The History and Antiquities of London, Westminster, Southwark, and Parts Adjacent, vol. 3

Allen, Thomas
1827

Hermitage of St. James in the Wall; and Lamb's Chapel and Almshouses.

Hermitage of St. James in the Wall; and Lamb's Chapel and Almshouses.

This little monastic establishment was what was termed a cell to the abbey of Gerendon, in Leicestershire, certain monks of which house were appointed chaplains here; on which account, and a well belonging to them called Monks well, the street was called Monkswell-street.

The old chapel, which was small, exhibited but few marks of antiquity, having been, except at its east end (where there was a pointed arched window), entirely plastered over, and its remaining parts otherwise modernised. It was, however, an undoubted fragment of the original hermitage, and, as the only part existing of this very ancient foundation, was highly interesting.

From the best historical accounts, it appears that this hermitage was originally founded by king Henry III . for one Robert de St. Lawrence, chaplain; and the presentation at first was vested in the crown. By deed dated in 1253, Lawrence de Frowick granted to Richard de Clarkenwell, chaplain, »all his lands, &c. in Monks-well-street, in the parish of St. Olave, Silver-street, for an annual rent of 20s.; and on condition of finding one candle of a pound weight for the church of St. Olave, Silver-street, on St. Thomas's day; and another wax-taper of three quarters of a pound weight, for the chapel (de inclusario) within the close or cloister within Cripplegate.

This inclosure or cloister, with certain residences and offices, formed the rest of the building establishment of the hermitage, but every vestige of it is now destroyed. A space of open ground, however, facing the front of the chapel, still marks the site, and appears sufficiently extensive to have allowed originally of gardens and other conveniences. St. James's chapel itself (for which this second wax taper was appropriated) literally stood on, or was let into a part of the city wall, and bounded, as it still does, one side of

Cripplegate church-yard, must within that, in the foreground, the wall below, and the rest of the hermitage above, have formed altogether in ancient times a very venerable assemblage of objects.

In 1275, the chalices, books, ornaments, goods, and lands of this hermitage having been frequently embezzled, for want of good government and regulation, king Edward I. as patron thereof, out of his piety, committed it to the care and government of the lord mayor of London for the time being. The lord mayor at that period was Henry Walleis, who held that high office from 1274, till 1284, inclusive, and again in 1298. Whether the care of this small hermitage was incompatible with his other important duties, or to whatever cause it was owing, a second patent was issued in 1281, by which the custody of the hermitage was granted to the constable of the Tower for the time being; the reason being stated to be the danger of the rents, chalices, books, vestments, images, bells, relics, charters, royal grants, apostolical privileges, utensils, and other goods of the said hermitage without Cripplegate, being diverted or carried away, unless placed under some certain custody.

In 1299, this hermitage was recognized as belonging to Gerendon abbey.

In 1331, Ralph de Baldock being then bishop of London, Thomas de Wyveford, a hermit of this cell, took upon him to hear confessions of people of the neighbouring parishes, to enjoin penances, to grant indulgencies for 600 days to such as frequented his hermitage, and the like, having no lawful authority so to do. For which offences he was judicially proceeded against by the bishop, and pronounced guilty, and to be a transgressor of the canons; whereupon he was admonished to make satisfaction for the same within fifteen days, and inhibited to do the like: as also were the people warned not to follow, or to be seduced by him, under pain of excommunication. Newcourt's Repert.

In 1315, the custody of this hermitage was committed to Walter Kemesey.

In the reign of Edward I. a chantry was founded in the chapel of this hermitage for the souls of Aymer de Valence, earl of Pembroke, and the lady Mary, his wife, which was endowed with ten tenements in Fleet-street, and the abbot of Gerendon sent hither two monks of his house, Cistertians, to celebrate the necessary services established there in consequence.

This chapel of St. James, with its appurtenances, was granted by Henry VIII. to William Lamb, one of the gentlemen of his chapel, and a citizen and clothworker, who endowed and gave it to the clothworkers of London. Here the company have four sermons preached to them annually, on which times the master, wardens, and livery of the company, after the sermon, relieve, with clothing and money, twelve poor men, and as many poor women. This was but a small part of the charities of this good man, which extended over many parts of the city. Lamb's conduit-fields took their name from one of them. He founded in that tract, or on the part to which they did in his days extend, several conduits, distinguished by a lamb on the top of the buildings; these were of no small service before the bringing of the New River to supply the capital. This worthy benefactor died in 1577, and was buried in St. Faith's church, under St. Paul's, where he was commemorated by a long epitaph, filled with irresistible puns on his innocent name.

Lamb's chapel, (the ancient Hermitage chapel) previous to its being pulled down and rebuilt, was in length from east to west 39 feet, and in breadth from north to south 15. It contained a fine old bust of the founder in his livery gown, placed here in 1612, with a purse in one hand, and his gloves in the other; and in the windows were four small paintings on glass, of St. James the apostle, St. Peter, St. Matthew, and St. Matthias. On the floor a few grave-stones remained, the inscriptions on which were legible, but there were none older than the reign of Elizabeth. Of the more ancient ones the brass plates have been torn away.

The rest of the interior was neatly, but plainly fitted up.

There was a pulpit and reading-desk against the north wall; and the north windows contained the small paintings of the apostles mentioned.

Before the act of parliament was passed, which confined the granting of licences to such churches and chapels only where banns had been usually published, this chapel was noted for many private weddings.

Beneath the old chapel (and it is now preserved by the new building) was a curious crypt, a survey of which, accompanied by an engraving, was made by A. J. Kempe, esq. and inserted in the Gentleman's Magazine.Vol xcv. pt. i. p. 401

Descending a narrow flight of about ten or a dozen steps, we enter a low vaulted chamber, twenty-six feet in length from east to west, and twenty in breadth. Nine short columns, six of which now remain, supported the groined roof of this apartment. The capitals of these columns are of the Saxon or Norman style. The angles are elegantly ornamented with a leaf, (on some placed upwards, on others inverted) or with a volute. Some of the intersecting ribs of stone, which spring from the columns, are adorned with mouldings, carved with a zig-gag, or with a spiral ornament. The mouldings running from the columns at the angles, and from the lateral columns to the centre column in a right line, were, I conceive, thus distinguished. The capitals are of Caen stone, the surface of them being much decomposed.

The style of architecture carries these remains as far back as the end of the eleventh century, a period anterior to the first mention of the hermitage in history.

The chapel and almshouses were rebuilt in the early part of the year 1825, from designs by J. Angell, esq. architect.

The modern buildings are neatly built in brick, with stone dressings; the style of architecture is in imitation of the reign of Elizabeth, each house is united with a porch, having a low pointed arched entrance, and the elevation is finished with gables; the buildings occupy three sides of a long court, the other side forming an entrance.

The chapel takes up nearly the whole of the north side. The walls are covered with compo to imitate stone; it is a neat and not inelegant building; it consists of a transept, or ante chapel, and a small body; in the former is an entrance, over which is a large pointed window; at the angles are octangular buttresses, which end above the building in conical pinnacles; the elevation finishes with a gable, on the point of which is an open bell turret, pierced with two arches, in which hang two bells, and finished with a pediment, crowned with a cross. The body of the chapel has three pointed windows, and the elevation is finished with a parapet. The north side, only seen from Cripplegate church-yard, has two windows in the body of the chapel; the east end is built against by one of the alms houses. The interior is neatly and tastefully fitted up; the roof is sustained on beams, painted in imitation of oak,; the pulpit occupies the space of the central window on the north side. In the ante chapel is a plain small font; a gallery for the bell ringer is built over the entrance. The monument of Mr. Lamb has been removed from the east to the west end. It now holds a distinguished station in the west wall. It is an oval, containing a bust of Mr. Lamb, painted in colours, in the costume of the time.

On the floor are two small brass inscriptions: KATHERINE, THIRDE DAUGHT OF NICHOLAS BEST, OF GRAYES INN. ESQVIER, DECEASED YE XXXTH DAYE OF AVGVST, ANO 1609. BEINGE OF THE AGE OF XX YERES AND ONE MONETH, AND LYETH HERE BY HER SISTER ELLENOR.

Above is a shield of arms party per pale surmounted by a lion rampant, ducally crowned.

Adjoining is the other inscription: Henry Weldon, second sonne of Raphe Weldon, of Swanscombe, in Kent, esquire, & Elizabeth his wiffe, aged viij yeares, was buried ye xxth of March, Anno 1595, Eliz. 37.

Against the wall, over Mr. Lamb's monument, is a large painting of the royal arms, and on the north side are those of the clothworkers, in relief, blazoned in the proper colours. It is observable that this neat chapel, which will hold nearly one hundred persons, has only service performed in it four times in the year, viz. on the four quarter days; and it almost approaches to an absurdity, to see a building erected at such an expense, for so little utility. Surel divine service ought to be performed in every consecrated chapel, at least once every Sunday.

On the west side of Monkwell-street is

This little monastic establishment was what was termed a cell to the abbey of Gerendon, in Leicestershire, certain monks of which house were appointed chaplains here; on which account, and a well belonging to them called Monks well, the street was called Monkswell-street.

The old chapel, which was small, exhibited but few marks of antiquity, having been, except at its east end (where there was a pointed arched window), entirely plastered over, and its remaining parts otherwise modernised. It was, however, an undoubted fragment of the original hermitage, and, as the only part existing of this very ancient foundation, was highly interesting.

From the best historical accounts, it appears that this hermitage was originally founded by king Henry III . for Robert de St. Lawrence, chaplain; and the presentation at was vested in the crown. By deed dated in , Lawrence de Frowick granted to Richard de Clarkenwell, chaplain, »all his lands, &c. in Monks-well-street, in the parish of St. Olave, , for an annual rent of ; and on condition of finding candle of a pound weight for the church of St. Olave, , on St. Thomas's day; and another wax-taper of quarters of a pound weight, for the chapel () within the close or cloister within Cripplegate.

This inclosure or cloister, with certain residences and offices, formed the rest of the building establishment of the hermitage, but every vestige of it is now destroyed. A space of open ground, however, facing the front of the chapel, still marks the site, and appears sufficiently extensive to have allowed originally of gardens and other conveniences. itself (for which this wax taper was appropriated) literally stood on, or was let into a part of the city wall, and bounded, as it still does, side of

484

 

Cripplegate church-yard, must within that, in the foreground, the wall below, and the rest of the hermitage above, have formed altogether in ancient times a very venerable assemblage of objects.

In , the chalices, books, ornaments, goods, and lands of this hermitage having been frequently embezzled, for want of good government and regulation, king Edward I. as patron thereof, out of his piety, committed it to the care and government of the lord mayor of London for the time being. The lord mayor at that period was Henry Walleis, who held that high office from , till , inclusive, and again in . Whether the care of this small hermitage was incompatible with his other important duties, or to whatever cause it was owing, a patent was issued in , by which the custody of the hermitage was granted to the constable of the Tower for the time being; the reason being stated to be the danger of the

rents, chalices, books, vestments, images, bells, relics, charters, royal grants, apostolical privileges, utensils, and other goods of the said hermitage without Cripplegate, being diverted or carried away, unless placed under some certain custody.

In , this hermitage was recognized as belonging to Gerendon abbey.

In , Ralph de Baldock being then bishop of London, Thomas de Wyveford, a hermit of this cell, took upon him

to hear confessions of people of the neighbouring parishes, to enjoin penances, to grant indulgencies for

600

days to such as frequented his hermitage, and the like, having no lawful authority so to do. For which offences he was judicially proceeded against by the bishop, and pronounced guilty, and to be a transgressor of the canons; whereupon he was admonished to make satisfaction for the same within

fifteen

days, and inhibited to do the like: as also were the people warned not to follow, or to be seduced by him, under pain of excommunication.

In , the custody of this hermitage was committed to Walter Kemesey.

In the reign of Edward I. a chantry was founded in the chapel of this hermitage for the souls of Aymer de Valence, earl of Pembroke, and the lady Mary, his wife, which was endowed with tenements in , and the abbot of Gerendon sent hither monks of his house, Cistertians, to celebrate the necessary services established there in consequence.

This chapel of St. James, with its appurtenances, was granted by Henry VIII. to William Lamb, of the gentlemen of his chapel, and a citizen and clothworker, who endowed and gave it to the clothworkers of London. Here the company have sermons preached to them annually, on which times the master, wardens, and livery of the company, after the sermon, relieve, with clothing and money, poor men, and as many poor women. This was

485

but a small part of the charities of this good man, which extended over many parts of the city. Lamb's conduit-fields took their name from of them. He founded in that tract, or on the part to which they did in his days extend, several conduits, distinguished by a lamb on the top of the buildings; these were of no small service before the bringing of the to supply the capital. This worthy benefactor died in , and was buried in St. Faith's church, under , where he was commemorated by a long epitaph, filled with irresistible puns on his innocent name.

Lamb's chapel, (the ancient chapel) previous to its being pulled down and rebuilt, was in length from east to west feet, and in breadth from north to south . It contained a fine old bust of the founder in his livery gown, placed here in , with a purse in hand, and his gloves in the other; and in the windows were small paintings on glass, of St. James the apostle, St. Peter, St. Matthew, and St. Matthias. On the floor a few grave-stones remained, the inscriptions on which were legible, but there were none older than the reign of Elizabeth. Of the more ancient ones the brass plates have been torn away.

The rest of the interior was neatly, but plainly fitted up.

There was a pulpit and reading-desk against the north wall; and the north windows contained the small paintings of the apostles mentioned.

Before the act of parliament was passed, which confined the granting of licences to such churches and chapels only where banns had been usually published, this chapel was noted for many private weddings.

Beneath the old chapel (and it is now preserved by the new building) was a curious crypt, a survey of which, accompanied by an engraving, was made by A. J. Kempe, esq. and inserted in the Gentleman's Magazine.

Descending a narrow flight of about

ten

or a dozen steps, we enter a low vaulted chamber,

twenty-six

feet in length from east to west, and

twenty

in breadth.

Nine

short columns,

six

of which now remain, supported the groined roof of this apartment. The capitals of these columns are of the Saxon or Norman style. The angles are elegantly ornamented with a leaf, (on some placed upwards, on others inverted) or with a volute. Some of the intersecting ribs of stone, which spring from the columns, are adorned with mouldings, carved with a zig-gag, or with a spiral ornament. The mouldings running from the columns at the angles, and from the lateral columns to the centre column in a right line, were, I conceive, thus distinguished.

The capitals are of Caen stone, the surface of them being much decomposed.

The style of architecture carries these remains as far back as the end of the century, a period anterior to the mention of the hermitage in history.

486

 

The chapel and almshouses were rebuilt in the early part of the year , from designs by J. Angell, esq. architect.

The modern buildings are neatly built in brick, with stone dressings; the style of architecture is in imitation of the reign of Elizabeth, each house is united with a porch, having a low pointed arched entrance, and the elevation is finished with gables; the buildings occupy sides of a long court, the other side forming an entrance.

The chapel takes up nearly the whole of the north side. The walls are covered with compo to imitate stone; it is a neat and not inelegant building; it consists of a transept, or ante chapel, and a small body; in the former is an entrance, over which is a large pointed window; at the angles are octangular buttresses, which end above the building in conical pinnacles; the elevation finishes with a gable, on the point of which is an open bell turret, pierced with arches, in which hang bells, and finished with a pediment, crowned with a cross. The body of the chapel has pointed windows, and the elevation is finished with a parapet. The north side, only seen from Cripplegate church-yard, has windows in the body of the chapel; the east end is built against by of the alms houses. The interior is neatly and tastefully fitted up; the roof is sustained on beams, painted in imitation of oak,; the pulpit occupies the space of the central window on the north side. In the ante chapel is a plain small font; a gallery for the bell ringer is built over the entrance. The monument of Mr. Lamb has been removed from the east to the west end. It now holds a distinguished station in the west wall. It is an oval, containing a bust of Mr. Lamb, painted in colours, in the costume of the time.

On the floor are small brass inscriptions:

KATHERINE, THIRDE DAUGHT OF NICHOLAS BEST,

OF GRAYES INN. ESQVIER, DECEASED YE XXXTH DAYE OF

AVGVST, ANO

1609

. BEINGE OF THE AGE OF XX YERES AND

ONE

MONETH, AND LYETH HERE BY HER SISTER ELLENOR.

Above is a shield of arms party per pale surmounted by a lion rampant, ducally crowned.

Adjoining is the other inscription:

Henry Weldon,

second

sonne of Raphe

Weldon, of Swanscombe, in Kent, esquire, &

Elizabeth his wiffe, aged viij yeares, was buried ye xxth of March, Anno

1595

, Eliz.

37

.

Against the wall, over Mr. Lamb's monument, is a large painting of the royal arms, and on the north side are those of the clothworkers, in relief, blazoned in the proper colours. It is observable that this neat chapel, which will hold nearly persons, has only service performed in it times in the year, viz. on the

487

quarter days; and it almost approaches to an absurdity, to see a building erected at such an expense, for so little utility. Surel divine service ought to be performed in every consecrated chapel, at least once every Sunday.

On the west side of is

 
 
Footnotes:

[] Newcourt's Repert.

[] Vol xcv. pt. i. p. 401

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 Title Page
 Dedication
 CHAPTER I: The site, extent, buildings, population, commerce, and a view of the progressive increase of London
 CHAPTER II: List of the parishes and churches in London, with their incumbents, &c
collapseCHAPTER III: History and Topography of Aldersgate Ward
collapseCHAPTER IV: History and Topography of Aldgate Ward
collapseCHAPTER V: History and Topography of Bassishaw Ward
collapseCHAPTER VI: History and Topography of Billingsgate Ward
collapseCHAPTER VII: History and Topography of Bishopsgate Ward, Without and Within
collapseCHAPTER VIII: History and Topography of Bread-street Ward
collapseCHAPTER IX: History and Topography of Bridge Ward Within
collapseCHAPTER X: History and Topography of Broad-street Ward
collapseCHAPTER XI: History and Topography of Candlewick Ward
collapseCHAPTER XII: History and Topography of Castle Baynard Ward
collapseCHAPTER XIII: History and Topography of Cheap Ward
collapseCHAPTER XIV: History and Topography of Coleman-street Ward
collapseCHAPTER XV: History and Topography of Cordwainer's-street Ward
collapseCHAPTER XVI: History and Topography of Cornhill Ward
collapseCHAPTER XVII: History and Topography of Cripplegate Ward Within
collapseCHAPTER XVIII: History and Topography of Cripplegate Yard Without
collapseCHAPTER XIX: History and Topography of Dowgate Yard
collapseCHAPTER XX: History and Topography of Farringdom Ward Within
collapseCHAPTER XXI: History and Topography of Farringdon Ward Without
collapseCHAPTER XXII: History and Topography of Langbourn Ward
collapseCHAPTER XXIII: History and Topography of Lime-street Ward
collapseCHAPTER XXIV: History and Topogrpahy of Portsoken Ward
collapseCHAPTER XXV: History and Topography of Queenhithe Ward
collapseCHAPTER XXVI: History and Topography of Tower Ward
collapseCHAPTER XXVII: History and Topography of Vintry Ward
collapseCHAPTER XXVIII: History and Topography of Wallbrook Ward
This object is in collection:
Edwin C. Bolles papers
Subjects
London (England)--History
Antiquities
Permanent URL
http://hdl.handle.net/10427/44306
ID: tufts:UA069.005.DO.00068
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