The History and Antiquities of London, Westminster, Southwark, and Parts Adjacent, vol. 3

Allen, Thomas
1827

Hospital of St. Bartholomew.

Hospital of St. Bartholomew.

Which appears to have been the first establishment of this nature in London, having been founded in the year 1102, by Rahere, the first prior of the adjacent monastery, who obtained from the king a piece of waste ground, on which he built an hospital, for a master, brethren, and sisters, and for the relief of the diseased and maimed poor, which he placed under the care of the priory.

Both the priory and hospital were surrendered to Henry VIII. who, in the last year of his reign, refounded the latter, and endowed it with an annual revenue of five hundred marks, on condition that the city should pay an equal sum; which proposal being accepted, the new foundation was incorporated by the name of The Hospital of the mayor, commonalty, and citizens of London, governors for the poor, called Little St. Bartholomew's, near West Smithfield.

In an abstract of the valuation of all the lands belonging to any religious house in England, taken out of the court of the first fruits, a MS. in the Harleian catalogue; this hospital is valued at 305l. 6s. 7d. per annum. It was suppressed 31 Henry VIII. Shortly after, it came into the hands of the corporation of London, and through their means hath grown in prosperity even to this very moment.

In the account of William Colle, citizen and grocer, receiver of all the rents, &c. of the hospital of St. Bartholomew, from 1581 to 1582, the sums received from each house are thus particularized: £s.d. From thirty-four houses in the Colse, Q. Close. per annum119188 Seven houses in West Smithfield37164 Five houses in Giltspur-street1100 Six houses in Hosier-lane9130 In Cow-lane and Green Dragon-alley, Mr. James Hannam, for the house that was sir Jeames Diers6134 And seventeen others3020 In Duck-lane and Britain-street, fourteen houses2030 One in Barbican0134 Two houses in Holborn968 Nine in Fleet-street4368 Three in Peter Keie1030 Two in Old Fish-street2000 Three in Watling-street2088 One in Bow-lane100 Two in Thames-street2500 One in Tower-street12100 Thirty houses in Little Wood-street40134 Four houses in Mugwell-street6194 Thirteen in St. Nicholas Fishambles50194 Aldersgate, one house1000 One in Chick-lane200 Fourteen in the new buildings in the Shambles83100 Five houses St. K«trane25134 Eleven houses in St. John-street23128 At Westminster one house400 In Gouldinge lane nine17134 In Southwark two16134 The Lock300 From Soper-lane one house400 No Mane's landes5050 From Essex4488 Buckinghamshire0120 Northamptonshire580 Quit-Rents. £s.d. The Wardens of the merchant taylors, from land at Vintry, called Cornewale's Land, per annum10134 The wardens of the tallow chandlers, from houses in Bishopsgate-street070 The Wardens of the sadlers, from tenements at Holborne Cross080 The governors of St. Thomas's Hospital, from the cardinal's hat1170 The wardens of the wax chandlers, from the King's-head in the Old Change0160 The wardens of the goldsmith's060 from Foster-lane0130 Sir Robert Jeames, one of the petty canons, out of a tenement at Paul's backhouse068 And two others370 The hospital was in the receipt of tithes at the rate of 2s. 9d. in the pound from 64 persons Sum total of receipts88077

In the seventh of queen Anne, a licence was granted to the mayor and corporation of London and their successors, to purchase in fee, or for term of lives, or years, or otherwise, in trust and for the benefit of St. Bartholomew's, any manors, rectories, &c. &c. to the yearly value of 1,000 marks.

The foregoing articles will serve, in some degree, to shew the ancient state of their funds. That they have been greatly increased, is a matter of little doubt, when the liberality of the British nation is considered.In 1754 an unknown person bequeathed it 2,000l.

The ancient seal of the hospital was oval, and represented St. Bartholomew under a canopy head, with a knife in his right, and a book in his left hand, and treading on a lion. On each side of him the old arms of England, gu. 3 lions or ...... BARTH«I LONDON is all that remains of the legend.

Since the time of foundation, the hospital has received considerable benefactions from charitable persons, by which means the governors have been enabled to admit all indigent persons maimed by accident, at any hour of the day or night. without previous recommendation; and the sick, on Thursdays, on which days a committee of governors sit to examine persons applying for admission. The patients, whether sick or maimed, are provided with lodging, food, medicine, and attendance, and have the advice and assistance of some of the most eminent physicians and surgeons in the kingdom.

Notwithstanding the old building escaped the dreadful fire in 1666, yet the chief part of its revenues being in houses, the hospital was greatly injured by that calamity. In the year 1729, the hospital became so ruinous that there appeared an absolute necessity for rebuilding it; and a subscription was entered into by many of the governors, and other charitable persons, among whom was Dr. Ratcliffe, for defraying the expense, upon a plan then prepared, containing four detached piles of stone building, to be connected by gateways, and to form a quadrangle.

The first stone of this building was laid on the 9th of June, 1730, by sir George Brocas, the lord mayor, in the presence of several aldermen and governors; and the eastern side of the square, which completed the whole, being finished in 1770, it is now one of the most pleasing structures in London, when viewed from the area within, which it surrounds, and where only it can be seen to advantage.

That part which opens to Smithfield, and which may be esteemed the principal front, is allotted for the public business of the hospital. It contains a large hall for the general courts of the governors; a counting house for the meetings of committees; rooms for examining, admitting, and discharging patients; with other necessary offices. In this part of the building is a stair case painted and given by Mr. Hogarth, consisting of two pictures, representing the Good Samaritan and the Pool of Bethseda; which, for truth of colouring and expression, are thought to equal any thing of the kind in Europe.

In the hall, which is a noble apartment, the ceiling enriched with stucco, and the walls wainscotted, are full length portraits of Henry VIII. Mr. Surgeon Pott, and John Abernethy, esq. the last by sir T. Lawrence. In one of the windows, is a representation in stained glass, of Henry VIII. delivering the charter to the lord mayor.

In the admission room are the following portraits: Over the mantel piece a half length of Henry VIII. finely executed, above it is Anno Dni, 1544, Aetatis suae 55. He has a small truncheon in his left hand. E. Colston, esq. 1693. Martin Bond, eso. treasurer,

1642; Sir W. Prichard, alderman, president, 1691; and a fine portrait without name or date, apparently of a sheriff, temp. 1600.

The front of the hospital towards Smithfield, consists of a rustic basement with a large arch, above which rise two pilasters of the Ionic order, from the volutes of which are suspended wreaths of foliage; these support an entablature and pediment, within which are the royal arms. Over the gate is a niche between four columns of the Corinthian order, supporting a broken pediment, on which are seated two infirm figures; within the niche is a well executed statue of Henry VIII. in his royal robes. Beneath the figure of the king is the following inscription: St. Bartholomew's hospital, founded by Rhere, anno 1102. Refounded by K. Henry ye 8th, 1546.

Underneath which is the following:-- This front was rebuilt anno 1702, in the first year of queen Anne. Sir W. Prichard. knt. and alder. president. John Nicholl, esq. treasurer.

The other three sides of the quadrangle contain the wards for the reception of patients; in each of which are between twenty and thirty beds.

The medical establishment consists of three physicians, three surgeons, three assistant surgeons, and an apothecary, belonging to this hospital.

A general repair of this hospital was commenced in 1814, and completed in 1820; considerable alterations were made in the wings, and new buildings erected for the medical establishment. A new counting house was erected on the south side of the small court (in which Little St. Bartholomew's church is situated) in 1828.

The following is the number of patients admitted and discharged in 1827. Patients admitted, cured, and discharged : In patients4,916 Out patients4,318 Casualty patients3,173 12,407 Buried350 Remaining under cure;-- In-patients76 Out-patients20 Casualty patients64

At the north east angle of Smithfield is Long-lane, built without the north wall of the priory, in the time of Henry II. when, according to Stow, the booths in the church yard being taken down, a number of tenements were erected in Long-lane, for such as would give great rents. It is probable that none of the original buildings remain; but those on the south side offer the largest aggregate of the rude dwellings of our forefathers now in existence in the metropolis. Whoever considers the materials of which these buildings are formed, and the obstruction that must have been given to a free circulation of air, by the method of constructing them with one story overhanging another, and extends his view to a metropolis composed chiefly of such fabrics, will cease to wonder at the frequency and extent of the conflagrations and pestilential diseases, with which London was formerly afflicted.

On the north side of Smithfield is the great opening called Smithfield Bars, from the bars which separated the city liberty from the county on that side, having been placed there.

Between Long-lane and Duke-street is an entrance which leads into Cloth Fair. This place evidently derives its name from the fair at St. Bartholomew's tide, to which the clothiers from different parts of the country, and the drapers of London, repaired, and had their booths and standings in the church-yard, within the priory, which was separated from Smithfield only by walls and gates, that were locked every night, and watched, for the safety of the goods deposited there. But this narrow street, or lane, where their goods were kept, has been built since that time, and subsequent to the dissolution and sale of the priory. It is still occupied chiefly by tailors, clothiers, and what are called piece brokers; dealers in materials for the use of tailors, &c. The houses are generally old and inconvenient. Near the north east corner is a small house with the arms of Rich (incorrectly described by Mr. Malcolm, as those of the Sterns of White Cliff, Yorkshire) viz. gu. a chevron between three crosses botonee or.

Cock-lane is celebrated as the scene of the imposture of the ghost which was to detect the murderer of the body it lately inhabited by its appearance in the vault of St. John's church, Clerkenwell. It ended in the full detection and exemplary punishment of the several persons concerned in the villainy.

The north-east corner of Cock-lane is known as Pie-corner, and was the spot where the dreadful fire of 1666 terminated. In commemoration of this circumstance, a naked boy was put up with the following inscription : This boy is in memory put up for the late Fire of London, occasioned by the sin of gluttony, 1666.

This figure was formerly by the side of the door, but has recently been placed between two of the first floor windows.

On the east side of Giltspur-street is

Which appears to have been the establishment of this nature in London, having been founded in the year , by Rahere, the prior of the adjacent monastery, who obtained from the king

654

a piece of waste ground, on which he built an hospital, for a master, brethren, and sisters, and for the relief of the diseased and maimed poor, which he placed under the care of the priory.

Both the priory and hospital were surrendered to Henry VIII. who, in the last year of his reign, refounded the latter, and endowed it with an annual revenue of , on condition that the city should pay an equal sum; which proposal being accepted, the new foundation was incorporated by the name of

The Hospital of the mayor, commonalty, and citizens of London, governors for the poor, called Little St. Bartholomew's, near

West Smithfield

.

In

an abstract of the valuation of all the lands belonging to any religious house in England, taken out of the court of the

first

fruits,

a MS. in the Harleian catalogue; this hospital is valued at per annum. It was suppressed Henry VIII. Shortly after, it came into the hands of the corporation of London, and through their means hath grown in prosperity even to this very moment.

In the account of William Colle, citizen and grocer, receiver of all the rents, &c. of the hospital of St. Bartholomew, from

1581

to

1582

,

the sums received from each house are thus particularized:
 £s.d.
From thirty-four houses in the Colse, Q. Close. per annum119188
Seven houses in West Smithfield37164
Five houses in Giltspur-street1100
Six houses in Hosier-lane9130
In Cow-lane and Green Dragon-alley, Mr. James Hannam, for the house that was sir Jeames Diers6134
And seventeen others3020
In Duck-lane and Britain-street, fourteen houses2030
One in Barbican0134
Two houses in Holborn968
Nine in Fleet-street4368
Three in Peter Keie1030
Two in Old Fish-street2000
Three in Watling-street2088
One in Bow-lane100
Two in Thames-street2500
One in Tower-street12100
Thirty houses in Little Wood-street40134
Four houses in Mugwell-street6194
Thirteen in St. Nicholas Fishambles50194
Aldersgate, one house1000
One in Chick-lane200
Fourteen in the new buildings in the Shambles83100
 
Five houses St. K«trane25134
Eleven houses in St. John-street23128
At Westminster one house400
In Gouldinge lane nine17134
In Southwark two16134
The Lock300
From Soper-lane one house400
No Mane's landes5050
From Essex4488
Buckinghamshire0120
Northamptonshire580
Quit-Rents.
 £s.d.
The Wardens of the merchant taylors, from land at Vintry, called Cornewale's Land, per annum10134
The wardens of the tallow chandlers, from houses in Bishopsgate-street070
The Wardens of the sadlers, from tenements at Holborne Cross080
The governors of St. Thomas's Hospital, from the cardinal's hat1170
The wardens of the wax chandlers, from the King's-head in the Old Change0160
The wardens of the goldsmith's060
from Foster-lane0130
Sir Robert Jeames, one of the petty canons, out of a tenement at Paul's backhouse068
And two others370
The hospital was in the receipt of tithes at the rate of 2s. 9d. in the pound from 64 persons
Sum total of receipts88077

In the of queen Anne, a licence was granted to the mayor and corporation of London and their successors, to purchase in fee, or for term of lives, or years, or otherwise, in trust and for the benefit of St. Bartholomew's, any manors, rectories, &c. &c. to the yearly value of .

The foregoing articles will serve, in some degree, to shew the ancient state of their funds. That they have been greatly increased, is a matter of little doubt, when the liberality of the British nation is considered.

The ancient seal of the hospital was oval, and represented St. Bartholomew under a canopy head, with a knife in his right, and a book in his left hand, and treading on a lion. On each side of

656

him the old arms of England, lions ...... BARTH«I LONDON is all that remains of the legend.

Since the time of foundation, the hospital has received considerable benefactions from charitable persons, by which means the governors have been enabled to admit all indigent persons maimed by accident, at any hour of the day or night. without previous recommendation; and the sick, on Thursdays, on which days a committee of governors sit to examine persons applying for admission. The patients, whether sick or maimed, are provided with lodging, food, medicine, and attendance, and have the advice and assistance of some of the most eminent physicians and surgeons in the kingdom.

Notwithstanding the old building escaped the dreadful fire in , yet the chief part of its revenues being in houses, the hospital was greatly injured by that calamity. In the year , the hospital became so ruinous that there appeared an absolute necessity for rebuilding it; and a subscription was entered into by many of the governors, and other charitable persons, among whom was Dr. Ratcliffe, for defraying the expense, upon a plan then prepared, containing detached piles of stone building, to be connected by gateways, and to form a quadrangle.

The stone of this building was laid on the , by sir George Brocas, the lord mayor, in the presence of several aldermen and governors; and the eastern side of the square, which completed the whole, being finished in , it is now of the most pleasing structures in London, when viewed from the area within, which it surrounds, and where only it can be seen to advantage.

That part which opens to , and which may be esteemed the principal front, is allotted for the public business of the hospital. It contains a large hall for the general courts of the governors; a counting house for the meetings of committees; rooms for examining, admitting, and discharging patients; with other necessary offices. In this part of the building is a stair case painted and given by Mr. Hogarth, consisting of pictures, representing the Good Samaritan and the Pool of Bethseda; which, for truth of colouring and expression, are thought to equal any thing of the kind in Europe.

In the hall, which is a noble apartment, the ceiling enriched with stucco, and the walls wainscotted, are full length portraits of Henry VIII. Mr. Surgeon Pott, and John Abernethy, esq. the last by sir T. Lawrence. In of the windows, is a representation in stained glass, of Henry VIII. delivering the charter to the lord mayor.

In the admission room are the following portraits: Over the mantel piece a half length of Henry VIII. finely executed, above it is

Anno Dni,

1544

,

Aetatis suae

55

.

He has a small truncheon in his left hand. E. Colston, esq. . Martin Bond, eso. treasurer,

657

 

; Sir W. Prichard, alderman, president, ; and a fine portrait without name or date, apparently of a sheriff, .

The front of the hospital towards , consists of a rustic basement with a large arch, above which rise pilasters of the Ionic order, from the volutes of which are suspended wreaths of foliage; these support an entablature and pediment, within which are the royal arms. Over the gate is a niche between columns of the Corinthian order, supporting a broken pediment, on which are seated infirm figures; within the niche is a well executed statue of Henry VIII. in his royal robes. Beneath the figure of the king is the following inscription:

St. Bartholomew's hospital, founded by Rhere, anno

1102

. Refounded by K. Henry ye

8th

,

1546

.

Underneath which is the following:--

This front was rebuilt anno

1702

, in the

first

year of queen Anne. Sir W. Prichard. knt. and alder. president. John Nicholl, esq. treasurer.

The other sides of the quadrangle contain the wards for the reception of patients; in each of which are between and beds.

The medical establishment consists of physicians, surgeons, assistant surgeons, and an apothecary, belonging to this hospital.

A general repair of this hospital was commenced in , and completed in ; considerable alterations were made in the wings, and new buildings erected for the medical establishment. A new counting house was erected on the south side of the small court (in which Little St. Bartholomew's church is situated) in .

The following is the number of patients admitted and discharged in .

Patients admitted, cured, and discharged :
In patients4,916
Out patients4,318
Casualty patients3,173
 12,407
Buried350
Remaining under cure;--
In-patients76
Out-patients20
Casualty patients64

At the north east angle of is , built without the north wall of the priory, in the time of Henry II. when, according to Stow, the booths in the church yard being taken down, a number of tenements were erected in , for such as would

658

give great rents. It is probable that none of the original buildings remain; but those on the south side offer the largest aggregate of the rude dwellings of our forefathers now in existence in the metropolis. Whoever considers the materials of which these buildings are formed, and the obstruction that must have been given to a free circulation of air, by the method of constructing them with story overhanging another, and extends his view to a metropolis composed chiefly of such fabrics, will cease to wonder at the frequency and extent of the conflagrations and pestilential diseases, with which London was formerly afflicted.

On the north side of is the great opening called , from the bars which separated the city liberty from the county on that side, having been placed there.

Between and is an entrance which leads into . This place evidently derives its name from the fair at St. Bartholomew's tide, to which the clothiers from different parts of the country, and the drapers of London, repaired, and had their booths and standings in the church-yard, within the priory, which was separated from only by walls and gates, that were locked every night, and watched, for the safety of the goods deposited there. But this narrow street, or lane, where their goods were kept, has been built since that time, and subsequent to the dissolution and sale of the priory. It is still occupied chiefly by tailors, clothiers, and what are called piece brokers; dealers in materials for the use of tailors, &c. The houses are generally old and inconvenient. Near the north east corner is a small house with the arms of Rich (incorrectly described by Mr. Malcolm, as those of the Sterns of White Cliff, Yorkshire) viz. a chevron between crosses botonee

is celebrated as the scene of the imposture of the ghost which was to detect the murderer of the body it lately inhabited by its appearance in the vault of , Clerkenwell. It ended in the full detection and exemplary punishment of the several persons concerned in the villainy.

The north-east corner of is known as Pie-corner, and was the spot where the dreadful fire of terminated. In commemoration of this circumstance, a naked boy was put up with the following inscription :

This boy is in memory put up for the late Fire of London, occasioned by the sin of gluttony,

1666

.

This figure was formerly by the side of the door, but has recently been placed between of the floor windows.

On the east side of is

 
 
Footnotes:

[] In 1754 an unknown person bequeathed it 2,000l.

View all images in this book
 Title Page
 Dedication
 CHAPTER I: The site, extent, buildings, population, commerce, and a view of the progressive increase of London
 CHAPTER II: List of the parishes and churches in London, with their incumbents, &c
collapseCHAPTER III: History and Topography of Aldersgate Ward
collapseCHAPTER IV: History and Topography of Aldgate Ward
collapseCHAPTER V: History and Topography of Bassishaw Ward
collapseCHAPTER VI: History and Topography of Billingsgate Ward
collapseCHAPTER VII: History and Topography of Bishopsgate Ward, Without and Within
collapseCHAPTER VIII: History and Topography of Bread-street Ward
collapseCHAPTER IX: History and Topography of Bridge Ward Within
collapseCHAPTER X: History and Topography of Broad-street Ward
collapseCHAPTER XI: History and Topography of Candlewick Ward
collapseCHAPTER XII: History and Topography of Castle Baynard Ward
collapseCHAPTER XIII: History and Topography of Cheap Ward
collapseCHAPTER XIV: History and Topography of Coleman-street Ward
collapseCHAPTER XV: History and Topography of Cordwainer's-street Ward
collapseCHAPTER XVI: History and Topography of Cornhill Ward
collapseCHAPTER XVII: History and Topography of Cripplegate Ward Within
collapseCHAPTER XVIII: History and Topography of Cripplegate Yard Without
collapseCHAPTER XIX: History and Topography of Dowgate Yard
collapseCHAPTER XX: History and Topography of Farringdom Ward Within
collapseCHAPTER XXI: History and Topography of Farringdon Ward Without
collapseCHAPTER XXII: History and Topography of Langbourn Ward
collapseCHAPTER XXIII: History and Topography of Lime-street Ward
collapseCHAPTER XXIV: History and Topogrpahy of Portsoken Ward
collapseCHAPTER XXV: History and Topography of Queenhithe Ward
collapseCHAPTER XXVI: History and Topography of Tower Ward
collapseCHAPTER XXVII: History and Topography of Vintry Ward
collapseCHAPTER XXVIII: History and Topography of Wallbrook Ward
This object is in collection:
Edwin C. Bolles papers
Subjects
London (England)--History
Antiquities
Permanent URL
http://hdl.handle.net/10427/44306
ID: tufts:UA069.005.DO.00068
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