this change in religious affairs, may be inferred from an occurrence related by Stow, in these words:--

The same

eighth of April

(anno

1554

), being then Sunday, a cat, with her head shorn, and the likeness of a vestment thrown over her, with her fore feete tied together, and a round peece of paper like a singing cake betwixt them, was hanged on a gallows in Cheape, neere to the crosse, in the parish of St. Mathew; which cat being taken down, was earned to the bishoppe of London, and he caused the same to be shewed at Paule's Crosse, by ye preacher, Dr. Pendleton.

Whether any punishment awaited the perpetrators of this act does not appear; but Pendleton, most probably through his interference in the business, had a gun fired at him shortly afterwards, whilst preaching at Paul's Cross, the shot of which passed near to him, and struck on the church wall. This occasioned a proclamation to be issued, forbidding the bearing of weapons and the shooting with hand-guns. On the of the November following, a sermon was preached

288

in the choir of , by Dr. Chadsey, of the prebendaries, in the presence of the mayor, aldermen, and city companies, bishop Bonner and other bishops, on account of a letter that had been received from the privy council, ordering to be sung in all the churches in the diocese,

for that the queene was conceived and quicke with childe.

When the sermon was ended, the was sung; after which,

solemn procession was made of

Salve festa dies

, all the circuit of the church.

days afterwards, cardinal Pole having come by water from to , proceeded to ,

with a cross,

two

pillars, and,

two

poll-axes of silver borne before him,

where he preached in presence of king Philip of Spain, from the text

Fratres, scientes quia hora est iam nos de somno surgere

, &c. and declared in his sermon that

the king and queen had restored the pope to his supremacy, and that the

three

estates of parliament, the representatives of the whole body of the realm, had submitted themselves to the same.

The accession of queen Elizabeth in , again proved propitious to Protestantism, and the church-service was once more read in English at , and the other London churches, by proclamation; and at the same time the elevation of the host was strictly forbidden. When her sister died, Elizabeth was at Hatfield, and on her way thence to town, she was met at Highgate by most of the bishops, who, tendering their allegiance. were permitted to kiss their sovereign's hand, with the single exception of Bonner; the recollection of whose excessive severities induced the queen to treat him with marked disdain. In the following January, the papal supremacy was for ever abolished by parliament, and a general uniformity of worship established agreeably to the new book of Common Prayer, which, on the ensuing Whitsunday () was read generally in all the churches.

On the , the great gates of the west end of the cathedral were blown open in a tremendous storm of wind, which also caused the loss of many lives in the Thames and at sea. In another dreadful storm of wind, on the , the south-west gate was blown open: all the bolts, bars, and locks being broken by the violence of the blast.

The anniversary of Elizabeth's accession to the throne (anno ) was celebrated in London with great pomp, and, after a sermon preached by bishop Fletcher at cross, before the lord mayor, aldermen, &c.

upon the church leads, the trumpets sounded, the cornets winded, and the quiristers sung an anthem;

and

on the steeple many lights were burned,

This mention of the steeple can only refer to the stone-work that rose immediately above the intersection of the roofs of the nave and

289

transept, as we know that the spire itself was never rebuilt after its destruction by fire in . It is observable, however, that even Ben Jonson, in his comedy of , performed in , has spoken of the steeple as if it was then standing. Iniquity says,

I will fetch thee a leap,

From the top of Paul's steeple to the Standard in Cheap.

It should be remarked here, that far more of the steeple, or central tower, was left standing, than is commonly imagined. Mr. Malcolm has quoted an estimate made in 1608, from the original in the archives of the cathedral, in which the following passage occurs:-- The steeple is to be taken down thirty-three foot, or thereaboute, and to bee made uppe againe, and the sides of the same to be repayred betweene the buttresses, which will conteyne 1032 tunnes of stone, &c.--Lond. Red. vol. iii. 75.

This probably refers to some surprising feats performed at different times from this steeple.

When queen Mary visited , as she passed through the churchyard, a Dutchman of the name of Peter stood on the weathercock of the steeple, holding a streamer in his hand, yards long, and waving it, stood some time on foot, at the same time shaking, the other;

and then,

says Stowe,

kneeling on his knees to the great marvail of the people.

The Dutchman had, however, adopted the precaution of constructing scaffolds under him, which would have saved his life, had he fallen from this perilous height. The city gave him for his

cost and paines ;

which, though not much, was a better reward than James the bestowed on the man who climbed to the top of Salisbury cathedral; the king conferring on him a patent for performing the feat exclusively.

On the marriage of Philip and Mary. when the king and queen passed the churchyard,

a fellow,

says Stowe,

came slipping upon a cord as an arrow out of a bow, from Paul's steeple to the ground, and lighted with his feet forwards on a sort of feather bed, and after he climbed up the cord again, and did certain feats ;

all of which were performed on the coronation of Edward VI.

It must appear strange to those who are acquainted with the decent order and propriety of regulation now observed in our cathedral churches, and other places of divine worship, that such improper customs and disgusting usages as are noticed in various works, should have been formerly admitted to be practised in ; and more especially that they should have been so long habitually exercised as to be defended on the plea of prescription.

At every door of this church,

says Weever,

was anciently this verse depicted; and in my time it might be perfectly read at the great south door:--Hic locus hic sacer est, hic nulli mingere fas est. It was customary also for beggars to solicit charity even within the church; which was likewise made a common thoroughfare for porters and carriers, as an admonition to whom, the following lines were sometime affixed to a pillar, over an iron box kept to receive donations: All those that shall enter within the church doore With burden or basket, must give to the poor; And if there be any aske what they must pay, To this box a penny-ere they pass away.

The abuses at length became so flagrant, that an act of common council was issued to restrain them. This act, which was dated the , in the year of the reign of Philip and Mary, gives a curious picture of the manners of the time. It states, that

Forasmuch as the material temples of God were first ordained for the lawful and devout assembly of people, there to lift up their hearts, and to laud and praise Almighty God, and to hear his divine service, and most holy word and gospel, sincerely said, sung, and taught: and not to be used as markets, or other profane places or thoroughfares, with carriage of things. And, for that now of late years, many of the inhabitants of the city of London, and other people repairing thither, have, and yet do commonly use and accustom themselves very unseemly and irreverently, the more the pity, to make the common carriage of great vessels full of ale and beer, great baskets full of bread, fish, flesh, and such other things; fardels [packs] of stuff, and other gross wares, and things, through the cathedral church of St. Paul's. And some in leading moyles, [mules,] horses, and other beasts, through the same university, to the great dishonour and displeasure of Almighty God, and the great grief also, and offence of all good people.

The act then proceeds to impose a fine on all future offenders of for the offence, for the , and for the , with nights imprisonment.

This statute, however, must have proved only a temporary restraint (excepting probably as to the leading of animals through the church ;) for in the reign of Elizabeth, we learn, from Malcolm's , that idlers and drunkards were indulged in lying and sleeping on the benches at the choir door; and that other usages, too nauseous for description, were also frequent.

Among the curious notices relating to the irreverend practices pursued in this church in the time of Elizabeth, collected by the same author from the manuscript presentments on visitations, preserved at , are the following:

.

We thinke it is verie necessary thinge that every quorister should bringe with him to church a testament in English, and torne to every chapter as it is dayly read, or some other good and godlye prayer-booke, rather than spend theyr tyme in talke, and hunting after spurr-money, whereon they set their whole minds,

and do often abuse dyvers if they do not bestow somewhat on them.

Spur-money was an exaction from persons who entered the cathedral booted and spurred; the gentlemen of the choir were peremptory in their demand, and threatened imprisonment in the choir for the night to all who refused them a pecuniary gift. The custom is still prevalent among the juvenile members of the chapel royal, at Windsor, the choristers at Lichfield, and some other cathedrals. At the time that the above presentment was made, spurs were generally worn by the bucks and dashers of the age, to whom Ben Jonson alludes in a scene in the Alchymist, where Subtle advises Abel Drugger to place a

loadstone under the threshold, To draw in the gallants that wear spurs.

In the upper quier wher the co«in [communion] table dothe stande, ther is such unreverente people, walking with their hatts on their heddes, comonly all the service-tyme, no man reproving them for yt.

The notices of encroachments on , in the same reign, are equally curious. The chapels of the different chantrys were used most infamously. chapel in the chancel, was a receptacle for old stones, and a ladder. Long chapel in the nave received fir poles and lumber, the rubbish of the repairs of ; years had elapsed since they were placed there. St. Katharine's was used as a school-room, and a chapel adjoining Jesus chapel, was let for a glazier's workshop! Part of the vaults beneath the church was occupied by a carpenter; the remainder was held by the bishop, the dean and chapter, and the minor canons. vault, thought to have been used for a burial-place, was converted into a wine-cellar, and a way had been cut into it through the wall of the building itself. The shrowds and cloisters under the convocation house,

where not longe since the sermons in foule weather were wont to be preached,

were made

a common laystall for boardes, trunks, and chests, being lett oute unto trunk-makers; where, by meanes of their daily knocking and noyse, the church is greatly disturbed.

More than houses also had been built against the outer walls of the cathedral; and part of the very foundation was cut away to make offices. of those houses had a closet literally dug in the wall: from another was a way through a window into a ware-room in the steeple; a ,

partly formed by

St. Paul's

,

was

lately used as a play-house,

and the owner of

292

a

baked his bread and pies, in an oven excavated within a buttress.

From another presentment we learn the following:--

Yt is a greate disorder in the churche, that porters, butchers, and water-berers and who not? be suffered in special in tyme of service, to carrye and recarrye whatsoever, no man withstandinge them or gaynsayinge them, which is a greate seandalle to honeste mynded men. And boyes (savinge your reverence), p-ge upon stones in the churche, by St. Faithes doore, to slide upon, as upon ysse, and so by that meanes maye hurte themselves quicklye.

The

Walker's in Paul's,

during this and the following reigns, were composed of a motley assemblage of the gay, the vain, the dissolute, the idle, the knavish, and the lewd; and various notices of this fashionable resort may be found in the old plays and other writings of the time. Ben Jonson, in his , has given a series of scenes in the interior of , and an assemblage of a great variety of the characters; in the course of which the curious piece of information occurs, that it was common to affix bills, in the form of advertisements, upon the columns in the aisles of the church, in a similar manner to what is now done in the : those bills he ridicules in affected specimens, the satire of which is admirable. Shakespeare, also, makes Falstaff say, in speaking of Bardolph,

I bought him in Paul's, and he'll buy me a horse in

Smithfield

: if I could get me but a wife in the stews, I were mann'd, hors'd, and wiv'd.

It would seem, from Massinger's comedy of the

City Madam,

that even cut-purses might be enumerated among the frequenters of Paul's. Shave «em says,

I«ll hang ye both. I can but ride;

That is, by way of punishment, in the cart, or tumbril.

You for the purse you cut in sermon time at Paul's.

In a scarce tract, intituled , printed in , Paul's Walk and its visitants are described in the following whimsical terms; to the honour of the fair sex, females do not appear to have formed any part of the company.

It is the land's epitome, or you may call it the lesser, isle of Great Brittaine. It is more than this, the whole world's map, which yon may here discerne in its perfect'st motion, justling and turning. It is a heap of stones and men, with a vast confusion of languages; and, were the steeple not sanctified, nothing liker Babel. The noyse in it is like that of bees, a strange humming or buzze, mixt of walking, tongues, and feet. It is a kind of still roare, or loud whisper. It is the great exchange of all discourse, and no business whatsoever but is here stirring and a foot. It is the synod of all pates politicke, joynted and laid together in the most curious posture ; and they are not halfe so busie at the Parliament. It is the anticke of tailes to tailes, and backes to backes; and for vizards, you need goe no further than faces. It is the market of young lecturers, whom you may cheepen here at all rates and sizes. It is the generall mint of all famous lies, which are here. like the legends of popery, first coyned and stamped in the church. All inventions are emptyed here, and not few pockets. The best signe of a Temple in it is, that it is the theeves sanctuary, which robbe more safely in the crowd than in a wilderness, whilst every searcher is a bush to hide them. It is the other expense of the day, after playes, taverne, and a baudy house, and men have still some oathes left to sweare here. It is the eare's brothell, and satisfies their lust and ytch. The visitants are all men, without exceptions; but the principal inhabitants and possessors are stale knights, and captaines out of service; men of long rapiers and breeches, which after all turne merchants here, and trafficke for news; but thriftier men make it their ordinarie, and boord here verie cheape. Of all such places, it is least haunted with hobgoblins, for if a ghost would walke, move he could not.

What is meant by the sentence,

thrifty men make it their ordinary, and board here very cheap,

alludes, probably, to the common saying (still in use) of

Dining with duke Humphrey.

Stowe relates, that sir John Beauchamp, son to the great Guy, earl of Warwick, had a

faire monument

in , which was misnamed Humphrey's, duke of Gloucester's, by ignorant people, who held the duke's memory in such particular veneration, that they were accustomed to assemble (thrice a year) at his tomb, and

merily professe themselves

to be his servants. The most solemn meeting was on the morning of St. Andrew's day, which, on this occasion, was, most probably, kept as a fast by the more zealous of the duke's servants; though the circumstances are not well explained, either by Stowe or Munday. Stowe's words are, that those who profess to

serve duke Humphrey in Powles, are to be punished here, and sent to Saint Alban's, there to be punished againe for theyr absence from theyr master, as they call him.

Antony Munday, Stowe's continuator says, that those who met

concluded on a breakfast or dinner, assuring themselves to be servants, and to hold diversity of offices under the good duke Humphrey.

The other assembly took place on May day,

when tankard-bearers, watermen, and some of like quality beside, would use to come to the same tomb, early in the morning, and (according as the other) have delivered serviceable presentation at the monument, by strewing herbes and sprinkling faire water on it, as in the duty of servants, and according to their degrees and changes in office.

294

 

Amidst so many profanations of this sacred place, it will not surprise the reader to find added to them that of lottery gambling.

The lottery ever known in this country was drawn at the west door of , in . It consisted of tickets, at each, the profits of which were to be appropriated to repairing the havens of the kingdom. The drawing began on the , and continued day and night until the . The prizes were all in plate. Another lottery consisting of rich armour was drawn here in . On both these occasions a temporary wooden house was erected next to the walls for the purpose.

The annexed engraving shews the form of the church and the situation of the tombs.

1Portico.24Monument of Lacy, earl of Lincoln.
2, 3Towers.25Brass of bishop Braybroke.
4Convocation court.26Shrine of St. Erkenwald.
5St. Gregory's church.27Monument of dean Nowell.
6Bishop Kempe's chapel.28Monument of sir T. Heneage.
7Beauchamp's monument.29Brass of R. de Hengham.
8Chapter house.30Monument of sir S. Burley.
9Monument of Dr. Donne. Gaunt, duke of Lancaster.31Monument of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster
10Monument of dean Collet.32Monument of W. Herbert,
11Monument of W. Hewet. earl of Pembroke.33High altar.
12Monument of sir J. Cokayne.34Monument of bishop Chishul.
13Monument of sir N. Bacon.35Monument of bishop Niger.
14Brass of bishop Newcourt. shul.36Monument of sir J. Mason.
15Brass of dean Carey.37Monument of W. Aubrey.
16Brass of Dr. Brabazon.38, 39.Monument of king Sebba
17Brass of Dr. Rythyn.40Brass of Thomas de Eure.
18Brass of Simon Edolph.41Brass of W. Greene.
19Brass of Richard Lichfield. and king Ethelred.42Brass of R. Fitzhugh, bishop of London.
20Brass of John Acton.43Chapel of St. George.
21Monument of sir C. Hatton.44Chapel of St. Dunstan.
22, 23Monuments of bishops Fauconberge and Henry de Wengham.45Chapel of the Virgin.

Among the numerous monuments which adorned the old cathedral, the following were the most curious and important:--

In the nave on the south side was the tomb of John de Beauchamp. It was in the form of an altar, on which was his effigy in complete armour, with a surtout, emblazoned with his arms; his hands were joined in prayer, his head supported by a cushion, and his feet rested against a lion. The sides of the monument were divided into compartments, each containing a quaterfoil, every leaf a trefoil, and, in the centre, a shield of arms.

295

 

The tomb of bishop Kemp exhibited a fine specimen of sepulchral architecture of the time of Edward IV. It stood in the north aisle of the nave, in a chapel where service was performed daily. The screen consisted of open arches, decorated with trefoils, the buttresses with pinnacles and foliage. Above was a frieze with angels, shields of arms, badges, &c. finished with a cornice formed of lozenges pierced into quaterfoils. The basement had delicate arched pannels. At the east end of the screen was a circular arched niche, with a pointed moulding over it, on each side of which were small statues. The effigy of the bishop, arrayed in pontificalibus, lay on an altar tomb within.

On the floor of the nave and choir were numerous brasses, some of particular beauty. Thomas de Eure was represented in a vestment, embroidered with niches and saints. circular arches, with rising pinnacles, formed the canopy, above which was a circle, containing a representation of the annunciation. rich niches with saints, formed the border. John Newcourt had an equally elegant monument, with an engraving of the annunciation. There were also similar monuments, with their effigies, to Robert de Braybroke, bishop Fitzhugh, William Woraley, dean, died , Roger Brabazon, canon residentary, died d , and bishop King, exclusive of numerous brasses for the minor clergy of the cathedral.

In the north aisle of the choir were the following monuments :--

Beneath flat pointed arches in the wall, (before which were acutely pointed arches with trefoil heads and foliage capitals, and between the sweeps, circles enclosing quaterfoils,) were the tombs of the Saxon kings Sebba and Ethelred. The sarcophagus of each had a pointed covering fluted, and resting on dwarf columns.

Above each of their tombs was a tablet with the following inscriptions in black letter:

Hic jacet Sebba, rex orientalium Saxonum; qui conversus fuit ad fidem per S. Erkewaldum, Londinens. episcopum, anno Christi DCLXXVI. Vir multum Deo devotus, actibus religious, crebris precibus et piis eleemosynarum fructibus plurimum intentus; vitam privatam et monasticam cunctis regni divitiis et honoribus preferens: qui cum regnasset annos XXX. habitum religiosum accepit, per benedictionum Waltheri Londinens. antistitis, qui prefato Erkenwaldo successit; de quo venerabilis Beda, in historia gentis Anglorum.

Hic jacet Ethelredus, Anglorum rex, filius Edgari regis; cui in die consecrationis post impositam coronam, ferter S. Dunstanus, Cantuar. archiepiscopus dira praedixisse his verbis: quoniam aspirati ad regnum per mortem fratris tui, in cujus sanguine conspiraverunt Angli, cum ignominiosa matre tui; non deficiet Gladius de domo tua, saeviens in te omnibus diebus vitae tuae, interficiens de semine tuo, quosque regnum tuum transferatur in regem alienum, cujus ritum et linguam gens cui praesides non novit; nec expiabitur, nisi longa vindicta, peccatum tuum, et peccatum matris tuae, et peccata virorum, qui interfuere consilio illius nequam. Quae, sicut a viro sancto praedicta erant, evenerunt: nam Ethelredus varis praeliis per Swanum, Danorum regem, filinmq; suum Canutum fatigatus et fugatus, ac tandem Londini arcta obsidione conclusus, misere diem obiit, anno Dominicae Incarnationis MXVII postquam annis XXXVI. in magna tribulatione regnasset.

The tomb of William Aubrey, consisted of an arched recess, in which was his effigy between columns of the composite order resting on a plinth, and sustaining an entablature, in the centre of which were his arms in a scroll, and on either side a winged hourglass and a scull. He was represented with a pointed beard, ruff, and black gown and cap, his left hand resting on a scull and his right holding a roll of parchment. Beneath the effigy was the following inscription:--

Gulielmo Aubraeo, clara familia in Breconia orto; L. L. in Oxonia Doctori, ac regio professori, archiepiscopi Cantuariensis causarum auditori, et vicario in spiritualibus general; exercitus regii, ad S. Quintinum, supremo juridico. In limitaneum Walliae concilium adscito; cancellariae magistro et reginae Elizabethae a supplicum libellis. Viro exquisita eruditione, singulari prudentia, et moribus suavissimis: qui tribus filiis, et sex filiabus, Wilgifforda uxore susceptis, aeternam in Christo vitam expectans, animam Deo XVIII. Julii, 1595. AEtatis suae 66 placide reddidit.

Optimo patri, Edwardus et Thomas, milites; ac Johannes armiger, filii mastissimi Posuerunt.

Beneath was represented in basso relievo, female figures and male, being in armour, and all in the attitude of prayer.

On the same side was the monument of John de Chishul, bishop of London, ob. ; it was a plain sarcophagus, under pointed arches.

Bishop Niger's tomb was plain, of the altar form, before it were pointed arches, and in the back wall pierced quaterfoils. Above the tomb was a light screen of pointed arches, the heads of each filled with tracery of very delicate execution.

Attached to a tablet was the following inscription:--

Hic requiescit in domino Rogerus, cognomento Niger, quondam canonicus hujus ecclesiae S. Pauli, ac deinde in Londinens. episcopum consecratus, anno salutis. 1228. Vir in literatura profundus, moribus honestus, ac per omnia laudabilis; Christianae religionis amator, ac defensor strenuus. Qui, cum pastorale officium vigilanter ac studiose rexisset annis 14. diem suum clausit extremum, apud manerium suum de Stebunheath, 3 calend. Octob. ann. Christi, 1241, regnante rege Henrico 3.

Contigit his diebus dum episcopus iste Rogerus in hac ecclesia ante majus altare staret insulatus, ad celebrandum divina, quod tanta in aere facta et nubium densitas, ut vix alterum discernere possit; quam confestum secuta est tonitrui horribilis concussio, cum tanta fulminis coruscatione, ac foetore intolerabili, ut omnes, qui aderunt, rapide fugientes, nihil verius quam mortem expectarent; solus episcopus cum uno diacono remansit intrepidus. Acre tandem purgato, episcopus residuum rei divinae explevit. Epitaphium. Ecclesiae quondam praesul praesentis, in anno M. bis C. quater X. jacet hic Rogerus humatus. Hujus erat manibus domino locus iste dicatus: Christe, suis precibus veniam des, tolle reatus.

On the same side of the aisle was a handsome monument to the memory of William Herbert, earl of Pembroke, who died, , aged . The tomb was formed by a basement and pedestals, on

297

which were composite pillars. The lower had arches, those on the side friezes and cornices only. Under those arches lay the effigies of the earl and his lady, on a sarcophagus; at the head his daughter Anne, lady Talbot, kneeling, and at the foot were sons in armour, viz. Henry, earl of Pembroke, and sir Edward Herbert; on the middle columns were others of the same order, sustaining the arms and crests of the family; over the lateral columns were obelisks and shields of arms; the whole was decorated with scroll work, foliage, &c.

The next monument of interest was on the same side, to the memory of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, and Constantia and Blanch, his wives. It was not so elegant a design as some others of the same period. The effigies of himself and his wife Blanch, lay beneath a canopy of pointed pinnacles, which was supported by hexagonal pillars on small pedestals. The whole design, as Mr. Malcolm remarks, was rather clumsy. His spear, a curious shield, and his abacof, or cap of state, were suspended before the monument.

On a tablet was the following inscription :

Hic in domino obdormivit Johannis Gandavensis, vulgo de Gaunt, a Gandano, Flandriae urbe, loco natali ita denominatus; Edwardi Tertii, regis Angliae, filius, a patre comitis Richmondiae titulo ornatus. Tres sibi uxores in matrimonio duxit; primam, Blancham, filiam et heredem Henrici, ducis Lancastriae, per quam amplissimam adiit hereditatem. Nec solum dux Lancastriae, sed etiam Leicestriae, Lincolnie, et Derbie, comes effects. E cujus sobole imperatores, reges, principles, et proceres propagati sunt plurimi. Alteram habuit uxorem Constantiam (que hic contumulatur) filiam et heredem Petri regis Castillie et Legionis, cujus jure optimo titulo regis Castillie et Legionis usus est. Haec unicam illi peperit filiam Catherinam, ex qua ab Henrico, reges Hispanie sunt propagati. Tertiam vero uxorem duxit Catherinam, ex equestri familia, et eximia pulchritudine feminam, ex qua numerosam suscepit prolem; unde genus ex matre duxit Henricus VII. rex Angliae prudentissimus. Cujus felicissamo conjugio cum Elisabetha, Edwardi quarti regis filla. e stirpe Eboracensi regiae ille Lancastriensium et Eboracensium familie ad exoptatissimum Angliae pacem coaluerunt.

Illustrissimus hic princeps Johannes, cognomento Plantagenet, rex Castillie et Legionis, dux Lancastriae, comes Richmondiae, Leicestriae, Lincolniae et Derbiae, locum tenens Aquitaniae. magnas seneschallus Angliae, Obiit Ann. 22 regni regis Richardi 2, annoque domini 1399.

Opposite the last was a handsome monument to the memory of sir Simon Burley ; his effigy in armour lay on an altar tomb, with a canopy at his head, his feet resting on a lion. The front of the tomb was divided into divisions, by buttresses ornamented with pinnacles. The middle division was double the width of the lateral ones, and was surmounted with a double arch, from which rose crocketted pinnacles, the spaces between being ornamented with shields of arms, &c.

On a tablet at the back of the tomb was the following inscription :--

Hic requiescit Simon Burley, banerettus, quinq: portuum praefectus, ordinis garterii miles, et regi Ricardo secundo consiliarius longe charissimus. Connubio sibi conjunctas habuit, ex amplissimis familiis, duas uxores; alteram Staffordiae, alterum baronis de Roos filiam; verum difficillimo illo tempore, cum inter Angliae proceres omnia sub juvene principe simultatibus agitarentur, in tantum nonnullorum odium incurrit, ut parliamentaria auctoritate capite plecteretur, anno Domini 1888. Posteri autem, eadem postea auctoritate, sub rege Henrico quarto sunt restituti. Obit anno salutis 1398.

On the north side of this aisle, beneath acutely pointed arches, the pillars of which rested on the tomb, was the effigy in brass of Ralph de Hengham, lord chief justice of the King's Bench.

Opposite the last, was a monument of the composite order, to the memory of sir Thomas Heneage, knt. chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster, &c., who died , his effigy in armour and that of his wife were placed under an arch. A kneeling female and a child lying on a tomb, were represented on the basement.

In the chapel of St. George, at the east end of the north aisle, was a curious monument, to the memory of sir John Wolley, ob. . Above a basement was represented the effigies of persons, and at each corner was a composite column, supporting statues of Time, Fame, &c.;

On the north side of the high altar, was a monument to Alexander Nowell, dean of , died . In a niche was his bust, in a furred gown, with a cap and ruff, and on each side an obelisk.

In the south aisle were the following monuments, in a niche of black marble surmounted by an inscription and arms, the effigy of John Donne, D.D. (died March ,) in a winding sheet rising from a vase; near this was dean Colet's tomb. It consisted of a plain altar, with a skeleton stretched on a mat. At the corners were pillars, supporting others of the same order, surmounted with sculls. In the upper intercolumniation was an arched niche, containing a bust of the dean, the hands crossed on a book. Above the arch, was the crest of the Mercer's company, and below the niche : COL- LET: DECA: S. PAV: and on either side the following inscriptions:

John Collete, doctor of divinitie, deanThe son of sir Henry Collete,
of Pawles, and the only fownder of Pawlesknyghte, twyse lord maior of the cytty
schole, who departed this lyeffe, Annoof London, and free of the companye
Domini, 1519.and misterye of the mercers.

On the front of the tomb below the skeleton was the following :

Hic situs est D. Jo. Coletus, hujus ecclesiae decanus, theologus insignia, qui ad exemplum S. Pauli, semper egit gratuitum evangelicae doctrinae praeconem, ac syncerae doctrinae perpetua vitae synceritate respondit. Scholam Paulinam suo sumptu solus et instituit, et annuo reditu dotavit: genus honestissimum

Christi dotibus cohonestavit; praecipue sobrietate mira, ac pudicitie: nunc truitur evangelica Margarita, cujus amore neglexit omnia: vixit an. 53, administravit xvi. obiit anno 1519.

Morere mundo, ut vivas Deo.

Near this was a composite monument with a recumbent effigy of William Hewit, esq. .

On the same side was a handsome monument, of the composite order, to the memory of sir W. Cockayn, . On a sarcophagus were the effigies of himself and his wife, covered by a pediment, supported by pillars.

In the eastern part of this aisle, was a heavy Ionic monument to sir Christopher Hatton, lord chancellor. On a sarcophagus was his effigy, in armour, with the robe of the order of the garter, his head resting on a mat. At each end of the tomb were pillars and pilasters, and between them a large arch; above the cornice, niches with figures between composite pillars, with the arms and crests of the deceased. On each side of the monument were heavy obelisks.

Near this was the monument of sir Nicholas Bacon, lord keeper, obit . It consisted of composite pillars, with pedestals elevated on a double basement, forming the support of a triangular pediment, on which were his arms, scrolls, and sculls. The effigies of his wives lay on the tomb, attired in the costume of the age, and on a table above was the effigy of sir Nicholas in full armour, his head bare, and resting on a rolled mat, at his feet his crest, a boar.

The tombs of Henry de Weugham, , and Eustace de Fauconberge, , bishops of London, were situated beneath pointed arches. At the commencement of the outward mouldings of these arches were roses, and above them circles inclosing quaterfoils. That of Wengham was a plain tomb, with his effigy recumbent in pontifical robes, and giving the benediction; over his head was a trefoil canopy. Fauconberge's was similar, except that the tomb had a border of foliage, and was divided into square pannels enclosing quaterfoils.

Eustacius de Fauconbrigge, Regis Justiciarius, una atq; altera legatione perfuntus in Gallia, sub Joanne et Henrico tertio, regibus; quibus ab intimis consilis, et supremus Angliae thesaurarius fuit. Post concessionem Gulielmi de sancta Maria, hujus Ecclesiae antistitis, electus est in episcopum Londinensem, Anno verbi incarnati 1221, consecratus a benedicto, Roffensi episcopo sum jam abesset archiepiscopus Cantuariensis. Quumq; sedisset Annos septem menses sex, obiit diem pridie cal. Novembris, anno salutis 1228. Hic jacet Eustachius, redolens ut Assyria nardus, Virtutem multis floribus, et merits. Vir fuit hic magnus et episcopus ut agnus. Vita conspicuous, dogmate precipuus.Pro quo, qui transis, supplex orare memor sis; Ut sit ei saties, Alma Dei facies. De Wengham natus Henricus, ad astra levatus, Hic nece prostratus jacet, anno pontificatus Ter vix, et Domini mil. sexagint. ils que bis C. Huic sis salvamen, Deus O, te deprecor. Amen.

In the chapel of St. Dunstan, at the east end of this aisle, was the monument of Henry de Lacy, earl of Lincoln. It consisted of an altar tomb, the front being adorned with niches and statues. On it lay the effigy of the earl in chain armour, with a sleeveless surtout. Angels knelt at his head, and at his feet was a lion.

In the nave of this church was a monument to the memory of bishop William, the Norman, though the site of it is not marked in Hollar's plan of the cathedral, neither has Dugdale described it. On it was the following inscription:--

Gulielmo, Viro Sapientia et vitae sanctitate claro, qui primum divo Edwardo regi et confessori familiaris, nuper in episcopum Londinensem erectus, nec multo post apud invictissimum principem Gulielmum, Angliaa regem, ejus nomine primum, ob prudentiam, fidemque singularem, in concilium adhibitus; amplissima huic urbi celebarrimae privilegia impetravit: senatus populusque Londinensis bene merenti posuit. Sadit episcopus annos xx. Decessit anno a Christo nato M.LXX.

Haec tibi (clara pater) posuerunt marmora cives, Praemia non meritis aequiparanda tuis: Namque sibi populus te Londinensis amicum Sensit et huic, urbi non leve praesidium:Reddita Libertas duce te, donataque multis Te duce, res fuerat publica muneribus. Divitias, genus, et formam brevis opprimat hora, Haec tua, sed pietas et benefacta manent.

Near this, attached to a column, was the following inscription, placed there by Edward Barkham, lord mayor, :--

Walker's whoso«er you be! If it prove you chance to see Upon a solemne scarlet day, The city Senate pass this way,

Their grateful memory for to show, Which they the reverend ashes owe, Of bishop Norman here intum'd, By whom this city hath assum'd

Large priviledges: Those obtain'd, By him when Conquerour William reign'd This being by Barkham«s thankfull mind renew'd, Call it the monument of gratitude.

Among the numerous eminent men who were buried in this church without monuments were sir John Poulteney, times mayor, ob. ; Hamond Chychwell, times mayor, ob. ;

301

the duchess of Bedford, sister to Philip duke of Burgundy, ob ; sir Francis Walsingham, ob. ; sir Philip Sidney, ob. ; Dr. Thomas Lynacre, the famous physician to Henry VIII., ob. : William Lilly, the grammarian, master of school, ob. ; sir William Dethick, garter king at arms, ob. ; sir Anthony Vandyke, the celebrated painter, ob. ; and most of the Saxon bishops of London, besides those already mentioned.

Among the abundant decorations of the old church, the high altar, and the shrine of St. Erkenwald, are celebrated as prodigies of splendour, in costly materials and workmanship. The former stood between columns in the eastern part of the choir: it was adorned with rich jewellery, and surrounded with images, most beautifully wrought; over it was a curious canopy of wood, depicted with the figures of saints and angels. Near the altar was St. Erkenwald's Shrine, which rested on a plain tomb, and was enriched with gold, silver, and precious stones; among which were

the best sapphire stones,

of Richard de Preston, of London, grocer, there to remain for curing diseases of the eyes. This shrine was for many ages the resort of the pious, and the gifts made to it were exceedingly valuable. Here king John, of France, when prisoner in England, offered basons of gold at the high altar; and Dugdale records, that the dean and chapter, in , employed goldsmiths during a whole year, to work on this venerated monument. The remains of St. Erkenwald were removed into the new church in the year .

The neglected state of the old cathedral during the latter years of Elizabeth, and in the reigns of James the and Charles the , has been already noticed, yet a few additional particulars of the several attempts made to effect a restoration of the building during the domination of the last sovereigns, may not be unacceptable.

In an estimate made in , the total of the required expenditure for repairs amounted to a sum much too great to be obtained by the unsupported endeavours of the bishop and the dean and chapter; and the king at that period seemed wholly indifferent to the deplorable state of the fabric. At length, however, after several years of indefatigable though ineffectual exertions, a gentleman named Henry Farley had the honour to excite the sovereign to patronize the intended reparation.

James, as a preliminary step, visited the cathedral in great state, on Sunday the , on horseback, attended by a numerous train of the nobility, state officers, courtiers, &c. He was met, agreeably to the ancient custom, at the posts and chains, called the bars, near the Temple gate, , by the lord mayor, sir William Cockain, the recorder, alderman, and other officers of the city, and presented with a purse of gold. On entering

302

at the west door of , the king kneeled, and pronounced a prayer for the success of the undertaking. Thence he-proceeded to the choir under a canopy borne by the dean and residentary canons, accompanied by the clergy, and others, singing. The choir was adorned with some of the king's own arras (tapestry hangings) which had been sent for the purpose from . Hence after an anthem had been sung, the royal visitor proceeded to cross, where a sermon from an appropriate text (Psalm cii. verses and ) was preached by Dr. King, the then bishop of London, who had afterwards the honour to entertain the king with a sumptuous repast at his palace, which nearly adjoined to the church on the south side.

In the November following a royal commission was issued for prosecuting the repairs, and soon afterwards a general subscription was commenced, in the progress of which large sums of money were received, and considerable quantities of stone provided: yet nothing of moment was then done ; much of the money was wasted, and the stone was misapplied; some of the latter was borrowed by the duke of Buckingham for the erection of the Water-gate at York House.

After the accession of Laud to the see of London, the business proceeded with greater vigour and effect, as has been already shewn; and under the direction of Inigo Jones, the work went rapidly on, till the breaking out of the civil war threw all things into confusion, and the parliament confiscated the unexpended money and materials to their own use.

of the orders of the house of commons after the abolition of episcopacy was, that the committee for pulling down

all monuments of superstition and idolatry,

should take into their custody

the copes in the cathedrals of

Westminster

and Paul's, and those at

Lambeth

, and have them burnt, that the gold and silver with which they were embroidered might be converted to the relief of the poor in Ireland.

A few months afterwards, namely, , it was also voted by the same house,

that the committee for taking away superstitious monuments do open Paul's church; and that they have power to remove out of the said church, all such matters as are justly offensive to godly men; and that there shall be a lecture set up there, to be exercised every Lord's day in the afternoon, to begin when other sermons usually end, and

one

day in the week.

The famous Dr. Burges was afterwards appointed lecturer, and had a yearly salary of settled on him from the revenues. His discourses were delivered towards the east end of the church, which, with part of the choir, was

303

separated from the body by a brick wall; and the congregation entered through of the north windows, which had been converted into a doorway. The elegant portico at the west end was fitted up with a range of shops below for milliners and others, and above were lodging rooms, which, if detraction has not usurped the pen of truth, were appropriated to purposes of a description far less commendable. About this time, also, as sir John Hawkins informs us, there was a music house at the west end of , known by the sign of the Mitre, which was frequented by persons of consequence, and who occasionally danced there.

The re-establishment of the regular cathedral service took place as soon as it was possible for the members of the church to complete the necessary arrangements after the restoration. New subscriptions were solicited, and a commission for

repairing and upholding

the ruinous fabric, was issued under the king's letters patent, dated April the eighteenth, ; the repairs were begun on the following, under the direction of sir John Denham, K. B. who received a day as surveyor-general of the works, and who continued to hold that office till his death in , when Dr. Wren, afterwards sir Christopher, was unanimously chosen to succeed him: the salary of the latter was, on the , fixed at the sum of per anuum.

After the consumption of much fruitless labour, and the expenditure of . the principal part of which was for the portico, the great fire of destroyed the chief part of the building, and irreparably damaged the remainder. Still, however, the vast magnitude of the work, and the contemplation of the great expense requisite for building a new cathedral, occasioned a lapse of several years, as well as a further loss of considerable labour and materials, before it was finally determined that all attempts at reparation were hopeless. This, indeed, had long been the opinion of sir Christopher Wren, whose sagacious and penetrating judgment will be at once estimated from the following extract of a letter directed to him when at Oxford, in , by Dr. Sancroft, the then dean of , and afterwards archbishop of Canterbury.

As was said of old, Prudentia est quaedam divinatio, so science, at the height you are master of it, is prophetick too. What you whispered in my ear at your last coming hither, is now come to pass. Our work, at the west end of St. Paul's, is fallen about our ears. Your quick eye discerned the walls and pillars gone off from their perpendiculars, and I believe other defects too, which are now exposed to every common observer.

About a week since, we being at work about the third pillar from the west end on the south side, which we had new cased with stone where it was most defective, almost up to the chapitre, a great weight falling from a high wall, so disabled the vaulting of the side aisle by it, that it threatened a sudden ruin, so visibly, that the workmen presently removed: and the next night the whole pillar fell, and carried scaffolds and all to the very ground. The second pillar, which you know is bigger than the rest, stands now alone, with an enormous weight on the top of it, which we cannot hope should stand long, and yet we dare not venture to take it down.

The dean then notices various defects in the new casing of the upper walls by Inigo Jones, and proceeds thus:

What we are to do next is the present deliberation, in which you are so absolutely and indispensably necessary to us, that we can do nothing, resolve on nothing without you. You will think fit, I know, to bring with you those excellent draughts and designs you formerly favoured us with, and in the mean time till we enjoy you here, consider what to advise, that may be for the satisfaction of his majesty and the whole nation.

Another letter, sent by the dean to sir Christopher, in July, commences with these words:

Yesterday my lords of Canterbury, London, and Oxford, met on purpose to hear your letter read once more, and to consider what is now to be done, in order to the repairs of

St. Paul's

. They unanimously resolved, that it is fit immediately to attempt something, and that without you they can do nothing. I am therefore commanded to give you an invitation hither, in his grace's name and the rest of the commissioners, with all speed.

That this great man had been perfectly steady in his opinion of the necessity which existed for constructing a new edifice, may be seen by the following passage from sir John Evelyn's

account of architects and architecture,

published in , and addressed to sir Christopher:

I have named

St. Paul's

, and truly, not without admiration, as oft as I recall to mind (as I frequently do) the sad and deplorable condition it was in, when (after it had been made a stable of horses, and a den of thieves) you (with other gentlemen and myself) were by the late king Charles named commissioners to survey the dilapidations, and to make report to his majesty, in order to a speedy reparation. You will not, I am sure, forget the struggle we had with some, who were for patching it up any how (so the steeple might stand) instead of a new building, which it altogether needed : when (to put an end to the contest)

five

days after, that dreadful conflagration happened, out of whose ashes this Phoenix is risen, and was by Providence designed for you.

At a meeting of the commissioners, in the latter part of the same month (namely, ) a letter from the king was read, which stated that

the ruins had been examined by experienced workmen, who found the walls in so dangerous a state, that they were judged altogether insufficient for bearing another roof, or any new work.

His majesty then proceeds to order the old wall to be taken down to the foundation of the east end,

the old choir and the tower to be replaced with a new choir, of a fair and decent fabrick, near or upon the old foundations; and also that care be taken to preserve the cornices, ashlers, and such other

parts to the former work, towards the west, as shall be deemed usefull for the new fabrick, lest they be spoiled by the fall of more of the walls, which seeme to threaten immediate ruine.

The taking down of the parts mentioned in the king's letter

was soon afterwards commenced, under the direction of a sub-committee, composed of the following persons: sir John Denham, Leolin Jenkins, L.L.D. judge of the high court of admiralty, Dr. Sancroft, Dr. Pory, Dr. Donne, residentiary, and Christopher Wren, L.L.D. Savilian professor of astronomy, Oxford.

In August, the king requested that all the

stony rubbish,

unfit for the church, should be applied to the raising of the ground near Fleet-bridge, &c. where

quays and wharfs

were to be erected, which required

hard and substantiall matter;

and during the subsequent months of the same year, many coffins, and bones of the dead, were removed, and re-buried in other parts of the church and church-yard. It is to be lamented that sufficient attention was not given to the preservation of such of the monuments as had escaped the ravages of the great fire; for, with little exception, these appear to have been regarded as

old alabaster,

a great quantity of which was, in the progress of the work,

beaten into powder for making cement.

The impracticability of restoring the ancient church had now become so apparent, that Dr. Wren was ordered to prepare the requisite plans for a new cathedral; and, in the following year, we learn that he was presented with

100

guinea pieces (valued at

107l.

10s.

) for his directions in the works, and for the design of a model.

In the construction of the model here spoken of both the architect and his employers acted under the persuasion that the expense of the intended building would be defrayed by voluntary contributions alone, and it was therefore deemed expedient to restrict the design to an edifice of moderate bulk. This model, however, though of

a beautiful figure,

and of

good proportion,

with a

convenient choir, a vestibule, porticoes, and a dome conspicuous above the houses,

did not satisfy the public wish; though

it was applauded by persons of good understanding, as containing all that was necessary for the church of a metropolis, and of an expense that might reasonably have been compassed; but being contrived in the Roman style, was not so well understood and relished by others, who thought it deviated too much from the old gothic form of cathedral churches: others observed that it was not stately enough, and contended that, for the honour of the nation and the city of London,

the new fabric

ought not to be exceeded in magnificence by any church in Europe.

Shortly afterwards it was determined by parliament that a duty

306

of per chaldron should be levied on sea-coal, the produce to be partly applied to the erection of the intended church. The means of an augmented expenditure being thus secured, the architect drew various sketches, by way of consulting the prevailing taste, and finding that

the generality were for grandeur,

he extended his ideas, and endeavoured to gratify

the connoiseurs and critics' with a colossal and beautiful design, well studied, after the best style of Greek and Roman architecture. From that design, which was much admired by some persons of judgment and distinction, Dr. Wren made a large and highly finished model, in wood, with all its proper ornaments; yet, though he himself appeared to set a higher value on this performance than on any other of his plans,

it consisting only of order, the Corinthian, like at Rome,

and being laboured with more study and success, and

as what he would have put in execution with the more cheerfulness and satisfaction,

the preference given by the clergy

to what was called a

cathedral fashion,

obliged him to form new designs: but these he endeavoured so to modify, as to reconcile, as nearly as possible,

the gothic to a better manner of architecture.

Hence arose the plan of the present church, which, in , was finally approved by the king, who ordered a model to be constructed sufficiently large to admit a man within it, and the commissioners directed the chapter-house to be roofed, ceiled, and glazed, as a receptacle for the model. After that period, says the Parentalia,

the surveyor resolved to make no more models, nor publicly expose his drawings, which, as he had found by experience, did but lose time, and subjected his business many times to incompetent judges.

As the building was proceeded with, various minor alterations were made in the original plan, yet these were principally in the ornamental parts. The pulling down of the remaining walls of the old structure, and the removal of the rubbish, proved excessively laborious, as well as dangerous, and several men were killed in the progress of the work. It was intended that the choir should be erected, and, in consequence, the clearance was commenced at the east end, the demolition of which, with its beautiful rose window and pinnacles,

307

furnished employment for men during days. The demolition of the ruined tower was a business of yet greater difficulty, as its height was nearly feet, and the labourers were afraid to work above. The architect therefore felt it necessary to facilitate its destruction by art; and gunpowder and the battering ram were in succession employed to propel the fall of its massive piers, each of which were about feet in diameter.

In using the gunpowder Dr. Wren is said to have acted under the direction of a gunner from the Tower; and he commenced his experiments with the north-west pier, in the centre of the foundation of which a hole, feet square, was wrought,

with crows and tools made on purpose.

Into this cavity a deal box, containing only eighteen pounds of powder, was

put by the gunner, and the communication being preserved by a quick match. or cane full of dry powder the mine was carefully closed up again with stone and mortar,

and a proper train laid. The effects of the ignition are thus detailed in the Parentalia:

This little quantity of powder not only lifted up the whole angle of the tower, with the two arches that rested upon it, but also the two adjoining arches of the aisles, and all above them; and this it seemed to do somewhat leisurely, cracking the walls to the top, lifting visibly the whole weight about nine inches, which suddenly jumping down, made a great heap of ruin in the place, without scattering: it was half a minute before the heap already fallen, opened in two or three places, and emitted some smoke.» The mass thus raised, was above 3000 tons, and it saved the work of 1000 labourers. The fall of so great a weight gave a concussion to the ground that the inhabitants round about took for an earthquake.Ibid.

In a subsequent attempt to expedite the fall of the walls, a person to whom the direction of the mine had been entrusted, charged the hole with too large a quantity of powder, through which, and from not closing it sufficiently, a stone was shot out into a house on the opposite side of the church-yard: this alarmed the neighbouring inhabitants so greatly, that the architect was ordered,

by his superiors,

to use no more powder. He therefore, to save time and labour, determined to try a battering-ram, which he caused to be formed of a strong mast, about feet in length, strengthened with iron bars and ferrels, and headed with a great spike. It was then suspended beneath a triangular prop, and men were employed to vibrate it with force against part of the wall; and this they did with such effect, that on the day the wall fell: the same engine was used, and with similar success, in beating down all the more lofty ruins. The vast quantity of rubbish, which covered the ground in heaps, considerably impeded the digging and laying out

308

of the foundations, and so much as loads were removed from the site of the church: most of the Kentish rag-stone found among it was purchased by the city to repave the streets with.

On searching for the natural ground, that he might have a secure foundation for the new fabric, Dr. Wren discovered that the old cathedral had stood upon a stratum of very close and hard pot-earth, about feet deep on the north side, but gradually declining towards the south, till on the declivity of the hill it was scarcely feet: be concluded, however,

that the same ground which had borne so weighty a building before might reasonably be trusted again.

On boring beneath the pot-earth, he found a stratum of loose sand; and lower still, at low water mark, water and sand, mixed with periwinkles, and other sea-shells; under this a hard beach, and below all, the natural bed of clay, that extends, far and wide, under the city, county, and river.

The ancient burying-place, and the various Roman and other antiquities that were found on digging the foundations, have already been noticed, as well as the pit under the north-east angle of the present choir, which was excavated by the Roman potters, and afterwards filled up with fragments of broken vessels, urns, &c. This pit occasioned much additional labour, for the

hard crust of pot-earth,

having been taken away, the architect felt himself compelled to dig through all the intervening strata, till he came to the sea-beach at the depth of feet; here he commenced a pier of solid masonry, feet square, and carried it up to within feet of the present surface, where he turned a short arch to connect the work with the foundations of the new church, the line of which had been interrupted by the excavation.

 

The commission for rebuilding the cathedral was issued on the ; and on the ,

309

the king signed an order for the work to be commenced,

at the east end, or choir,

a sufficient stock of money having been raised to

put it in great forwardness.

In the same year, on the , the stone was laid in the new foundation, at the north-east corner of the choir, by T. Strong, mason; and, though various difficulties occurred in the course of the business, from want of money, the work was prosecuted with so much success and diligence,

that within

ten

years afterwards the walls of the choir and side aisles were finished, together with the circular porticoes on the north and south sides; and the great pillars of the dome were carried to the same height. During this time the several bishops were strongly urged by the commissioners, not only to contribute towards the funds for the new church themselves, but also to procure subscriptions in their respective dioceses; and orders of council were issued, directing that no feasts should take place at the consecration of future bishops, but that the bishop-elect should pay

50l.

out of the customary expense on those occasions in aid of the work; as well as an additional

50l.

in lieu of the gloves given at the consecration dinners. The archbishop of Canterbury, the bishop of London, and the lord mayor were likewise enpowered to borrow money on the credit of the coal duties; and though further inconveniences were occasionally experienced from a deficiency of receipts, the gradual operation of those easy duties proved so generally successful, that the last, or highest stone of the building was laid at the top of the lantern, by Mr. Christopher Wren, the surveyor's son, in the year

1710

; and shortly afterwards the queen and both houses of parliament, with an immense concourse of gentry, &c. were present at the celebration of divine service in the new cathedral.

The last commission, for

finishing and adorning

the church, was issued by George the , in the year .

An incident that occurred soon after the commencement of the work, and was regarded as a

memorable omen,

is thus noticed in the Parentalia:

when the surveyor, in person, had set out upon the place the dimensions of the great dome, and fixed upon the centre, a common labourer was ordered to bring a flat stone from the heaps of rubbish (such as should

first

come to hand) to be laid for a mark and direction to the masons: the stone, which was immediately brought and laid down for that purpose, happened to be a piece of a grave-stone, with nothing remaining of the inscription but this single word in large capitals

RESURGAM.

This circumstance made so strong an impression on the mind of the architect, that he caused a Phoenix, rising from the flames of the motto inscribed beneath, to be sculptured in the tympanum of the south

310

pediment, above the portico, as emblematical of the re-construction of the church after the fire. It is finely executed, and is in length eighteen feet, and in height feet ; it was sculptured by Caius Gabriel Cibber, who was paid for the model, and for the sculpture. It is not improbable but that the stone brought to Dr. Wren was the same that had been provided in commemoration of Dr. King, who preached the sermon for promoting the rebuilding of , before James the , and who directed by his will that a plain stone only with the word , should record his memory.

The general form, or ground plan, of , is that of a Latin cross, with an additional arm, or transept, at the west end, to give breadth to the principal front, and a semi-circular projection at the east end, for the altar. At the extremities of the principal transept there are also semicircular projections for porticoes, and at the angles of the cross are square projections, which, besides containing staircases, vestries, &c. serve as immense buttresses to the dome. The dome itself rises from the intersection of the nave and transept, and is terminated by a lantern, surmounted by a ball and cross, gilt.

On entering into a detailed examination of the exterior of this fabric, the subject that demands regard is the west front, which consists of a noble portico of orders, the Corinthian and the composite, resting on a basement formed by a double flight of steps, of Irish black marble, and surmounted by a spacious pediment; on each side also is a lofty tower, or steeple, the serving as the belfry, and the other as the clock-tower. The lower division of the portico is composed of lofty Corinthian columns, and the upper of composite columns (with their proper entablatures, &c.) all of which are coupled and fluted. In the tympanum of the pediment is a very large sculpture in basso relievo representing the

conversion of St. Paul

(which is regarded as the most spirited work of the artist, Francis Bird,) and on the apex is a

311

gigantic statue of St. Paul; whilst on either hand, at different distances, along the summit of this front, are other colossal statues of St. Peter, St. James, and the Evangelists. The entablature of the upper order is remarkable,

inasmuch as the consoles of the cornice occupy the whole of the frieze;

an example, in which, as in many other instances, we see sir Christopher Wren sacrificing a particular to a general effect; for this cornice, considered as the general termination of the body of the building, required to be treated in a bold and striking style, rather than with the delicacy proper to the order of which it constitutes a part: both the entablatures are continued round the whole fabric. The towers, which,

singly considered, may be said to want repose and harmony, are yet picturesque, and their spiring forms not only compose well with the cupola in any distant view, but also give effect and elevation to the western front, to which they particularly belong: nor are they without parts of considerable beauty.

Each tower is decorated with columns, urns, statues, &c. and terminated by a majestic pine.

On the north and south sides of the cathedral, at each end of the principal transept, is a grand semi-circular portico, formed by Corinthian columns, feet each in diameter, supporting a half dome, above which rises a well-proportioned pediment, having a sculpture in the tympanum; that on the north side, represents the royal arms, and regalia, supported by angels; and that on the south, the phoenix rising from the flames, before described. The ascent to the north portico is by a semi-circular flight of about steps, of Irish black marble; but on the south side, where the ground is considerably lower, the ascent is formed by a flight of similar steps. It has been judiciously observed of these porticoes, that

they are objects equally beautiful, whether considered separately or in connection with the total mass of the building, which they adorn and diversify, by the contrast of curved with straight lines, and of insulated columns with engaged pilasters.

The projecting semi-circle which terminates the east end, is of fine proportion, and properly enriched with architectural ornaments. The remainder of the vast outer walls of the fabric is of excellent masonry, strengthened as well as decorated by stories of coupled pilasters, arranged at regular distances; those above being of the composite order, and those below of the Corinthian. The intervals between the Corinthian pilasters are occupied by

312

large windows, serving to light the side aisles, &c. and those between the composite pilasters by ornamented niches, in the pedestals of which are singularly inserted windows, belonging to rooms and galleries over the aisles.

In the whole surface of the walling, the joints of the stones are marked by horizontal and perpendicular channels; a simple decoration, which, while it gives a vigorous expression of strength and stability, has the advantage of defining and rendering conspicuous the pilasters and entablatures.

The entire summit of the side walls is surmounted by a regular ballustrade; but the continuity of line is judiciously broken by the superior elevation of the pediments of the transept, and by the large statues of the apostles ( on each side) which stand upon them.

The dome, or cupola, as it may with more propriety be termed,

is the most remarkable and magnificent feature of the building.

This rises from a huge circular basement, which, at the height of about feet above the roof of the church, gives place to a Corinthian colonnade, formed by a circular range of columns; every intercolumniation being filled up with masonry, so disposed as to form an ornamental niche, or recess; an arrangement by which the projecting buttresses of the cupola are most judiciously concealed,

and thus, by a happy combination of profound skill and exquisite taste, a construction, adapted to oppose with insuperable solidity the enormous pressure of the dome, the cone, and the lantern, is converted into a decoration of the most grand and beautiful character. The columns being of a large proportion, and placed at regular intervals, are crowned with a complete entablature, which continuing without a single break, forms an entire circle, and thus connects all the parts into

one

grand and harmonious whole. It has been said, with some justice, that these columns are too high in proportion to those of the body of the building; as they are indeed but little less than the lower, and larger than the upper order. This incongruity would not have existed had circumstances allowed the architect to construct the main edifice of a single order; but being baffled in this, his original intention, it would have been too great a sacrifice to have given up the peristyle, the noblest feature of the building, or to have considerably diminished the proportion of the cupola.

As all the buttresses are pierced with arcades, there is a free communication round this part of the cupola; and the entablature of the peristyle supports a circular gallery, surrounded with a ballustrade. Above the colonnade, but not resting upon it, rises an attic story with pilasters and windows, from the entablature of which springs the exterior dome; this is »of a bold and graceful contour, covered with lead, and ribbed at regular intervals. Round the aperture, at its summit, is another gallery, or balcony, and from the center rises the stone lantern, which is surrounded

313

with Corinthian columns, and crowned by the majestic ball and cross, that terminate the fabric.

On viewing the interior of from the great west entrance, the eye dwells with much admiration on the grandeur of the perspective; though, on a more attentive examination, the ponderous masses of its vast piers are found to give a heaviness to the prospect, and the side aisles are discovered to be disproportionably narrow. In its interior form, the edifice is entirely constructed upon the plan of the ancient cathedrals, viz. that of a long cross, having a nave, choir, transepts, and side aisles; but, in place of the lofty tower, the dome in this building rises in elevated grandeur from the central intersection. The

architectural detail is in the Roman style, simple and regular.

The piers and arches which divide the nave from the side aisles, are ornamented with columns and pilasters, both of the Corinthian and of the composite orders, and are further adorned with shields, festoons, chaplets, cherubim, &c.

The vaulting of this part of the church merits great praise for its light and elegant construction: in this, each severy forms a low dome, supported by spandrils, the base of the dome being encircled by a rich wreath of artificial foliage. This peculiar disposition of the vaulting is noticed in the

Parentalia,

which, after stating that sir Christopher chose hemispherical vaultings, as being

demonstrably much highter

than diagonal cross vaults, proceeds thus:

The whole vault of

St. Paul's

consists of

twenty-four

cupolas cut off semi-circular, with segments to join to the great arches

one

way, and which are cut across the other way with elliptical cylinders, to let in the upper lights of the nave; but in the aisles, the lesser cupolas are both ways cut into semi-circular sections, altogether making a graceful geometrical form (distinguished by circular wreaths) which is the horizontal section of the cupola; for the hemisphere may be cut all manner of ways into circular sections: the arches and wreaths are of stone, carved; the spandrils between are of sound brick, invested with stucco of cockle-shell lime, which becomes as hard as Portland stone, and which having large planes between the stone ribs, are capable of the further ornaments of painting.

The circular pannels, and the spandrils, of the vaulting of the aisles, are separated by shields, bordered with acanthus leaves, fruits, and flowers. The alcoves for the windows are finely disposed; and have their arches filled with sexagon, octagon, and other pannels. The whole church, above the vaulting, is substantially roofed with oak, covered with lead. The Morning-Prayer Chapel, on the south side, and the Consistory Court, on the north, occupy the respective extremities of the western transept, which is an elegant part of the building: these are divided from the aisles by insulated columns, and screens of ornamental carved work.

On proceeding forward, the central area below the dome next

314

engages attention: this is an octagon, formed by massive piers, with their correllative apertures, of which being those which terminate the middle aisles, are feet wide, while the others are only feet; but this disparity only exists as high as the order of pilasters, at which level the smaller openings are expanded in a peculiar manner, so that the main arches are all equal. The cathedral of Ely is, perhaps, the only other church, in this country, in which the central area, being pierced by the side aisles, has openings, instead of , which is the usual number.

This mode of construction has the advantage of superior lightness, it affords striking and picturesque views in various directions, and gives greater unity to the whole area of the building; yet, on the other hand, the junction of the side aisles in this fabric presented difficulties which have caused various defects and mutilations in the architecture.

The spandrils between the arches above, form the area into a circle,

which is crowned by a large cantilever cornice, partly supporting by its projection the

Whispering Gallery.
At this level commences the interior tambour of the dome, which consists of a high pedestal and cornice, forming the basement to a range of (apparently) fluted pilasters of the composite order, the intervals between which are occupied by windows and niches, all corresponding in situation with the intercolumniations and piers of the exterior peristyle:

all this part is inclined forward, so as to form the frustrum of a cone.

Above, from a double plinth, over the cornice of the pilasters, springs the internal dome; the contour being composed of segments of a circle, which, if not interrupted by the opening beneath the lantern, would have intersected at the apex.

The general idea of the dome was confessedly taken from the Pantheon at Rome, excepting, that in the latter,

the upper order is there hut umbratile; not extant out of the wall, as at

St. Paul's

, but only distinguished by different coloured marbles.

It differs also in its proportions, both from the cupola of the Pantheon, and from that of ; the former of which is

no higher within than its diameter, while

St. Peter's

is

two

diameters; this shows too high, the other too low: the surveyor at

St.Paul's

took a mean proportion, which shows its concave every way, and is very lightsome, by the windows of the upper order, which strike down the light through the great colonnade that encircles the dome, and serves for its butment.

The concave of the dome was turned upon a center, which was judged necessary to keep the work even and true (though a cupola might be built without a center); but this is observable, that the center was laid without any standards from below to support it; and as it was both centering and scaffolding, it remained for the use of the painter. Every story of this scaffolding being circular, and the ends of all the ledgers

meeting as so many rings, and truly wrought, it supported itself; this machine was an original of the kind.

The dome is

of brick,

two

bricks thick, but as it rises, at every

five

feet, it has a course of excellent brick of eighteen inches long, banding through the whole thickness;

for greater security, also, in the girdle of Portland stone which encircles the lower part, and is of considerable thickness, an enormous double chain of iron, strongly linked together at every feet, and weighing cwt. qrs. and lbs. was inserted in a channel cut for the purpose, and afterwards filled up with lead.

In the crown of the vault of this cupola is a circular opening (surrounded by a neatly railed gallery) through which the light is transmitted with admirable effect from the cone and lantern above, which, in compliance with the general wish, the architect found it necessary to construct, in order to give a greater elevation to the fabric.

In this respect,

says the

Parentalia,

the world expected that the new work should not fall short of the old; he was therefore obliged to comply with the humour of the age, and to raise another structure over the

first

cupola; and this was a cone of brick, so built as to support a stone lantern of an elegant figure, and ending in ornaments of copper, gilt.

Both the cone and the lantern are very ingeniously constructed; and the mechanism of the roof which supports the outward covering of lead, is contrived with equal skill and judgment. The cone is bricks in thickness, and is banded at different distances by a girdle of stone, and iron chains: here ranges of small elliptical apertures, and semi-circular headed windows above, admit the light from the lantern and from the openings round its pedestal. Between the lower part of the cone and the outer wall, at intervals of about feet, are strong cross wedges of stone (pierced with circles, &c.) each of which

supports

two

upright timbers, about

one

foot square, and reaching to the

fourth

gradation [of the roof] in the great arch of the enternal dome. The

second

horizontal timber is the base of the great ribs: under this are

two

ranges of scantling, the whole circumference of the circle; the lower

one

supported by

two

uprights between each wedge, and the other by

eight

, resting on the stone-work. The remaining horizontal pieces in the ascent,

four

in number, rest upon strong brackets of stone, inserted quite through the brick cone. Another series of uprights spring from the

second

row of brackets, which are secured by angular timbers, and the whole, at proper intervals, by strong bands of iron.

The ribs, which are about in number, are closely covered with oaken boards, and those again by the lead which forms the outward covering.

The choir is of the same form and architectural style as the body of the church. The east end is terminated by a bold sweep, or semi-circular apsis, with large windows below, and

316

smaller ones above: the soffits of these windows, as well as those of the aisles, are ornamented with sculptured foliage, and have festoons over them.

The prices that were paid for these, and for various other sculptures, in this part of the church, will be seen from the following particulars, extracted by Mr. Malcolm, from the books at .

Thomas Strong, mason, was paid as follows:--

For plain Portland stone-work, of the pilasters and rustics, window jams, architraves, and bosks, 16 1/2d. per foot. For carving faces of impost capitals. 61. each; pannels with flowers and enrichments, 3l. 5s. each; escalops in the heads of the outside niches, 31. 10. Two large compartments and festoons, each twelve feet in length, 451.; 75 great flowers, in the soffits of the five windows at the east end, 15s. each; and 60 smaller, 5s. each. Pendant strings, 3 feet 9 inches in length, and one foot in breadth, 51. each. Cherubim, 20s.; flowers in the architrave, 9s. each. Four festoons, over the two straight windows at the east end, 20l. each. Six festoons, over the three circular windows at the east end, 20l. each. Five cherubim, on the key-stones of the five east windows, at 13l. each key-stone. Three shields, each three feet high and four wide, 7l. each. Jasper Lathom, mason, received for work done on the north side, the door case, and two of the round pillars, the three-quarter pillar, and little three-quarter pillar, and for working and setting 1124 1/2 feet of Portland stone in the bodies of two pillars, the three quarters, and half the architraves of the door case, &c. 1121. 8s. 6d. For the ornaments over the same, 2s. per foot superficial. For masoning one three-fourth composite capital, one face and one half, 16. 6d.; for carving it, 121. A scroll and festoons, 151.; a cartouch under the cornice of the door-case, 4l. Half the long festoons and candlesticks over the doors, 17l. 10s. The capitals of the great pillars of the north and south porticoes, cost 60l. each, for the carving.

The difference between the dimensions of , at Rome, and , in London, extracted from Wren's Parentalia.

 St. Peter'sSt. Paul's 
 Roman Palms.English Feet.Fraction of a FootExcess of St. Peter's above St. Paul's 
Long within91466948500169
Broad at the entrance310226920100126
Front without540395280180215
Broad at the cross604442128223219
Cupola clear190 3/413962910831
Cupola and lantern high591432612330102
Church high20014640411036
Pillars in the front1259150040051Parentalia, p. 294. The proportion of the Roman palm to the English foot is as 732 is to 1000.--1000 = 732, 914 = 669, 048, and so of the rest, et infra.

In the Gentleman's magazine, the dimensions of the cathedrals are thus stated; but Mr. Brayley observes, with great truth, that there is evidently some mistake in respect to those of , as will be easily seen on comparing them with the measurements given above from the Parentalia.

 St. Peter'sSt. Paul's
 Feet.Feet.
Length of the church and porch729500
Length of the cross510250
Breadth of the front with the turrets364180
Breadth of the same without the turrets318110
Breadth of the church and three naves255130
Breadth of the same and widest chapels364180
Length of the porch within21850
Breadth of the same within4020
Length of the platea at the upper steps291100
Breadth of the nave at the door6740
Breadth of the nave at the third pillar and tribuna7340
Breadth of the side aisles2917
Distance between the pillars of the nave4425
Breadth of the same double pillars at St. Peter's29 
Breadth of the same single pillars at St. Paul's 10
The two right sides of the great pilasters of the cupola65 : 7 1/225 : 35
Distance between the same pilasters7240
Outward diameter of the cupola189146
Inward diameter of the same138108
Breadth of the square by the cupola43 
Length of the same328 
From the door within the cupola313190
From the cupola to the end of the tribuna167170
Breadth of the turrets7735
Outward diameter of the lantern3618

318

 St. Peter'sSt. Paul's
 Feet.Feet.
From the ground without, to the top of the cross437 1/2340
The turrets, as they were at St. Peter's, and are at St. Paul's289 1/2222
   
To the top of the highest statues on the front175135
The first pillars of the Corinthian order7433
The breadth of the same94
Their bases and pedestals1913
Their capitals105
The architrave, frieze, and cornice1910
The composite pillars at St. Paul's, and Tuscan at St. Peter's25 1/225
The ornaments of the same pillars, above and below14 1/216
The triangle of the mezzo-relievo, with its cornice22 1/218
Width9274
The basis of the cupola to the pedestals of the pillars36 1/238
The pillars of the cupola3228
Their bases and pedestals45
Their capitals, architrave, frieze and cornice1212
From the cornice to the outward slope of the cupola25 1/240
The lantern, from the cupola to the hall6350
The ball in diameter96
The cross, with its ornaments below146
The statues upon the front, with their pedestals25 1/215
The outward slope of the cupola8950
Cupola and lantern, from the cornice of the front to the top of the cross280240
Height of the niches in front2014
Width of the same95
The first windows in the front2013
Width of the same107

From a printed sheet relating to , published in , by Mr. John Tillison, clerk of the works, it appears that the general depth of the foundations below the surface of the church-yard is feet, and in many places feet, that

the fair, large, and stately vaults

beneath the church, are eighteen feet inches high from the ground to the crown of the arch; that each of the great piers that sustain the dome stands upon feet of ground. superficial measure, and each lesser upon feet; and that the whole space of ground occupied by the same piers, and covered by the dome itself,

contains half an acre, half a quarter of an acre, and almost

four

perches.

It was the intention of sir Christopher

to have beautified the inside of the cupola with the more durable ornament of Mosaicwork,

instead of having it decorated by painting, as it now is;

319

but in this he was unfortunately over-ruled, though he had engaged to have procured of the most eminent artists from Italy to execute the work. This spacious concave has, in consequence, been separated into compartments, by

a heavy fictitious architecture,

serving as a frame to as many pictures, by sir James Thornhill, from the most prominent events in the history of the patron saint; which, however excellent they may have been in their original designs, are now, either through the damps or some other cause, in a most lamentable state of decay. The subjects are as follow: The Conversion of St. Paul; his Punishing Elymas, the Sorceror, with Blindness; his Preaching at Athens; his Curing the poor Cripple at Lystra, and the reverence paid him there by the priests of Jupiter, as a God; his Conversion of the Jailor; his Preaching at Ephesus, and the burning of the Magic Books in consequence of the Miracles he wrought there; his Trial before Agrippa; and his Shipwreck on the Island of Melita, with the Miracle of the Viper. For these performances, which seem to have been executed with much animation and relief, we are informed, by Walpole, that the artist could obtain only

40s.

a square yard.

All the lower parts of these paintings have utterly perished, through some cause which has affected the plastering in a deep circle round the whole of the concave. Mr. Malcolm supposes it to have arisen from the admission of the external damp,

probably occasioned by the platform on the great pillars without the dome;

yet, as we find from the

Parentalia

that, besides other precautions, the architect had all the joints

run with lead,

wherever he was obliged

to cover with stone only;

this conjecture would seem to be incorrect. Mr. Brayley conceives that the vibrations given to the dome by the thundering sound produced by the violently closing the door of the whispering gallery (for the amusement of the numerous visitors to this fabric) has shaken the stucco into dust through the frequent repetitions of the concussion. It is to he regretted, says Mr. Aikin,

that, instead of placing historical paintings, in a situation where the spectator can distinguish nothing but the most obvious and general effect, some other system of decoration had been adopted, such as the caissons of the Pantheon, which following and according with the architecture, instead of contradicting it, would have defined and embellished its forms.

The best station for viewing the paintings and other decorations of the cupola, is the whispering gallery, the ascent to which is by a spacious circular stair-case, constructed in the south-west projection of the principal transept. This gallery encircles the lower part of the dome, and extends to the extreme edge of the great cantilever cornice, but is rendered perfectly safe by a strong and handsomely wrought gilt railing, that surrounds the inner circumference. Here the forcibly shutting the door causes a strong reverberating sound,

320

not unlike the rolling of thunder, accompanied by a sensible vibration in the building; and a low whisper breathed against the wall, in any part of this vast circle, may be accurately distinguished by an attentive ear on the opposite side. Round the space between the railing and the wall are steps and a stone seat. The decayed state of the paintings, and the mutilations of the stucco-work, are very apparent from this gallery, but the dome itself is completely sound, not a single stone being either deranged or broken; a circumstance that must be regarded as demonstrative of the admirable manner in which it is constructed, particularly when considered in reference to the very considerable settlement that took place among the sustaining piers.

From the gallery upward to the next range of cornice, the surrounding wall is quite plain and unornamented; the cornice is enriched with sculptures of shells, and acanthus leaves, most richly gilt, as are the bases and capitals of the pilasters above, which correspond with the outward colonnade. The pannels under the niches, and the compartments over them, are finely sculptured with festoons and foliage, well gilt; but the festoons beneath the windows, like the flutings of the pilasters, are only painted resemblances, and are now sadly decayed. The architrave and cornice which surmount the pilasters are superbly gilt; as also are the scrolls, festoons, wreaths, and other decorations of the fictitious frame-work to the paintings by sir James Thornhill. The ornamental pannels and roses above them, to the opening of the vault, and the cornice, festoons, shells, roses, &c. in the upper part of the cone which is seen through it, and terminate the view, are likewise highly enriched by gilding.

The circular stair-case, which leads to the whispering gallery, contracts on approaching it, to give room for various passages, through the apertures of which the immense buttresses of the dome may be seen. It communicates besides with the long galleries over the side aisles; these are paved with stone, and crossed at intervals by the enormous strong arches and buttresses which support the walls and roof of the nave.

From the end of the south gallery, the passage continues through the substance of the wall into the northern transept, in the south angle of which, and immediately over the consistory, is the library.

321

 

The north and south sides of this apartment are formed by strong piers or pilasters,

whose fronts are finely sculptured into sculls, crowns, mitres, books, fruits, and flowers.

The cantalivers, and other ornaments of the oaken gallery in this room, were carved by Jonathan Maine, who was paid for each of the former. The ceiling is plain; but the floor, with more ingenuity than elegance, is entirely constructed with small pieces of oak, without either nail or peg, disposed into various geometrical figures. Over the chimney is a half-length portrait, said to be by sir James Thornhill, of Dr. Henry Compton, the worthy bishop who held this see during the principal part of the time of the erection of the cathedral. He is represented sitting, with flowing hair, and a grave countenance, and in his hand is a plan of . This prelate bequeathed his books to the library, which is not, however, valuable as a collection, and contains but few manuscripts; among them are several ancient calendars and missals, on vellum, and a curious, illuminated manuscript, or ritual, in old English, respecting the government of a convent, the performance of offices, &c. which belonged to the ancient catholic establishment of this church. The oldest printed books are, Here are also, Walton's

Polyglot bible;

and eighteen English bibles, printed between the years and . of the latest works added to the library is the in folio volumes, interleaved, this was presented, in , by the Rev. Mr. Mangey, a prebendary of the church, and son to the learned doctor who made the notes and collections.

At the opposite extremity of the transept, and exactly corresponding in situation and dimensions with the library, is another spacious apartment, in which is kept the beautiful model constructed by sir Christopher Wren, and before noticed. Here, also, is the remains of a model, designed by sir Christopher for the altar-piece, but never executed.

Westward from the library is a door, communicating with the grand geometrical stair-case, which leads down to the lower part of the church, and appears to have been more especially intended for the use of persons of distinction, but is now seldom beheld, excepting by the eye of curiosity. This is, perhaps, the finest specimen of the kind in Great ; the stairs are in number, and go round the concave in a spiral direction; the base being formed by a platform, inlaid with black and white marble, to represent a star, inclosed by a circle. Here, facing the door that connects the lower part with the church, is a beautiful niche, decorated with grotesque pilasters, and rich iron-work.

In the south-western tower is the clock, and the great bell on

322

which it strikes. The former is of great magnitude: it is wound up daily, and the outward dial is regulated by a smaller withinside. The length of the minute hand is feet, and its weight ; the length of the hour hand is feet inches, and its weight ; the diameter of the dial is eighteen feet inches; and the length of the hour figures is feet inches and a half. The great bell is sustained by a strong frame of oak,

admirably contrived to distribute the weight on every side of the tower,

within a cylinder of stone, pierced with apertures. The diameter of this bell is about feet, and its weight is generally stated at tons and a quarter: in the direction of the wind its sound may be heard many miles; on it are the words,

RICHARD PHELPS MADE ME,

1716

.

The quarters are struck on smaller bells, that hang near the former . The great bell is never used, excepting for the striking of the hour, and for tolling at the deaths and funerals of any of the royal family, the bishops of London, and the lord mayor, should the latter die in his mayoralty.

The ascent to the whispering gallery is sufficiently convenient, but the avenues contract on approaching the stone gallery which surrounds the exterior dome above the colonnade. The view from hence is extensive and impressive, yet by no means equals the prospect that is obtained at the superior elevation of the golden gallery, which crowns the apex of the cupola, at the base of the lantern. From this height, when the atmosphere is clear, the surrounding country, to a great extent, seems completely under the eye, and even the capital, extensive as it is, with all its dependant villages, appears to occupy but an inconsiderable portion of the vast expanse that lies spread out before the sight. This view, though, perhaps, the finest in all London, can seldom be enjoyed, owing to the clouds of smoke which, arising from the numerous coal fires, almost continually hang over the city; the best time is early on a summer morning.

The occasional gloom and partial inconvenience of the ascent to the golden gallery, which is carried up between the outward roof and the cone, by steep flights of stairs, is another cause of the prospect being seldom beheld; for many of the visitors to the cathedral cannot prevail on themselves to undergo the fatigue, and

323

apprehended danger. Still fewer are induced to explore their way into the copper ball which crowns the lantern, though the additional exertion is sufficiently repaid to the curious, by the inspection of the ingenious contrivances and mechanism that may be seen in the ascent; this is principally by ladders, and a step or in of the enormous brazen feet that partly sustains the ball itself, which is capacious enough to contain persons without particular inconvenience. The weight of the ball is stated to be lbs.; and that of the cross, to which there is no entrance, lbs.; the diameter of the ball is feet inches. The entire ascent to this elevation is said to include steps; of which the lead to the whispering gallery, and the to the golden gallery.

The choir and its aisles are separated from the body of the church by iron rails and gates, curiously and even elegantly wrought. The entrance to the choir is immediately beneath the organ gallery; this is supported by small Corinthian columns of blue and white veined marble, for each of which Mr. Edward Strong was paid In front is the following inscription (in gold letters) which formerly appeared only over the grave of the great architect whom it commemorates, but has been repeated here, as the more appropriate situation, in accordance with the suggestion of the late Robert Mylne, esq. clerk of the works to .

SUBTUS . CONDITUR . HUJUS . ECCLESIAE . ET . URBIS

CONDITOR .

CHRISTOPHORUS WREN.

QUI. VIXIT

ANNOS . ULTRA . NONAGINTA . NON . SIBI . SED

BONO . PUBLICO . LECTOR . S

1

. MONUMENTUM . REQUIRIS

CIRCUMSPICE.

OBIIT. XXV. FEB. ANNO . MDCCXXIII .

AETAT

91

.

Beneath lies , the builder of this church, and of this city; who lived upwards of years, not for himself, but for the public good. READER! wouldst thou search out his monument?

The organ is of the finest instruments of the kind in the kingdom: it was constructed by a German, named Bernard Smidt, or Schymdt, (Smith) who, in , entered into a contract with the commissioners to erect the great organ, (and a choir organ) for and, so faithfully was his engagement performed, that it is supposed that a similar could not now be built for less than double that sum. The pipes, the original gilding of which appears perfectly fresh and brilliant, are preserved from dust by a heavy-looking case, with old-fashioned sashes; the glazing of which cost and is formed by

forty-eight

glass plates of chrystal,

two

feet

one

inch long, and eighteen inches broad, at

twenty-six shillings

each ;

twenty-six

others,

twenty-five

inches by

twenty-one

, at

thirty shillings

each; and

two

,

twenty-one

inches by

fourteen

, at

sixteen shillings

each.

* The caryatides, fruits, flowers, and other figures which adorn the organ-case, are admirably carved, but the sashes have the effect of impeding the sound. The organ was entirely taken to pieces and repaired in the year , by a Swedish artist and his partner, and the tones are said to have been improved

into exquisite softness and harmony.

The choir was completed about the year . On each side is a range of stalls, independent of the bishop's throne on the south side, and the lord mayor's on the north. These, though not remarkable for their elegance of design, are most beautifully ornamented with carvings, by Grinling Gibbons, of whose unrivalled excellence Walpole thus eloquently speaks:

There is no instance of a man, before Gibbons, who gave to wood the loose and airy lightness of flowers, and chained together the various productions of the elements, with a free disorder, natural to each species.

The sums paid to Gibbons are thus stated in extracts from the books at , made by Mr. Malcolm.

Payments to Grinling Gibbons for the carvings inside the choir.

For upper cimas of the great cornice, carved with leaves, at per foot, over the prebends' stalls.

The chaptering of the parapet, upper cimas, and member of the corona, with lace and leaves, at per foot.

The moulding in the cistals, member enriched, per foot.

Coping on the cartouches, member enriched, per foot.

The small O. G. on the corona of the bishop, and lord mayor's thrones, per foot.

For the lower cima in the bottom of the -inch cornice, at per foot.

The cima and casements round the stalls, per foot.

The small cima on the top of the imposts over the prebends' heads, per foot.

The hollow of the impost leaves, per foot.

The swelling friezes, with grotesque enrichments, per foot; and the grotesque enrichments round the openings in the women's gallery, per foot.

The scrolls in the partition pilasters in the stalls, per foot.

The leaning scrolls, or elbows, each; the frieze on the thrones, per foot; pedestals, grotesque in the front, each.

The great modillion cornices, members enriched, . per foot.

The leaved cornice on the stone pilasters, per foot.

The Corinthian quarter capitals, each; the whole ones, each.

325

 

Grotesque capitals in the choir, each.

Total charge,

The general effect on entering the choir is magnificent; yet the interest is partially destroyed by the insignificance of the altar, and the want of grandeur in the chancel; for though the original decorations were showy, they were not impressive, and are now disfigured. The railing which encloses the chancel is

clumsy and inelegant;

the ceiling has been painted in imitation of veined marble, as well as the semicircular recess, excepting the pannels below the windows, which are of white marble, set in dark variegated borders; but these are now much corroded, and have lost their polish. This is also the case with the chancel-pavement, which is also laid in geometrical figures, with porphyry and other rich-coloured marbles. The altar-piece is decorated with fluted pilasters, painted with ultra-marine and veined with gold, in imitation of lapis lazuli, and their capitals are richly gilt: the foliage of the frieze, the palm and laurel branches, &c. are also resplendent with gilding. The marble pannelling between the intercolumniations consists of squares, under each window.

The painting and gilding of the architecture of the east end of the church, over the communion-table, was intended only to serve the present occasion, till such time as materials could have been procured for a magnificent design of an altar, consisting of

four

pillars, wreathed, of the richest Greek marbles, supporting a canopy hemispherical, with proper decorations of architecture and sculpture; for which the respective drawings and a model were prepared. Information, and particular descriptions of certain blocks of marble, were once sent to the right hon. Dr. Henry Compton, bishop of London, from a Levantine merchant in Holland, and communicated to the surveyor, but unluckily the colours and scantlings did not answer his purpose; so it rested, in expectance of a fitter opportunity, else probably this curious and stately design had been finished at the same time with the main fabric.

The model here spoken of was that of which a part is now remaining in the trophy-room, as before mentioned. The present pulpit was designed by the late Mr. Mylne, and erected about years ago; it is a costly fabric, and not inelegant in parts, yet rather heavy; the rich carving is by Wyatt and an ingenious Frenchman. The reader's desk, which is a fine example of its kind, is entirely of brass, richly gilt, and consists of an eagle, with expanded wings, supported by a pillar, and inclosed within a handsome gilt brass railing.

The pavement, as well of the choir as of the body and aisles of the church, is of black and white marble, neatly disposed, and

326

particularly so in the area below the dome: here, round a brass plate in the centre, pierced (to throw light into the vaults) with lyre-shaped openings, and otherwise ornamented, a large diamond star, of points, is formed with black and variegated marble; this again is surrounded by a double circle, inclosing lozenge-shaped squares, and more outward to the extremity of the area, extensive circle of black marble bounds the whole; the systematic arrangement is continued by smaller circles and other figures.

The

sullen grandeur,

as it has been aptly styled, of the interior of , is not in any degree to be attributed to sir Christopher Wren, who was fully sensible of its deficiency in ornament, and greatly wished to have relieved the architectural masses both by sculptures and by paintings; but being subjected to

the restrictions of men utterly devoid of taste,

he was unable to carry his intentions into practice. An attempt to remedy this objectionable destitution was made, about the year , by the president and principal members of the Royal Academy, who most liberally offered to paint various pictures, without charge, to fill some of the vacant compartments. This offer, however, was not solely made through the wish of supplying the want of ornament in the cathedral, but partly from a feeling that the art of painting

would never meet with due encouragement in England till it was admitted into churches, where grand religious subjects contribute to exalt the ideas of the multitude to a just conception of the divinity.

The dean and chapter highly approved of the offer, which was communicated to bishop Newton by sir Joshua Reynolds; his majesty also concurred with the proposal. The then archbishop of Canterbury, however, and Dr. Terrick, who was promoted to this see in , thought proper to discountenance the whole plan (which fell to the ground in consequence of their opposition) on the futile principle, that popular clamours would be excited by the idea that

popery and the saints were again to be admitted into our churches.

Within the space of years after the above period, another scheme was suggested, and has happily been carried into effect, for breaking the monotonous uniformity of the architectural masses. This was the admission into the cathedral of those monuments of the great deceased, which may, with strict propriety, be denominated national; not altogether from their being always executed at the public expense, and thus announcing the admiring veneration of a grateful country, but from their being raised in commemoration of characters either eminent for their virtues, for their

327

talents, or for their heroism; and long, very long, may the time be distant, when the mere circumstance of rank or of office shall be judged sufficient to give the privilege of monumental record in this sacred fane!

The decease of Howard, the philanthropist, who expired at Cherson, in Russian Tartary, in , was the immediate event that led to the erection of monuments in this church. It was then suggested by the late Rev. John Pridden, of the minor canons of , that the dean and chapter should be solicited for permission to erect a statue of this excellent man in the cathedral; a requisition which, with the according consent of the late bishop, Dr. Beilby Porteus, was readily granted; but it was at the same time intimated, that as this would become a precedent for future applications,

no monument should be erected without the design being

first

approved of by a committee of the royal academicians,

a determination which has been hitherto strictly abided by; though it was very early seen, that from the influence of some unexplained , the ultimate decision was not intended to be given to the committee.

Though the permission for Howard's statue was granted, that of the celebrated Dr. Johnson was erected. This was executed by the late excellent artist John Bacon, esq. R. A. in the year . In this figure the sculptor has acknowledgedly aimed at

a magnitude of parts, and a grandeur of style,

that should accrue with the masculine sense and nervous phraseology which characterizes the writings of our great moralist. He is represented in a Roman toga, with the right arm and breast naked, and in an attitude of intense study. The expression of his countenance is mingled with severity, as being most suitable to his vigour of thinking, and the complexional character of his works; and he appears leaning against a column, to express the firmness of his mind, and the stability of his maxims. The inscription on the pedestal was written by Dr. Parr; it is as follows:

*a*R *x*w

Samuel Johnson

, Grammatico. et Critico. Scriptorvm. Anglicorum, Litterate. perito. poetae. lvminibus. Sententiarvm et. ponderibvs. verborvm. admirabili magistro. virtvtis. gravissimo homini. optimo. et. singvlaris. exempli qvi visit. ann. lxxv. mens. iI. dies. xiiil decessit. idib. Decembr. Ann Christ cIC.Iccc.lxxxiiil. sepvlt. in. aed. Sanct. Petr. Westmonasteriens xiiI. kal. Janvar Ann. Christ. cIc.Iccc.lxxxv amici. et. sodales. litterarii pecvnia. conlata H. M facivnd. cvraver.

The statue of Howard, which occupies a situation corresponding with that of Dr. Johnson, viz. an angle in front of of the smaller piers of the dome, is also from the chisel of Bacon, who agreed to execute it for the sum of guineas. The Roman costume is again

328

employed in this figure; the attitude is intended to give the idea of motion, by the body being advanced upon the right foot, which is placed considerably forward: in hand is a key, to

express the circumstance of his exploring dungeons,

and in the other a scroll of papers, with the words-

Plan for the Improvement of Prisons,

written on ; and on the corner of a , the word

Hospitals.

Under the feet of the statue are chains and fetters, and behind another paper, with the word

Regulations:

on the pedestal in front, is a bas-relief, representing

a scene in a prison, where Mr. Howard having broken the chains of the prisoners, is bringing provision and cloathing for their relief.

Over the bas-relief is ; and on the left of the pedestal the following inscription, from the pen of the late Samuel Whitbread, esq.

This extraordinary man had the fortune to be honoured. whilst living, in the manner which his virtues deserved. He received the thanks of both Houses of the British and Irish Parliaments, for his eminent services rendered to his country and to mankind, our national prisons and hospitals, improved upon the suggestions of his wisdom, bear testimony to the solidity of his judgment, and to the estimation in which he was held in every part of the civilised world, which he traversed to reduce the sum of human misery. From the throne to the dungeon, his name was mentioned with respect, gratitude, and admiration! His modesty alone defeated various efforts that were made during his life to erect this statue, which the public has now consecrated to his memory! He was born at Hackney, in the county of Middlesex,

Sept. 2, 1726

. The early part of his life he spent in retirement, residing principally on his paternal estate at Cardington, in Bedfordshire, for which county he served the office of sheriff in the year

1773

. He expired at Cherson, in Russian Tartary, on the

20th Jan. 1790

, a victim to the perilous and benevolent attempt to ascertain the cause of, and find an efficacious remedy for, the plague. He trod an open, but unfrequented, path to immortality , in the ardent and unintermitted exercise of Christian charity. May this trbute to his fame excite an emulation of his truly glorious achievements!

In another correspondent angle below the dome is a statue by Bacon, erected in the year , to the memory of sir William Jones,

one

of the judges of the supreme court of judicature at Fort William, Bengal,

where he died on the . This, like the former, is a standing figure (having in the left hand a roll of paper, inscribed,

Plan of the Asiatic Society;

and in the right a pen,) resting upon a volume, inscribed

Translation of the Institutes of Menu,

which is placed, with others, on a square pedestal, sculptured with a lyre, armillary sphere, compass, sword and scales, &c. all intended as emblems of the various acquirements of this learned man. In front of the pedestal is a bas-relief, representing Study and Genius unveiling oriental science; on the right, is the following inscription:

To the memory of sir

William Jones

, knight,

one

of the judges of the supreme court of judicature at Fort William in Bengal. This statue was erected by the hon. East-India Company, in testimony of their grateful sense of his public services, their admiration of his genius and learning, and their respect for his character and virtues. He died in Bengal, on the

24th April, 1794

, aged

47

.

329

 

The base of the north-west pier is occupied by the statue of sir Joshua Reynolds, the president of the royal academy, in the doctor of law's gown, his right hand holding his

discourses to the royal academy.

and his left resting on a pedestal, attached to which is a medallion of M. Angelo.

Sir Joshua Reynolds was buried in the crypt of this cathedral, A. D. .

Joshua Reynolds

, pictorum sui seculi facile pricipi, et splendore et commissuris colorum, alternis vicibus luminis et umbrae sese mutuo excitantium, vix ulli veterum secundo; qui cum samma artis gloria uteretur et morum suavitate et vitae elegantia perinde commendaretur; artem etiam ipsam per orbem terrarum languentem et prope intermortuam exemplis egregie venustis suscitavit, praeceptis exquisite conscriptis illustravit, atque emendatiorem et expolitiorem posteris exercendam tradidit; laudum ejus fautores et amici hanc statuam posuerunt A. S. MDCCCXIII. nalus die xvi mensis julii MDCCXXIII. mortem obiit die XXIII Februarii MDCCXCII.

At corner of the ledge above the pedestal

Flaxman, R. A. sculptor.

The monumental honours for lord Nelson, by Mr. Flaxman, occupy a distinguished place against of the great piers between the dome and the choir.

The statue of lord Nelson, dressed in the pelisse received from the Grand Signor, leans on an anchor. Beneath, on the right of the hero, Britannia directs the attention of young seamen to Nelson, their great example. The British lion on the other side guards the monument.

The figures on the pedestal represent the North Sea, the German Ocean, the Nile, and the Mediterranean. On the cornice are the words Copenhagen, Nile, Trafalgar.

Erected at the public expense to the memory of Vice-Admiral Horatio Viscount Nelson, K. B. to record his splendid and unparallelled achievements during a life spent in the service of his country, and terminated in the moment of victory by a glorious death, in the memorable action off Cape Trafalgar, on the XXI of October MDCCCV. Lord Nelson was born on the XXIX of September, MDCCLVIII. The battle of the Nile was fought on the 1 of August, MDCCXCVIII. The battle of Copenhagen on the 11 of April, MDCCCI.

In a pannel above this monument is a mural tablet in commemoration of captain Duff, who was killed in the same battle. It is by J. Bacon, jun. and consists of a small antique sarcophagus (on the front of which is a sculptured medallion of the deceased) a figure of Britannia on the right, holding a wreath of laurel over the sarcophagus, and on the left asailor, relieved from a naval flag, reclining his head, in sorrow, upon the edge of the pedestal.

Erected at the public expense to the memory of

Captain George Duff

. who was killed XXI of Oct. MDCCCV, commanding the Mars in the battle of Trafalgar, in the

forty-second

year of his age, and the

twenty-ninth

of his service.

Opposite to lord Nelson's monument, is that to the memory of Marquis Cornwallis, by Mr. Charles Rossi.

330

 

The design consists of a pyramidical group. On a circular pedestal (or rather a truncated column) is placed the figure of lord Cornwallis standing in the robes of the most noble order of the garter. The principal figures forming the base of this group, are personifications of the British empire, in Europe and in the east; represented, not as mourners, but as doing honour to the memory of a faithful servant of the state, whose virtues and talents, during a long life, had been so eminently useful to his country.

The figure of the group is the Bagareth, of the great rivers in India; and the small on his right hand is the Ganges, being the right branch of the Bagareth. The Ganges is seated on a fish and a calabash.

To the memory of

Charles Marquis Cornwallis

, governor-general of Bengal, who died

5th October, 1805

, aged

66

, at Ghazeepore in the province of Benares, in his progress to assume the command of the army in the field. This monument is erected at the public expense, in testimony of his high and distinguished public character, his long and eminent public services, both as a soldier and a statesman, and the unwearied zeal with which his exertions were employed in the last moment of his life to promote the interest and honour of his country.

In the pannel above is an alto relievo by Mr. Westmacott, to the memory of captain John Cooke, of the Bellerophon.

Britannia mourning her hero, is consoled by of her children bringing her the trident; while another is playfully bearing her helmet. In the back ground is the prow of a vessel, to mark the work as a naval monument.

Erected at the public expense to the memory of

Captain John Cooke

, who was killed commanding the Bellerophon in the battle of Trafalgar, in the

forty-fourth

year of his age, and the thirtieth year of his service.

In the south transept, against the south-west pier, is a monument by Mr. Banks in memory of captain Burgess, who gloriously fell in the battle fought with the Dutch, off Camperdown, by admiral Duncan. The faults and the excellences of this expansive piece of sculpture are singularly blended; yet it must be confessed that the former affect the conception or invention more than the execution; which, generally speaking, is deserving of high praise. The principal figures are those of Victory and the deceased, both of whom are standing on the opposite sides of a cannon, near which are coils of rope, balls, &c. Victory, who is a meagre and insipid figure, is in the act of presenting a sword to the brave Burgess, whose statue is finely expressive of heroic animation, but almost literally naked, a slate by far mote befitting the goddess herself than the representation of a naval officer. On the circular base or pedestal, in front, beneath the pannel with the inscription, is an aged captive, with a log-line and compass, sitting between the prows of ships, of which is antique, the other modern. At the sides are other figures, male and female, beautifully sculptured, and in a classical

331

taste, expressive of disgrace, discomfiture, and captivity; and in the spaces are antique shields, clubs, &c. All these figures are in bold relief, and their actions and attitudes finely indicative of defeat and shame. The inscription is as follows:--

Sacred to the memory of

Richard Rundle Burgess, Esq.

commander of His Majesty's ship Ardent, who fell in the

43

d year of his age, while bravely supporting the honour of the British flag, in a daring and successful attempt to break the enemy's line, near Camperdown, on the

11th of October, 1797

. His skill, coolness, and intrepidity, eminently contributed to a victory equally advantageous and glorious to his country. That grateful country, by the unanimous act of her legislature, enrolls his name high in the list of those heroes, who, under the blessing of Providence, have established and maintained her naval superiority and her exalted rank among nations.

Above this monument, on a pannel, is a group of sculpture to the memory of captain Hardinge.

The sanguinary and successful action which this monument records, having taken place in the East Indies, where the captain died, the Indian warrior bearing the victorious British standard, is seated by the side of the sarcophagus, while Fame, recumbent on its base, displays her wreath over the hero's name.

National, to

Geo. N. Hardinge, Esq.

captain of the St. Fiorenza,

26

guns,

186

men, who attacked on

three

successive days La Piedmontaise

50

guns

566

men, and fell near Ceylon in the path to victory,

8th March 1808

, aged

28

years.

This monument was the work of the late Mr. Charles Manning.

Against the opposite pier is another large monument, by Mr. C. Rossi, commemorating the fate and gallant exploit of the lamented captain Faulknor, who fell in battle in the West Indies. This intrepid officer (who is very injudiciously represented with a Roman sword in his right hand, and a Roman shield on his left aim, as if intended for a gladiator) is exhibited as in the moment of death, and falling into the arms of Neptune; the latter is a gigantic figure seated on a rock, with a slight portion of drapery thrown over his left knee and middle, and occupying the most central and prominent place in the composition; his form appears somewhat uncouth and his attitude ungracious: below him is a dolphin, and on his left the goddess Victory with a palm branch in her left hand and a wreath in her right, which she holds over the head of the dying hero. The lassitude resulting from the approach of death is well expressed in the figure of the captain; and the statue of Victory has merit. On the pedestal is the following inscription:--

This monument was erected by the British parliament to commemorate the gallant conduct of

Captain Robert Faulkner

, who on the

5th of January, 1795

, in the

thirty-second

year of his age, and in the moment of victory, was killed on board the Blanche frigate, while he was engaging La Pique, a French frigate of very superior force. The circumstances of determined bravery that distinguished this action, which lasted

five

hours, deserves to be recorded Captain Faulknor having observed the great superiority of the enemy, and having lost most of his

masts and rigging, watched an opportunity of the bowsprit of La Pique coming athwart the Blanche, and with his own hands lashed it to the capstern, and thus converted the whole stern of the Blanche into

one

battery; but unfortunately soon after this bold and daring manoeuvre, he was shot through the heart.

The pannel above contains a tabular monument by Mr. Flaxman, in which Britannia and Victory unite in raising captain Miller's medallion against a palm tree. The head of the Theseus, in which vessel the captain died off the coast of Acre, is by the side of Victory. On the palm tree under the medallion are the following words,

St. Vincent's. Nile.

Round the head represented on the medallion, is written,

To

Captain Willet Miller

this monument is inscribed by his companions in victory.

Against the south side of this pier is the statue of lord Heathfield, by Mr. Rossi. It represents the hero in a standing attitude, resting; in the uniform of the times, and wearing the order of the bath. In front of the pedestal, in alto relievo, is represented the British power at Gibraltar, by the warrior and the lion reposing, after having defended the rock, and defeated their enemies.

The female figure, holding wreaths in her right hand, and a palm branch in her left, presenting them to the hero, represents Victory and Peace.

Erected at the public expense to the memory of

General Geo. Aug. Elliott, Lord Heathfield, K. B.

In testimony of the important services which he rendered his country by his brave and gallant defence of Gibraltar, of which he was governor, against the combined attack of the French and Spanish forces, on the

13th of September, 1782

. He died on the

6th July, 1790

.

The monument to earl Howe, by Mr. Flaxman, is under the east window of the south transept. Britannia is sitting on a rostrated pedestal, holding the trident in her right hand; the earl stands by her, leaning on a telescope; the British lion is watching by his side.

History records in golden letters the relief of Gibraltar, and the defeat of the French fleet, . Victory (without wings) leans on the shoulder of History, and lays a branch of palm on the lap of Britannia.

Erected at the public expense, to the memory of

Admiral Earl Howe

, in testimony of the general sense of his great and meritorious services, in the course of a long and distinguished life, and in particular for the benefit derived to his country by the brilliant victory which he obtained over the French fleet off Ushant

1st June, 1794

. He was born

19th March, 1726

, and died

5th August, 1799

, in his

74th

year.

Against the south wall of the same transept is a monument erected in memory of lord Collingwood, by Richard Westmacott, R. A.

The moment for illustration chosen in this composition is the arrival of the remains of lord Collingwood on the British shores. The

333

body, shrouded in the colours torn from the enemy, is represented on the deck of a man-of-war; in the hands of the hero is placed the sword, which he used with so much glory to himself, and to a grateful country.

On the foreground, attended by the genii of his confluent streams, is Thames, in a cumbent position, thoughtfully regarding Fame, who from the prow of the ship reclines over the illustrious admiral, and proclaims his heroic achievements.

The alto-relievo on the gunwale of the ship illustrates the progress of navigation. The genius of man discovering the properties of the nautilus, is led to venture on the expansive bosom of the ocean: acquiring confidence from success, he leaves his native landmarks, the stars his only guide. The magnet's power next directs his course; and now, to counteract the machinations of pirates and the feuds of nations, he forges the instruments of war.

Erected at the public expense to the memory of

Cuthbert lord Collingwood

, who died in the command of the fleet in the Mediterranean on board the Ville de Paris, VII March, MDCCCX, in the LXI year of his age. Wherever he served he was distinguished for conduct, skill, and courage; particularly in the action with the French fleet,

1 June

, MDCCXCIV, as captain of the Barfleur: in the action with the Spanish fleet XIV Feb. MDCCXCVII, as captain of the Excellent; but most conspicuously in the decisive victory off Cape Trafalgar, obtained over the combined fleets of France and Spain, to which he eminently contributed as vice admiral of the Blue, commanding the larboard division, XXI October, MDCCCV.

Adjoining the south door is a monument by Mr. Westmacott to the memory of and , who were killed at the battle of New Orleans. They are represented in their full uniforms, the arm of the resting on the shoulder of the other.

The statue of general Gillespie is on the other side of the door. He is represented in full military uniform, hand resting on a sword, and the other holding a roll of paper. The figure is very commanding, and was executed by Mr. Chantrey.

Erected at the public expense to the memory of

MAjor-General Robert Rollo Gillespie

, who fell gloriously on the

31st of October, 1814

, at the fortress of Kalunga, in the kingdom of Nepaul.

The monument of sir John Moore, by Mr. Bacon, represents his interment by the hands of Valour and Victory, while the genius of Spain (distinguished by the shield bearing the Spanish arms) is planting the victorious standard on his tomb. Victory lowers the general to his grave by a wreath of laurel.

Sacred to the memory of

LIeutenant-General Sir Jr Moore, K. B.

who born at Glasgow in the year

1761

. He fought for his country in America, in Corsica, in the West Indies, in Holland, Egypt, and Spain: and on the

16th of January 1809

, was slain by a cannon ball at Corunna.

334

 

Under the west window of this transept is the very noble equestrian monument of sir Ralph Abercromby, who was mortally wounded in Egypt, soon after the landing of the British troops in that country, in the year . This was erected in consequence of a vote of parliament, by R. Westmacott, R. A. about . The brave and able general, who is the subject of this memento, is represented as wounded, and falling from his horse into the arms of an attendant Highlander. Both figures are arrayed in the proper costume of their respective stations: and below the fore-feet of the horse, which is springing forward in a very spirited attitude, is the naked body of a fallen foe. The position of the Highland soldier is well conceived and judiciously balanced, so as to sustain the additional weight of the general without exhibiting any indication of weak or inefficient power. The countenance of the immortal Abercromby, though languid, displays a placid dignity, highly expressive of the strength of mind and undaunted heroism which distinguished his character. Upon the freestone plinth of this monument, and on each side of the principal group, is a large figure of the Egyptian sphinx; and the following inscription is on the circular base, below the principal figures--:

Erected at the public expense, to the memory of

Lieut. Gen Sir Ralph Abercromby, K. B.

commander-in-chief of an expedition directed against the French in Egypt; who, having surmounted with consummate ability and valour, the obstacles opposed to his landing, by local difficulties, and a powerful and well-prepared enemy, and, having successfully established and maintained the successive positions necessary for conducting his further operations, resisted, with signal advantage, a desperate attack of chosen and veteran troops, on the

21st of March, 1801

, when he received, early in the engagement, a mortal wound; but remained in the field, guiding by his direction, and animating by his presence, the brave troops under his command, until they had atchieved the brilliant and important victory obtained on that memorable day. The former actions of a long life, spent in the service of his country, and thus gloriously terminated, were distinguished by the same military skill, and by equal zeal for the public service, particularly during the campaigns in the Netherlands, in

1783

and

94

; in the West Indies, in

1796

and

97

; and in Holland, in

1799

; in the last of which the distinguished gallantry and ability with which he effected his landing on the Dutch coast, established his position in the face of a powerful enemy, and secured the command of the principal fort and arsenal of the Dutch republic, were acknowledged and honoured by the thanks of both houses of parliament. Sir Ralph Abercromby expired on board the Foudroyant, on the

28th of March, 1801

, in his

66th

year.

In the western ambulatory of the south transept is a tabular monument to the memory of sir Isaac Brock, by Mr. Westmacott: it represents a military monument, on which are placed the sword and helmet of the deceased; a votive record, supposed to have been raised by his companions to their honoured commander.

His corpse reclines in the arms of a British soldier, whilst an Indian pays the tribute of regret his bravery and humanity elicited.

Erected at the public expense to the memory of

Major General Sir Isaac Brock

, who gloriously fell on the

13th of October

, M.D.CCCXII. in resisting an attack on Queenstown, in Upper Canada.

335

 

In the east ambulatory of the same transept, over the door leading to the crypt, is a tabular monument, by Mr. J. Kendrick, to the memory of , who was killed at Baltimore in the last American war. The design represents Valour laying an American flag upon the tomb of the departed warrior, on which Britannia is recumbent in tears; while Fame is descending with the laurel to crown his bust.

The monument, executed by Mr. Chantrey, to the memory of colonel Cadogan, occupies the opposite pannel. The design is historical. When colonel Cadogan was mortally wounded at the battle of Vittoria, he caused his men to place him on an eminence, whence he might contemplate the victory he had assisted to achieve. He is here represented borne off in the arms of his soldiers with his face to the enemy; his troops having broken the enemy's ranks with their bayonets. of the enemy's eagles, with its bearer, is represented as trodden on the ground, while another standard bearer is turning to fly. The soldiers who support their leader appear waving their hats in the moment of victory.

Erected at the public expense to the memory of

Colonel the Honble. Henry Cadogan

, who fell gloriously in the command of a brigade in the memorable battle of Vittoria,

21st June 1813

, when a complete victory was gained over the French army by the allied forces under the marquis of Wellington. Colonel Cadogan was son of Charles Sloane Earl Cadogan, born

28th Feb. 1780

.

Against the east pier of the north transept is a magnificent group of sculpture, in commemoration of major-general Thomas Dundas, who died of the yellow fever in the West Indies, on the . It was executed in , by J. Bacon, jun. and is a very fine and spirited performance. Britannia, with her attendant lion couchant, is here represented in the act of encircling the bust of the deceased with a laurel wreath, whilst at the same time she

is receiving under her protection the genius of the captured islands,

another full-length female figure

bearing the produce of the various settlements,

having a youthful form, and a countenance expressive of sensibility. At her feet is an infant boy with an olive branch, and behind a trident. The bust is sustained on a circular pedestal, on which is a bas-relief of Britannia giving protection to a fugitive female against the pursuit of other figures representing Deceit and Oppression.

Major-General Thomas Dundas

died

June 3rd, 1794

, aged

44

years; the best tribute to whose merit and public services will be found in the following vote of the

House of Commons

for the erection of this memorial.

5th June, 1795

. Resolved,

nemine contradicente

, that an humble address be presented to his Majesty, that he will be graciously pleased to give directions, that a monument be erected in the cathedral church of Saint Paul, London, to the memory of major-general Thomas Dundas, as a testimony of the grateful sense entertained by this House of the eminent services which he rendered to his country, particularly in the reduction of the French West-India islands.

Above this a tabular monument to generals Mackenzie and Langworth. Victory laments the loss of her heroes, while the sons

336

of recount their valiant achievements. Against the tomb are wreaths, intimating the fall of warriors. of the boys bears the broken French imperial eagle, which he is displaying to the other. The helmet on the boy, and the wreath of oak on the head of the other, imply the military service, connected with its honours and rewards in the sons of .

This monument was executed from a design by the late Mr. Charles Manning.

National monument to

Major-General J. R. Mackenzie

and

Brigadier-General R. Langworth

, who fell at Talavera

July 26

, M.DCCC.IX.

Immediately opposite is a monument by the late J. Banks, R. A. executed , to the memory of Captain Westcott, who was killed in the battle of the Nile. The dying hero, a fine figure, in a falling attitude, is here supported by Victory; whose own position, however, is apparently very unstable, and excites the idea of comparative weakness. On the basement, in the centre, is a bas-relief of a gigantic figure intended for the god Nilus, with numerous naked boys, indicative of the various streams of the river Nile; and on each side are basso-relievos, representing the explosion of the L«Orient, and a vessel under sail.

Erected at the public expense to the memory of

George Blagdon Westcott

, captain of the Majestic; who after

33

years of meritorious service fell gloriously in the victory obtained over the French Fleet off Aboukir, the

first day of August

, in the year MDCCXCVIII, in the

forty-sixth

year of his age.

Above this monument is a tablet to the memory of generals Crauford and Mackinnon, by Mr. Bacon, junior.

The sculpture represents the hardy Highlander weeping over the tombs of his fallen commanders, while planting the standard between them. Victory alights, and places her wreath on the top of the standard, to mark the spot as sacred to the ashes of successful valour. The British lion, the imperial eagle, and the shield on which is embossed the arms of Spain, denote that the talents and operations of the generals when they fell, were directed against the French power in the Spanish dominions.

Erected by the Nation to

Major-General Robert Crauford

and

Major-General Henry Mackinnon

, who felt at Ciudad Rodrigo,

Jan. 18, 1812

.

Against the same pier, on the north side, is a colossal statue by Mr. Baily, of the late earl of St. Vincent, in full uniform, standing on a pedestal, and resting on a telescope. The bas-relief represents History recording the name of the deceased hero on a pyramid, while Victory laments his loss.

Erected at the public expense to the memory of

John Earl of St. Vincent

, as a testimony of his distinguished eminence in the naval service of his country, and as a particular memorial of the glorious and important victory which he gained over the Spanish fleet off Cape St. Vincent, on the

14th of February, 1797

. He died on the

13th of March, 1823

.

The recess under the west window of the north transept is occupied by a group in honour of lord Rodney, by Mr. Charles Rossi.

337

 

The principal figure is standing on a square pedestal, while Clio, the historic muse (who is seated), instructed by Fame, records the great and useful actions of this naval hero.

Erected at the public expense to the memory of

George Brydges Rodney

, K. B. lord Rodney, vice-admiral of England, as a testimony of the gallant and important services which he rendered to his country in many memorable engagements, and especially in that of

12 April, 1782

, when a brilliant and decisive victory was obtained over the French fleet; and an effectual protection was afforded to the West Indian Islands, and to the commercial interest of this kingdom, in the very crisis of the American war. Lord Rodney was born in

1718

. Died

24th May, 1792

.

On the north side of this transept is a monument to general Picton. It is by Mr. Gahagan; the design represents Genius and Valour rewarded by Victory. The group is surmounted by a bust of the general.

Erected at the public expense, to

Lieutenant-General Sir Thomas Picton, K. G. C. B.

who after distinguishing himself in the victories of Buzaco, Fuentes de Onor, Cuidad Rodrigo. Badajoz, Vittoria, the Pyrenees, Orthes, and Toulouse, terminated his long and glorious military service in the ever-memorable battle of Waterloo, to the splendid success of which his genius and valour eminently contributed, on xviii of June, MDCCCXV.

Near the north door is a monument by Mr. H. Hopper, to the memory of major-general Andrew Hay. He is represented falling into the arms of Valour, while a soldier stands lamenting the loss of his commander.

Erected at the public expense to the memory of

Major-General Andrew Hay

. He was born in the county of Banff in Scotland, and fell on the

14th April, 1814

, before the fortress of Bayonne in France, in the

52

d year of his age, and the

34th

of his services, closing a military life marked by zeal, prompt decision, and signal intrepidity.

On the opposite side of the north door of the cathedral is a monument by Mr. Chantrey, in honour of and . The design by the late Mr. Tollemache, represents Fame consoling Britannia for the loss of her heroes.

Erected at the public expense to the memory of

Major-Generals Arthur Gore

and

John Byrne Skerrett

, who fell gloriously while leading the troops to the assault of the fortress of Bergen-op-Zoom, in the night of the

8th

and

9th of March, 1814

.

The monument to the honourable sir William Ponsonhy was designed by William Theed, R. A., and since his death executed by Mr. E . H. Baily, A. R A. The composition represents the hero receiving a wreath from the hand of Victory in the moment of death.

Erected at the public expense to the memory of

Major General the Hon. Sir William Ponsoney

, who fell gloriously in the battle of Waterloo, on the

18th of June, 1815

.

The recess under the east window of the north transept is occupied with a monument to the memory of captains Mosse and Rion, by Mr. Charles Rossi. An insulated base contains a

338

sarcophagus, on the front of which, Victory and Fame place the medallions of the deceased officers.

The services and death of two valiant and distinguished officers, James Robert Mosse, captain of the Monarch, and Edward Riou, of the Amazon, who fell in the attack upon Copenhagen, conducted by lord Nelson 2nd April, 1801, are commemorated by this monument, erected at the national expense.

James Robert Mosse was born in 1746; he served as lieutenant several years under lord Howe, and was promoted to the rank of post captain in 1790.

To Edward Riou, who was born in 1762, an extraordinary occasion was presented, in the early part of his service, to signalize his intrepidity and presence of mind, which were combined with the moat anxious solicitude for the lives of those under his command, and a magnanimous disregard of his own. When his ship the Guardian struck upon an island of ice, in December, 1789, and afforded no prospect but that of immediate destruction to those on board, lieut. Riou encouraged all who desired to take their chance of preserving themselves in the boats to consult their safety; but judging it contrary to his duty to desert the vessel, he neither gave himself up to despair, nor relaxed his exertions; whereby, after ten weeks of the most perilous navigation he succeeded in bringing his disabled ship into port; receiving this high reward of fortitude and perseverance from the Divine Providence, on whose protection he relied.

Immediately opposite, a monument has been lately erected to the memory of lord Duncan, by Mr. Westmacott.

This tribute consists simply in a statue of the admiral, with his boat cloak or dreadnought thrown around him: his hands being engaged in holding his sword, which rests across his body.

On the pedestal to the statue is an alto relievo of a seaman with his wife and child, illustrative of the regard in which lord Duncan's memory is held by the poor but gallant companions of his achievements.

Erected at the public expense to the memory of

Adam Lord Viscount Duncan

, as a testimony of his distinguished eminence in the naval service of his country, and as a particular memorial of the glorious and important victory which he gained over the Dutch fleet on the

11th October, 1797

. He died on the

4th August, 1804

.

In the eastern ambulatory of the north transept, is a tabular monument by Mr. Chantrey, to the memory of major-general Bowes. The design represents the general storming the forts of Salamanca; a shattered wall presents a steep breach crowded with the enemy, and covered with their slain. The general conducts his troops to charge its defenders with the bayonet; the French standard and its bearer fall at his feet, and victory is already secure, when he receives a mortal wound, and falls into the arms of of his soldiers.

Erected at the public expense to the memory of

Major-General Foord Bowes

, who fell gloriously on the

27th June, 1812

, while leading the troops to the assault of the forts of Salamanca.

The opposite pannel is filled with a monument to major-general Le Marchant, designed by the late James Smith; and executed alter his decease by Mr. Rossi.

The figure of Spain is represented placing the trophies of victory on the tomb of the warrior, at the same time she mourns his fall.

339

 

Britannia, seated, is pointing to the monument raised to his memory by a grateful nation, and is instructing her youth, a military cadet, to emulate his brave example.

Erected at the public expense to the memory of

Major-General John Gaspard le Marchant

, who gloriously fell in the battle of Salamanca.

In the western ambulatory of the north transept, is a tabular monument erected by Mr. Chantrey, to the memory of major-general Hoghton.

The design is simple, and arises out of the peculiar circumstances of the event it celebrates.

General Hoghton, while leading his troops to a successful charge on the French at Albuera, received a mortal wound; but lived for a moment to witness the total defeat of the enemy. The design, therefore, represents general Hoghton starting from the ground, eagerly stretching out his hand, directing his men, who are rushing on the enemy with levelled bayonets; while Victory, ascending from the field of battle, sustains with hand the British colours, and with the other proceeds to crown the dying victor with laurel.

Erected at the public expense to the memory of

Major-General Daniel Hoghton

, who fell gloriously

16th May, 1811

, at Albuera.

The opposite pannel is to the memory of sir William Myers.

The design is intended to represent the union of wisdom and valour in the deceased, whose bust is placed on the top of the tomb. The figures introduced are Minerva for wisdom, and Hercules for valour, who points with hand to the bust, while the other clasps that of wisdom.

This monument is the performance of Mr. Kendrick.

Erected at the public expense to the memory of

Lieutenant-Colonel Sir William Myers, Bart.

, who fell gloriously in the battle of Albuera,

May 16th 1811

, aged

27

years. His illustrious commander, the duke of Wellington, bore this honourable testimony to his services and abilities, in a letter to lady Myers, written from Elvas,

May 20, 1811

:

It will be some satisfaction to you to know that your son fell in the action, in which, if possible, the British troops surpassed all their former deeds, and at the head of the Fusileer Brigade, to which a great part of the final success of the day was to be attributed. As an officer he had already been highly distinguished, and, if Providence had prolonged his life, he promised to become one of the brightest ornaments to his profession, and an honour to his country.

The entrance to the vaults is by a broad flight of steps in the south-east angle of the great transept. In these gloomy recesses, which receive only a partial distant light from

grated prison-like windows,

the vast piers and arches that sustain the superstructure, cannot be seen without interest. They form the whole space into main avenues, the principal inner under the dome being almost totally dark.

340

 

Here, in the very centre of the building, repose the mortal remains of the great lord Nelson, a man whose consummate skill and daring intrepidity advanced the naval superiority of the British nation to a height and splendour before unparalleled. The funeral of this hero has been amply described in another portion of the work. The colours of the Victory, the ship which he commanded were deposited with the chieftain who so gloriously fell under them, and whose revered reliques have since been inclosed within a base of Scotch granite, built upon the floor of the vault, and supporting a large sarcophagus, formed of black and dark-coloured marbles, brought from the tomb-house of cardinal Wolsey, at Windsor. Near the tomb of Nelson, the remains of his gallant and much-esteemed friend and companion in victory, Cuthbert lord Collingwood, have since been interred.

Of the other persons buried in the vaults, the priority of notice is certainly due to sir Christopher Wren, whose low tomb in the south aisle of the crypt, is supposed to mark the spot where the high altar formerly stood.

HERE LIETH

SIR

CHRISTOPHER WREN

, KNT.

THE BUILDER OF THIS CATHEDRAL CHURCH OF

ST. PAUL,

WHO DIED

IN THE YEAR OF OUR

LORD

M.D.CCXXIII

AND OF HIS AGE XCI.

On the adjacent wall, at the head of the tomb, within a border

341

of ovals, is the inscription,

Subtus conditur

, &c. a repetition of which is over the entrance to the choir.

Near the tomb of sir Christopher is a monumental tablet, sculptured with flowers, and cherubim withdrawing a curtain, inscribed in memory of the Rev. Dr. William Holder, a residentiary of this church, and Susannah his wife, the daughter of dean Wren, and sister to the architect.

H. S. E. Gulielmus Holder, S. T. P.

sacelli regalis sub-decanus, sereniss' regiae mati sub-eleemosynarius, ecclesiarum S. Pauli et Eliens, canonicus, societatis regiae Lond. sodalis, &c. amplis quidem titulis donatus, amplissimis dignus, vir perelegantis et amoeni ingenii scientiae industria sua illustravit, liberalitate te promovit; egregie eruditus theologicis, mathematicis, et arte musica. Memoriam excolite, posteri, eta lucubrationibus suiis editis coquelae principia agnoscite, et harmonica. Ob. xxivto Jan. A. D. M.DC.CVII. AET. XCII.

Susannah Holder, late wife of William Holder, D. D. residentiary of this church, daughter of Dr. Christopher Wren, late dean of Windsor, and sister of Sir Christopher Wren, knt.

After 15 years happily and honourably passed in conjugal state and care, at the age of LXI years she piously rendered her soul to God the last day of June, A. D. M.DC.LXXXVIII.

Against the opposite pier a small tabular monument commemorates his only daughter.

M. S. Desideratissimae virginis

Jane Wren

, clariss' D«ni Christopheri Wren filiae unicae Paterniae, indolis literis deditae, piae, benevolae, domisedae, arte musica peritissimae.

Here lies the body of

Mrs. Jane Wren

; only daughter of sir Chr. Wren, kt. by Dame Jane his wife, daughter of William lord Fitzwilliams, baron of Lifford in the kingdom of Ireland; ob. XXIX Dec. Anno M.D.C.C. III. ET. XXV.

And adjoining to it is the following memorial for the wife of Christopher Wren, esq.

D. O. M. S. Hic requiescit in pace

Maria Conjux Christopheri Wren

, ARM. Filia Philippi & Constantiae Musard, Foemina omnium virtutum foecandissima. Puerperio decessit X Decembris, A.D.

1712

:

Nearly adjoining sir Christopher's tomb a flat tomb bears this inscription:

In a vault beneath this stone are deposited the remains of

Thomas Newton

, D.D. Lord Bishop of Bristol and Dean of this Cathedral, who died

Feb. 14, 1782

, aged

78

.

The great painters, sir Joshua Reynolds, Barry, Opie, and West, are buried near the same spot.

Here lie the remains of Sir Joshua Reynolds, Knt. President of the Royal Academy of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture. He was born at Plympton, in Devonshire, the 16th July, 1723, and died at London the 23rd of Feb. 1792. ere lie the remains of John Opie, Esquire, Professor of Painting to the Royal Academy of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture. He was born May 1761, at St. Agnes, in Cornwall, and died at his house in Berner's-street, London, the 29th of April 1807. *a*r*w *x

The great historical Painter, James Barry, died 22d February, 1806, aged 64.

Here lie the remains of Benjamin West, Esquire, President of the Royal Academy of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture. He was born at Springfield, in Chester County, in the State of Pennsylvania, in America, the 10th of October 1788, and died at London the 11th of March, 1820.

Within the recess of the window in the south aisle is an altar tomb, inscribed,

To the memory of

Robert Mylne

, Architect, F. R. S. a native of Edinburgh; born Jan.

4,1733

, O S.; died May

5,1811

. He designed and constructed the magnificent bridge over the Thames at Blackfriars. From the year

1762

he was the sole engineer to the

New River

aqueduct, London; and for the same period had the superintendence of the Cathedral, as Architect and Paymaster of the works. His remains now repose under the protection of this edifice, which was so long the object of his care.

On an altar-tomb of beautiful polished Peterhead granite is the following inscription to the late John Rennie:

Here lie the mortal remains of

John Rennie, F. R. S. F. A. S.

Born at Phantassie in East Lothian,

7th July, 1761

. Deceased in London

4th Oct. 1881

. This stone is dedicated to his private virtues, and records the affection and the respect of his family and his friends; but the many splendid and useful works by which, under his superintending genius, England, Scotland, and Ireland, have been adorned and improved, are the true monuments of his public merit. Waterloo and

Southwark

bridges, Plymouth Breakwater, Sheerness Docks, &c. &c.

Under the middle aisle of the crypt is a slab for the Lord Chancellor Rosslyn.

Alexander Weddereburne Earl of Rosslyn

, Baron Loughborough, born lath

February, 1783

. Died

2

d

January, 1805

.

The following memorial is placed over the grave of Dr. Boyce:

William Boyce, Mus. D. Organist, Composer, and Master of the Band of Music to their Majesties King George II. and III. Died February 7, 1779, aged 69.

At a short distance is a neat tabular monument to the memory of

Thomas Newton

,

ESQ.

Benefactor to the Literary Fund. Born

Dec. 21, 1719

. Ob.

6th Feb. 1807

.

The learned but eccentric Abraham Badcock, who died in , at the age of , and the yet more eccentric John Benoist de Mainaudoc, M. D. the upholder of animal magnetism, who died in , Bloomsbury, at the age of in the year , are also buried in these vaults in that part appropriated to the parish of St. Faith.

In the nave of , and round the area of the dome, are displayed numerous flags or colours, that have been taken at different periods by our brave seamen and soldiers from the discomfited foes of Old England. Those captured by our land forces were won from the French, at Louisbourg, Martinique, and Valenciennes: and are generally in a most shattered and decayed state. Formerly, there were several large naval colours, consisting of

343

flags, trophies of the signal victories obtained by the fleets commanded by the lords Howe, St. Vincent, and Duncan, during the revolutionary war; of them were French, Spanish, and Dutch. They were brought to the cathedral with much solemnity, on the , by detachments of seamen and marines, that day having been appointed for the celebration of a general thanksgiving for the great triumphs of the British arms by sea. On this occasion, their majesties and the royal family, with both houses of parliament, many admirals, and other naval officers, the lord mayor and corporation of London, &c. were present in at the celebration of divine service; and the colours having been placed upon the altar, in acknowledgment of the protection afforded by the Deity, were afterwards suspended around the dome. The whole of the large flags were removed on cleaning the church in .

There are annual celebrations in this cathedral, of an imprsssive and important nature: these are the anniversary meetings of the sons of the clergy, and of the charity children of the metropolis and its vicinity. The former had its origin in the year , when a worthy divine, the Rev. G. Hall, preached on to an assembly of the sons of the clergy, whose fathers or whose families had been reduced to indigence through the sequestrations made in consequence of non-conformity with the ordinations of parliament. The relief obtained on that occasion, suggested the propriety of an annual sermon; and the promoters of the institution were afterwards incorporated by a charter granted by Charles the , , under the title of

the Governors of the Charity for the Relief of the Poor Widows and Children of Clergymen; with license to hold an estate, not exceeding the annual value of

2,000l.

;

a further license was granted in , to extend to the additional sum of above

all charges and reprises.

The anniversary meetings were chiefly held at Bow church, , till , since which time they have been at ; and the governors, as a means of rendering the receipts more extensive, have, for upwards of a century, had the service combined with a grand performance of sacred music, principally Handel's: this performance is also preceded by a rehearsal. The collections are generally from to : the meetings are held in the beginning of May.

The assembly of the charity children generally takes place in the month of June. The entire circle beneath the dome is by temporary seats and scaffolding converted into an amphitheatre, where between and children, boys and girls, are stationed during the ceremony, and occasionally join in the singing and hallelujah chorusses. The seats in the area, and along the nave of the church to nearly the great west door, are appropriated to the society of patrons of the anniversary, the society for promoting

344

 

Christian Knowledge, and the public generally; but none are admitted without tickets. Independently of the higher feelings which such a congregation is calculated to excite, the whole scene is strikingly beautiful, especially when beheld from the elevation of the Whispering Gallery. On occasion, the children were expressly assembled here by royal command; this was on the , the day of the general thanksgiving for the king's recovery. Their majesties, and the royal family, with both houses of parliament, the lord mayor and corporation of London, the chief officers of state, and most of the dignified clergy, were at the same time present; and the whole ceremony was of the most solemn and affecting description.

The cathedral font is of veined alabaster, standing under the arch from the west door between the nave and the south aisles. It is very large, and in form like an oval vase, fluted, with a cover of the same character. It should have been mentioned, in the account of the paintings of the dome, that the highly finished sketches made for them in oil, by sir James Thornhill, to shew to queen Anne, are now in the possession of the dean and chapter, and hang in the chapter room; and that others on paper, in bistre, are preserved in the dean's vestry.

In the area before the west front, within a circular railing, is a statue of queen Anne, in her regal robes, standing upon a sculptured pedestal, at the lower angles of which are figures, representing Britannia, Hibernia, America, and France. This is a very indifferent performance of Bird's, (who received for the queen's statue, and for the whole).

The whole extent of the area upon which stands, is stated to contain acres, perches, yards, and foot. The entire expense of erecting the cathedral was exclusive of the charge for the iron balustrade, which stands upon the dwarf wall surrounding the church-yard. This balustrade, which is very strong and well-wrought, has iron gates, and altogether weighs tons and : it cost

Though was intended to be the grand ornament of the metropolis, there is not, unfortunately, a single point of view from which it can be seen in its entire proportions; and it is from this cause that its effect is much less imposing than it would otherwise be, and that the comparison which travellers make between this edifice and at Rome, is so greatly to the advantage of the latter. The houses surrounding the church are in general lofty dwellings, and so nearly contiguous to the cathedral, that they completely prevent the spectator from viewing it as a whole. The most adjacent spot from which it may be be held with any thing of its due grandeur, is from near the end of , in , but by far the best view is obtained from about the centre of Blackfriars-bridge, whence it appears to rise in all its majestic elevation

345

and dignity, yet even in this prospect all the lower part of the edifice is excluded from sight by intervening buildings. In the approach from , the west front is seen under much disadvantage, as the avenue is not only too contracted for the extent of the front, but the lines in respect to each other have an oblique direction. A right line drawn east and west with , would cross , near . The height of the ground, combined with the altitude of the building, is such, that this edifice, as the

Parentalia

has remarked, may

be discerned at sea eastward, and at Windsor westward.

 
 
Footnotes:

[] See vol. 1, page 22.

[] Sur. of Lon. p. 270-273.

[] Besides the gift of Tillingham, in Essex, granted by the first charter of king Ethelbert, he also gave to this church twenty-four hides of land near London, (dedit viginti quatuor Hidas terra juxta Londonium) all of which, with the exception of Norton Folgate, reserved for the dean and chapter, were divided into the prebends of More, Finsbury, Old-street, Wenlock's-barn, Hoxton, Newington, Islington, St. Pancras, Kentish-town, Tottenham, Ragener, Holbourn, and Portpool. The gifts made by king Athelstan consisted of 106 farms, messuages, etc, at various places, chiefly in Essex; king Edgar gave three-score marks, and twenty-five mansions at Nasingstoke, king Canute granted the church of Lambourne, in Berks, pro victu Decani qui pro tempore fuerit; Edward the confessor gave eight messuages, &c. at Berling, and five at Chingford, in Essex; and also confirmed the gift of West Lee, in the same county, made by a religious woman, named Ediva. Divers other manors were also granted to St. Paul's before the conquest, as Kensworth, Caddington, &c. The conqueror, besides the castle of Stortford, in Herts, gave the land of William, the Deacon, and Ralph, his brother, held of the king; William Rufus confirmed all his father's donations and privileges, and freed the canons of St. Paul's from all works in respect to the Tower; two hundred acres of wood in Hadley and Thundersey, in Essex, with fourscore acres of arable land and a brewhouse, were afterwards given by Peter Newport; Draton was given by sir Philip Basset, knt. and Hayrstead by his executors; the executors of John of Gauntgave the manors of Bowes and Peeleshouse, in Middlesex; the churches of Willesdon, Sunbury, Brickesley, Rickling, and Aveley, were impropriated to the dean and chapter by divers bishops; and numerous houses within the city were granted to the cathedral establishment under different forms. Weever states, that among many deeds relating to the latter which he had seen, was one dated in the year 1141, and fastened by a label to the end of a stick, of what wood I know not; howsoever it remains to this day free from worm-holes, or any the least corruption, not so much as in the bark, upon which the following words were fairly written: Per hoc lignum oblata est terra Roberti fillij Gousberti super altare Sancti Pauli in festo omnium Sanctorum. Fun. Mon. p. 356. Edit. 1631. A great variety of particulars relating to numerous other grants that have been made to this church, may be seen in Mal. Lord. Red. vol. iii. p. 35-44.

[] See Strype's Stow, Vol. ii. p. 638. This charter must have been given either in or after 1070, as Lanfranc, archbishop of Canterbury, and Thomas, archbishop of York, are among the attesting witnesses, and both those prelates were not appointed to their respective sees till that year.

[] Sur. of Lond. p. 262; fist Edit.

[] Malmesbury.

[] Previously to this, however, the cathedral again suffered by fire, though to what extent is questionable; for Stow, in his annals, has given two accounts, which are contradictory to each other. Under the date, 1132, he records, that a fire, beginning at Gilbertus house, in West Cheap, burnt, eastward, a great part of the city to Aldgate, with the priory of the Holy Trinity, and westward, to Ludgate; consuming the great church of St. Paul. Yet, in the next place, he mentions another fire, which kindled at the house of one Ailward, neare London Stone, and consumed eastward, to Aldgate, and westward, to St. Erkenwald's Shrine in Paules church. This second fire he has also mentioned in his Survey of London (First Edit. p. 117.) with the additional sentence, in the which fire the Priorie of the Holy Trinitie was brent. Now, had the former fire actually consumed the church, the shrine of St. Erkenwald would, most probably, have been destroyed with it; and if it had not, there is the greatest incongruity in supposing, that the vast fabric of St. Paul's could have been restored within the short space that had elapsed between the above dates, when we have seen, that nearly fifty years had been passed since its foundation by Maurice, and that it was still incomplete. The priory of the Holy Trinity, also, is said, to have been burnt in each conflagration; yet, it is almost equally incredible if that edifice was really destroyed by the first fire, that it could have been rebuilt so early as the occurrence of the second.-Brayley, ii. p. 208.

[] Hist. St. Paul's p. 6.

[] Sir Christopher Wren imagined that the choir was added in after times, to give a greater length eastward and that the original termination of the presbyterium was semicircular. Among the foundations of the choir he found nine wells in a row, which he conceived to have anciently belonged to a street of houses, that crossed obliquely from the High-street, then Watling street, to the Roman Causeway, now Cheapside. Parentalia, p. 272.

[] Hist. St. Paul's, p. 12.

[] Whar. Hist. de Episc.

[] Howes Stow's Chro. p. 191.

[] Leland says, that the Lady chapel was built on ground that had been obtained of king John for a market place.

[] Howe's Stow's Ch. p. 384.

[] Stow's Lond. p. 264. First edit.

[] Ibid. 264.

[] Howe's Stow's Ch. p. 646.

[] Ibid.

[] Ibid.

[] Howe's Stow's Ch. p. 646.

[] Ibid.

[] Strype's Stow, vol. i. p. 646.

[] Chronicle of London, Notes 181.

[] A letter is preserved in Rymer's Foedera, vol. in. p. 1033, which was sent by Edward II. to Bishop Stephen de Gravesend, forbidding him to suffer the continuance of the devotion that was accustomed to be paid to the picture of the earl of Lancaster, which was hung up, among many others, in St. Paul's church; this letter bears date in June, 1823. The earl was grandson to Henry III, and having been engaged in rebellion against the reigning monarch, was beheaded at Pontefract; but he was honoured by the people as a martyr, and was subsequently canonized, in 1398.-Brayley, vol. ii. p. 224.

[] This was done in commemoration of St. Nicholas, who, according to the Romish calendar, was so piously fashioned, that even when a babe in his cradle, he would fast both on Wednesdays and Fridays, and at those times was well pleased to suck but once a day. However ridiculous it may now seem, the Boy Bishop, who was chosen from among the choristers, is stated to have possessed episcopal authority during the above term; and the other children were his prebendaries. He was not permitted to celebrate mass, but he had full liberty to preach; and however puerile his discourses might have been, we find they were regarded with so much attention, that Dean Colet, in his Statutes of St. Paul's School, expressly ordains that the scholars shall on every Childermas daye, come to Paule's churche, and beare the chylde bishop's sermon, and after be at the hygh masse, and each of them offer a penny to the chylde bishop; and with them the maisters and surveyors of the stole. Probably these orations, though affectedly childish, were composed by the more aged members of the church. If the boy bishop died within the time of his prelacy, he was interred in pontificalibus, with the same ceremonies as the real diocesan; and the tomb of a child bishop, in Salisbury cathedral, may be referred to as an instance of such interment. An article in the Wardrobe Accompts of Edward I. evinces that the episcopus puerorum had the honour of singing vespers before the king.

[] Howe's Stow, p. 591.

[] Howe's Stow, p. 593.

[] Howe's Stow, p. 608.

[] Ibid.

[] Ibid, p. 609.

[] Ibid, p. 628.

[] Howe's Stow. p 625

[] Brayley's Hist. of London, ii. p. 235.

[] Howe's Stow, p. 659.

[] Ibid, p. 769.

[] Vol. III p. 71.

[] On the disgraceful uses to which these chapels were placed, Mr. Malcolm makes the following sapient remark!- Shade of Elizabeth! how were these things kept from your notice, when you visited St. Paul's? That you did not see them, I firmly believe. If she did, (and it is highly probable,) she would have cared as much about the desecration as her father did, when he turned the monasteries and churches into warehouses for stolen goods.

[] This practice of converting church vaults into wine cellars, it may be remarked, is not yet worn out. Some of the vaults beneath Winchester cathedral are now, or were lately, used for that purpose.

[] Malcolm, vol. iii. p 71-73.

[] The young gallants from the inns of court, the western and the northern parts of the metropolis, and those that had spirit enough to detach themselves from the counting-houses in the east, used to meet at the central point, St Paul's; and from this circumstance obtained the appellation of Paul's Walkers. However strange it may seem, tradition says, that the great lord Bacon used in his youth to cry, Eastward, ho! and was literally a Paul's Walker.Moser, in Eur. Mag. July, 1807.

[] Brayley, ii. p. 237.

[] The shrine of this bishop was in great repute. Matthew Paris records, that miracles were frequently wrought at it.

[] Considerable remains of this monument now lie dispersed in the crypt of the present church.

[] The statue of Dr. Donne was sculptured by the celebrated Nicholas Stone, and cost 120l. When near death, the doctor is said to have wrapt himself in a shroud as a corse, and to have had a likeness of himself painted whilst so enveloped, and standing upon an urn; from that painting the statue was executed, and it is still preserved in the vaults of St. Faith's church.

[] This nobleman greatly distinguished himself in the Welsh wars, in the time of Edward the First. He contributed towards the building of the New Work, or Lady Chapel, in which he was buried, after his decease, at the age of threescore, at his house called Lincoln's Inn. The Book of Dunmow gives him this character: Vir illustris in consilio, strenuus in omni guerra et prelo, princeps militie in Anglia, et omni regno ornatissimus.

[] Dugdale's St, Paul's, p. 23.

[] The subscriptions received are particularized in large vellum books, which stand in a press, over the dean's vestry. The total amount was 101,330l. 4s. 8d.

[] Mal. Lond. Red. Vol.. iii p. 77.

[] The rubbish removed on laying the foundation of the portico was conveyed to Clerkenwell fields.

[] Parentalia, p: 258-9.

[] Mal. Lond. Red vol. iii. p. 85.

[] Ibid. p. 86.

[] Ibid. p. 104.

[] Ibid. p. 99.

[] Parentalia, p. 282

[] Mal. Lond. Red. vol. iii. p. 87. The model which sir Christopher best approved of was for many years kept under a shed in the office of the works at St Paul's; but on the completion of the building, it was deposited in a large apartment on the north side, over the morning prayer chapel, where it yet remains, and it is with the strongest feelings of indignation, that the Editor of this work, notices the disgraceful condition of this exquisite model; not alone is it kept so filthy and dirty, that it is almost impossible to make out any of the ornaments that adorn it, but the most reprehensible system of plunder has been permitted, the whole of the columns forming the western portico, which were of the Corinthian order, are gone, and all the caps of the pilasters. Surely some of the establishment of this cathedral, if they must turn exhibitors, ought to preserve and protect such an exquisite specimen of art: it is not decay but wilful destruction that has made so dreadful a havoc, in sir C. Wren's original design.

[] Parentalia, p. 283.

[] Ibid.

[] Parentalia, p. 202.

[] Mal. Lond. Red. vol. iii, p. 99. The gunner was paid 4l. 10. for placing the powder, laying the train, and setting fire to it.

[] Parentalia, p. 284.

[] Mal. Lond. Red vol. iii, p. 101.

[] Parentalia, p. 284.

[] Ibid.

[] Robert Trevet, a painter of architecture, and master of the company of painter-stainers, was employed in the same year, by the commissioners, to make drawings and engrave them, of the outside and inside views of the church and the choir, representing the time when the queen and parliament were present, for which he received 300l.

[] Mal. Lond. Red. vol. iii, p. 170.

[] Why Bird was employed to decorate the west front in preference to C. G. Cibber, who was a much superior sculptor, is now, probably, inexplicable; yet the circumstance is the less to be lamented, when we refer to the sooty and discoloured aspect, which the combined effects of smoke and weather has given to the building. All the natural lights and shades in the sculptures are completely destroyed by the clouds and streaks of black arising from the soot; and even the great architectural masses of the front itself, are deprived of their due effect, through the accumulated blackness that overwhelms them. The abilities of a Praxiteles would have been exerted in vain, to render art triumphant over evils like these. For the Sculpture of St. Paul's Conversion, Bird received 650l. The space it occupies is sixty-four feet in length, and seventeen in height. It contains eight large figures, six of which are on horseback: and several of them are imbost two feet and a half. The bas-reliefs, in the panels over the door-ways beneath the portico, were also executed by this artist; and are all designed from the life of the patron saint. That over the great west door, or principal entrance, represents St. Paul preaching to the Beraeans; and the figures are from nine to eighteen inches in relief: for this the artist was paid 300l. for the two others 75l. each. The pines for the towers, and the scrolls, ball, and cross, for the lantern of the cupola, were all of them modelled by Bird; and these generally speaking, are in a good taste, and well designed. The great capitals for the west portico were sculptured by Samuel Fulks, who had 60l. for each. See Mal. Lond. Red. pp. 107-109.

[] Fine Arts of the English School p. 11.

[] Ibid, p. 10.

[] Ibid. p. 11.

[] Fine Arts, &c. p. 11.

[] Ibid. p. 12.

[] Parentalis, pp 290, 291.

[] Fine Arts of the English School, p. 14.

[] Ibid.

[] Parentalia, p. 291

[] Parentalia, p. 291.

[] Mal. Lond. Red. vol. iii. p. 116.

[] Mal. Lond. Red. Vol. iii. pp. 100, 103, and 104.

[] Vol. xx. p, 580.

[] Parentalia, p. 292, note.

[] Fine Arts, &c. p. 14.

[] Anec. of Painting, vol. iv, p. 43.

[] Fine Arts, p. 14.

[] The arch which crosses the north aisle at the east end, says Mr. Malcolm, is two feet three inches in thickness, yet such is the derangement occasioned by the settling, that two of the twenty great stones composing the arch have yawned asunder full an inch and a quarter, and the great stones of the wall of the nave, ten paces westward, are rent in their joints, and three are broken. A person standing on the great cornice of the nave will perceive that the north-west pier has sunk at least four inches; the sinking of the other is discernible on the side next the choir, in the two transepts, and in the wall of the stair-case, from the top to the bottom. The fissures are almost wholly confined to the junctions of the choir, nave, and transepts, with the dome. Lond. Red. Vol. iii p. 115.

[] Mal. Lond. Red. Vol. III. p. 126.

[] From the small apertures pierced through the circumference of the west dial the motion of this hand is plainly visible. Though the clock is here described as having only a single dial, there are, in fact, two, one on the west side, and the other on the south; but the dimensions of both are similar.

[] In a pamphlet sold at the cathedral, the weight is said to be only 11,474 pounds; and that of the clapper 180 pounds. Mr. Malcolm has given the following extract from the Protestant Mercury of July the thirty-first, 1700; yet as the bell itself has the date of 1716, it would argue that it must have been afterwards re-cast. The great bell, formerly called Tom of Westminster, was new cast by Mr. Philip Wightman, at his melting-house, and proves extraordinary well. It weighs about five tons, having an addition made to it of the weight of a ton. It will be erected again at St. Paul's cathedral in a short time. Brayley, ii. p. 271.

[] Mal. Lond. Red. Vol. iii. p. 105.

[] Anec. of Paint. Vol. iii. p. 149.

[] See Lond. Red. Vol. iii. pp. 104, 105.

[] The gilding round the altar cost 1681. the glory 3l. the foliage 30l. and the palm and laurel branches 5l. the painting of the pilasters cost 160l. and the painting of the east end, &c. in resemblance of veined marble, 4s. per square yard. Mal. Lond. Red. vol. iii, p. 105.

[] The names of those who were foremost in this meritorious design are deserving of the lasting estimation of every admirer of art and superior talents, they are here recorded:--Sir Joshua Reynolds, Angelica Kaufman, and Messrs. West, Barry, Cipriani, and Dance.

[] Brayley, in. p. 278.

[] See Barry's Letter to the Dilettanti Society, p. 47; and Bacon's Letter to Mr. J. Nichols, in Gent.«s Mag. for the year 1796.

[] Brayley, ii. p. 285.

[] Ibid, p. 286.

[] Vol. ii. p. 153.

[] Mal. Lond. Red. vol. iii, pp. 145, 146.

View all images in this book
 Title Page
 Dedication
 CHAPTER I: The site, extent, buildings, population, commerce, and a view of the progressive increase of London
 CHAPTER II: List of the parishes and churches in London, with their incumbents, &c
collapseCHAPTER III: History and Topography of Aldersgate Ward
collapseCHAPTER IV: History and Topography of Aldgate Ward
collapseCHAPTER V: History and Topography of Bassishaw Ward
collapseCHAPTER VI: History and Topography of Billingsgate Ward
collapseCHAPTER VII: History and Topography of Bishopsgate Ward, Without and Within
collapseCHAPTER VIII: History and Topography of Bread-street Ward
collapseCHAPTER IX: History and Topography of Bridge Ward Within
collapseCHAPTER X: History and Topography of Broad-street Ward
collapseCHAPTER XI: History and Topography of Candlewick Ward
collapseCHAPTER XII: History and Topography of Castle Baynard Ward
collapseCHAPTER XIII: History and Topography of Cheap Ward
collapseCHAPTER XIV: History and Topography of Coleman-street Ward
collapseCHAPTER XV: History and Topography of Cordwainer's-street Ward
collapseCHAPTER XVI: History and Topography of Cornhill Ward
collapseCHAPTER XVII: History and Topography of Cripplegate Ward Within
collapseCHAPTER XVIII: History and Topography of Cripplegate Yard Without
collapseCHAPTER XIX: History and Topography of Dowgate Yard
collapseCHAPTER XX: History and Topography of Farringdom Ward Within
collapseCHAPTER XXI: History and Topography of Farringdon Ward Without
collapseCHAPTER XXII: History and Topography of Langbourn Ward
collapseCHAPTER XXIII: History and Topography of Lime-street Ward
collapseCHAPTER XXIV: History and Topogrpahy of Portsoken Ward
collapseCHAPTER XXV: History and Topography of Queenhithe Ward
collapseCHAPTER XXVI: History and Topography of Tower Ward
collapseCHAPTER XXVII: History and Topography of Vintry Ward
collapseCHAPTER XXVIII: History and Topography of Wallbrook Ward
This object is in collection:
Edwin C. Bolles papers
Subjects
London (England)--History
Antiquities
Permanent URL
http://hdl.handle.net/10427/44306
ID: tufts:UA069.005.DO.00068
To Cite: DCA Citation Guide
Usage: Detailed Rights