The History and Antiquities of London, Westminster, Southwark, and Parts Adjacent, vol. 3

Allen, Thomas
1827

Quaker's Meeting.

Quaker's Meeting.

On the north side of Hounsditch, and within this ward is a plain gateway within which, the visitor is surprised on entering to see before and on each side of him large plain strong buildings for the yearly meetings of the society of friends. A vast extent of ground is occupied by the court and buildings; the latter will contain near 3000 persons. Both the buildings are similar, having seven arched beaded windows, and on three sides a gallery. One meeting is intended for the yearly assembly of the males, the other for the females; attached to each, are large rooms for the deputies from distant parts to transact business relative to the society at large.

The whole is cleaned to the whiteness of the dairy-maid's milk pail, as no paint finds admittance; it is considered by the Society of Friends as an ornament within doors, but as a preservative without, and there used without scruple. The site of these buildings was formerly the Dolphin inn, and was purchased by the society in 1791, for its present purpose.

On the same side of Bishopsgate street is Devonshire street leading to Devonshire-square. On this spot was formerly a magnificent structure, erected by Jasper Fisher, one of the six clerks in chancery, whose fortune not being answerable to his house, it was called in derision, Fisher's Folly.

It had a quick succession of owners. It belonged to Mr. Cornwallis; to sir Roger Manners, and to Edward, earl of Oxford, lord high chamberlain; the same, says Mr. Pennant, who is recorded to have presented to queen Elizabeth, the first perfumed gloves ever brought into England. Her majesty lodged in this house in one of her visits to the city: probably when this gallant peer was owner. After him it fell to the Cavendishes; but that they resided in this neighbourhood long before is to be supposed, as their ancestor, Thomas Cavendish, treasurer of the exchequer to Henry VIII. interred his wife in the adjacent church of St. Botolph's; and by will, dated April 13, 1523, bequeathed a legacy towards its repairs. About the time of the civil wars it became a conventicle. The author of Hudibras alludes to it in the following lines, when, speaking of the packed parliamen of those times, he says

That represent no part o« th« nation,

But Fisher's Folly congregation.Canto ii, line 893.

Near this was another noble building, erected by lord John Powlett, an ancestor of the duke of Bolton.

A MS. book, on vellum, preserved in the British Museum, gives A Ryall Ffest, in ye fleste at ye weddynge of ye erie of Devynchur, which was probably held at this mansion. Convivium in nuptiis comitis Devoniae, incerti temporis. Le i cours. Ffurmenty wh venysoun. Vyand goderygge. Vele roste. Swan wch chawderoun. Pecoke. Crane. Un leche. Un ffryid mete. Un pasty aupert. A sotelte gernus. Le ii cours. Manunenye. Vyand motlegh. Rede coning heron. Chykonys endryd. Venyson rested. leche. Un fryid mete. Past crustade. A cold bakemete. A sotelte homo. Le iii coors. Gely. Datys in comfyte. Ffesaunt. Gullys. Poper mawlaed de la ryver. Peconys. Pertryche. Curlew. Pomes endryd. Leche. Payse puffe. A sotelte arbor. Pro inferiori parte auli le. Le iv cours. Venyson en broye. Spandys de motoun. Ryde-doke. Chykonys. Roste pygge in sawge. Venyson in bake. Le v cours. Caudell ffery. Pyconys. Gullys. Rabbetys. Venyson rote. Doucetys un leche.

Near Devonshire house was born, on September 1, 1566, Mr. Alleyne, the founder of Dulwich college.

In New-street are extensive warehouses of the East India company; they extend from New-street, south east, almost to Houndsditch, and were begun about 1776, when a stone was placed in the corner house of the above and Bishopsgate streets, inscribed, This wall, 93 feet in length from East to West and from the face of this stone, 18 inches in substance, is the property of the East India Company. Erected at the sole charge of the Company, May 26, 1776. At the same time the ground 18 feet South from this stone, which had been purchased by the East India Company, was given to the public, for widening the entrance into this street.

These warehouses have grand fronts of several hundred feet in length. The western side next Bishopsgate-street consists of a body and two wings. The basement at each end is rustic; and there are no windows in the building, except in this part. A neat cornice and coping finish the top, and the wings are ornamented with blank Doric windows and pediments. The arch of entrance is in the south wing, whence they extend up the south side of New-street. The body of this part retires from the street, and the wings are connected by a strong wall, with rustic gates.

A very few feet within the above-mentioned entrance the parish of St. Botolph Bishopsgate ends.

The great height of the buildings, the number of stories, multitudes of windows, and curious cranes for hoisting the goods, all create surprise and wonder; while the cleanliness of the pavement and extent of the whole excite our applause.

Two handsome houses terminate the warehouses near Houndsditch, in which the officers that govern them reside. Between them is a fine gateway. Several wretched streets, and some hundreds of habitations were removed to carry on those works The space of pure air thus obtained must be of essential service in such a neighbourhood.

On the opposite side of the street was an ancient brick house, the door of which was several feet lower than the pavement; which, with some others, appear to have been built in the time of Charles II.

Nearly opposite Devonshire-street, on the west side of Bishopsgate street, is an old building, known as the White Hart inn; on the front, which is of some antiquity, is 1480 in large figures. There is nothing worthy of notice in the interior, and, from examination, it appears to have been erected about the latter end of the sixteenth century.

In some ground, on the east side of Moorfields, now called Blomfield-street, was buried Hadje Shah Swara, a Persian, who, with his sonne, came over with the Persian ambassador, and was buried by his owne son, who read certaine prayers, and used other ceremonies, according to the custome of their owne country, morning and evening, for a whole moneth after the buriall; for whom is set up, at the charge of his sonne, a tombe of stone, with certain Persian characters thereon; the exposition thus. This grave is made for Hodges Shaughsware, the chiefest servant to the king of Persia, for the space of 20 years, who came from the king of Persia, and dyed in his service. If any Persian cummeth out of that country, let him read this and a prayer for him. The Lord receive his soule ; for here lyeth Maghmote Shanghsware, who was born in the towne of Novoy in Persia. Stow's Survey, folio, p. 173. In Strype's edition is an engraving of the monument, which is a square altar tomb.

In the rear 1568, sir Thomas Rowe, merchant taylor and lord mayor of London, caused this ground to be inclosed with a brick wall, to be a common burial ground, at a low rate, for such parishes in London as wanted convenient burial places. He called it the New church-yard near Bethlehem, and established a sermon to be preached there on Whitsunday, annually; which, for many years, was honoured with the presence of the lord mayor and aldermen. This, however, has been for a considerable time discontinued, and the burial place shut up.

Near Half-Moon-alley, is a large brick building, known by the name of the London Workhouse. This building was established by act of parliament in the year 1649, for the relief and employment of the poor, and the punishing vagrants and disorderly persons within the city and liberties of London. In 1662, another act of parliament was passed, by which the governors, consisting of the lord mayor, aldermen, and fifty-two citizens, chosen by the common council, were constituted a body corporate with a common seal. The lord mayor, for the time being, was appointed president of the corporation, which was allowed to purchase lands or tenements to the annual value of three thousand pounds; and the common council were empowered to rate the several wards, precincts, and parishes of this city, for its support.

The several parishes, besides their assessments, formerly paid one shilling per week for each child they had in the workhouse; but, in the year 1751, the governors came to a resolution, that no more children, paid for by the parishes to which they belonged, should be taken into the house; and since that time it has been resolved, that only such children should be taken in as were committed by the governors or magistrates of the city, found begging in the streets, pilfering, or lying about in uninhabited places.

The children were dressed in russet cloth, with a round badge upon their breasts, representing a poor boy and a sheep, with this motto, God's providence is my inheritance. The boys were taught to read and write, and the principal part of their time was spent in weaving, &c. the girls were employed in sewing, spinning, and other labour, by which they were qualified for service. When they arrived at a proper age, the boys were bound out apprentices to trades or the sea; and the girls placed in reputable families.

When assistance was wanted to defray the expense attending the workhouse, the governors applied to the court of common council, who, on each application, ordered the sum of two thousand pounds to be paid by a proportionate assessment on the respective parishes in the city.

The building for the reception of these poor, appears to have been finished about the year 1680, during the mayoralty of sir Robert Clayton, whose portrait, as the first president and governor, formerly ornamented the court room. It was originally divided into two parts; the first, next Bishopsgate-street, and called the steward's side, was chiefly for the accommodation of poor children; the west end, or side called the keeper's side, was for vagabonds and dissolute poor. In this latter place the females taken up in the street, were employed beating hemp, washing linen, &c. similarly to Bridewell, and the men to hard labour. This part has long been abandoned by such characters, and is now remaining in ruins. At the end of the building, immediately behind the entrance from Bishopsgate-street, was a chapel, which was pulled down about twenty years ago; and, descending by a flight of eleven steps was the remains of a temporary prison, called Ludgate Prison, where, on the demolition of the gate, in 1760, the prisoners from Ludgate were confined. That portion of the workhouse which remains, is at present used as a paper-hanging manufactory.

At a small distance north-east from Devonshire square, was a place called, anciently, Tassel Close, which was let to the cross-bow makers, who used to practise a game on it of shooting at the popinjay. On the decline of archery, and the invention of gunpowder, this close was surrounded by a brick wall, and served as an artillery ground, where the gunners of the Tower used weekly to practise the art of gunnery. The last prior of

St. Mary Spital granted this artillery ground for thrice ninety-nine years, for the exercise of great and small artillery; and hence this ground became subject to the Tower. The artillery company received a charter from king Henry, which was afterwards confirmed by queen Elizabeth: and, in 1622, an armoury was erected in it, containing five hundred sets of arms. The company, at length, grew so numerous, that this ground was too small for them; and when they removed to the present artillery ground, this spot was distinguished by the name of the old artillery ground. It is now converted into streets and lanes, but the name is still retained in Artillery street.

Near the end of Catherine-wheel-alley the stocks originally stood; they were once stolen, but were restored and a whipping-post added.

On the north side of Hounsditch, and within this ward is a plain gateway within which, the visitor is surprised on entering to see before and on each side of him large plain strong buildings for the yearly meetings of the society of friends. A vast extent of ground is occupied by the court and buildings; the latter will contain near persons. Both the buildings are similar,

161

having arched beaded windows, and on sides a gallery. meeting is intended for the yearly assembly of the males, the other for the females; attached to each, are large rooms for the deputies from distant parts to transact business relative to the society at large.

The whole is cleaned to the whiteness of the dairy-maid's milk pail, as no paint finds admittance; it is considered by the Society of Friends as an ornament within doors, but as a preservative without, and there used without scruple. The site of these buildings was formerly the Dolphin inn, and was purchased by the society in , for its present purpose.

On the same side of is leading to . On this spot was formerly a magnificent structure, erected by Jasper Fisher, of the clerks in chancery, whose fortune not being answerable to his house, it was called in derision,

Fisher's Folly.

It had a quick succession of owners. It belonged to Mr. Cornwallis; to sir Roger Manners, and to Edward, earl of Oxford, lord high chamberlain; the same, says Mr. Pennant, who is recorded to have presented to queen Elizabeth, the perfumed gloves ever brought into England. Her majesty lodged in this house in of her visits to the city: probably when this gallant peer was owner. After him it fell to the Cavendishes; but that they resided in this neighbourhood long before is to be supposed, as their ancestor, Thomas Cavendish, treasurer of the exchequer to Henry VIII. interred his wife in the adjacent church of St. Botolph's; and by will, dated , bequeathed a legacy towards its repairs. About the time of the civil wars it became a conventicle. The author of Hudibras alludes to it in the following lines, when, speaking of the

packed

parliamen

of those times, he says

That represent no part o« th« nation,

But Fisher's Folly congregation.

Near this was another noble building, erected by lord John Powlett, an ancestor of the duke of Bolton.

A MS. book, on vellum, preserved in the , gives

A Ryall Ffest, in ye fleste at ye weddynge of ye erie of Devynchur,

which was probably held at this mansion.

Near was born, on , Mr. Alleyne, the founder of Dulwich college.

In are extensive warehouses of the East India company; they extend from , south east, almost to , and were begun about , when a stone was placed in the corner house of the above and Bishopsgate streets, inscribed,

This wall,

93

feet in length from East to West and from the face of this stone,

18

inches in substance, is the property of the East India Company. Erected at the sole charge of the Company,

May 26, 1776

. At the same time the ground

18

feet South from this stone, which had been purchased by the East India Company, was given to the public, for widening the entrance into this street.

These warehouses have grand fronts of several feet in length. The western side next consists of a body and wings. The basement at each end is rustic; and there are no windows in the building, except in this part. A neat cornice and coping finish the top, and the wings are ornamented with blank Doric windows and pediments. The arch of entrance is in the south wing, whence they extend up the south side of . The body of this part retires from the street, and the wings are connected by a strong wall, with rustic gates.

A very few feet within the above-mentioned entrance the parish of St. Botolph Bishopsgate ends.

The great height of the buildings, the number of stories, multitudes of windows, and curious cranes for hoisting the goods, all create surprise and wonder; while the cleanliness of the pavement and extent of the whole excite our applause.

handsome houses terminate the warehouses near , in which the officers that govern them reside. Between them is a fine gateway. Several wretched streets, and some hundreds of habitations were removed to carry on those works The space of pure air thus obtained must be of essential service in such a neighbourhood.

163

 

On the opposite side of the street was an ancient brick house, the door of which was several feet lower than the pavement; which, with some others, appear to have been built in the time of Charles II.

Nearly opposite , on the west side of , is an old building, known as the White Hart inn; on the front, which is of some antiquity, is in large figures. There is nothing worthy of notice in the interior, and, from examination, it appears to have been erected about the latter end of the century.

In some ground, on the east side of , now called , was buried Hadje Shah Swara, a Persian,

who, with his sonne, came over with the Persian ambassador, and was buried by his owne son, who read certaine prayers, and used other ceremonies, according to the custome of their owne country, morning and evening, for a whole moneth after the buriall; for whom is set up, at the charge of his sonne, a tombe of stone, with certain Persian characters thereon; the exposition thus. This grave is made for Hodges Shaughsware, the chiefest servant to the king of Persia, for the space of

20

years, who came from the king of Persia, and dyed in his service. If any Persian cummeth out of that country, let him read this and a prayer for him. The Lord receive his soule ; for here lyeth Maghmote Shanghsware, who was born in the towne of Novoy in Persia.

In the rear , sir Thomas Rowe, merchant taylor and lord mayor of London, caused this ground to be inclosed with a brick wall, to be a common burial ground, at a low rate, for such parishes in London as wanted convenient burial places. He called it the New church-yard near Bethlehem, and established a sermon to be preached there on Whitsunday, annually; which, for many years, was honoured with the presence of the lord mayor and aldermen. This, however, has been for a considerable time discontinued, and the burial place shut up.

Near Half-Moon-alley, is a large brick building, known by the name of the London Workhouse. This building was established by act of parliament in the year , for the relief and employment of the poor, and the punishing vagrants and disorderly persons within the city and liberties of London. In , another act of parliament was passed, by which the governors, consisting of the lord mayor, aldermen, and citizens, chosen by the common council, were constituted a body corporate with a common seal. The lord mayor, for the time being, was appointed president of the corporation, which was allowed to purchase lands or tenements to the annual value of ; and the common council were empowered to rate the several wards, precincts, and parishes of this city, for its support.

164

 

The several parishes, besides their assessments, formerly paid per week for each child they had in the workhouse; but, in the year , the governors came to a resolution, that no more children, paid for by the parishes to which they belonged, should be taken into the house; and since that time it has been resolved, that only such children should be taken in as were committed by the governors or magistrates of the city, found begging in the streets, pilfering, or lying about in uninhabited places.

The children were dressed in russet cloth, with a round badge upon their breasts, representing a poor boy and a sheep, with this motto,

God's providence is my inheritance.

The boys were taught to read and write, and the principal part of their time was spent in weaving, &c. the girls were employed in sewing, spinning, and other labour, by which they were qualified for service. When they arrived at a proper age, the boys were bound out apprentices to trades or the sea; and the girls placed in reputable families.

When assistance was wanted to defray the expense attending the workhouse, the governors applied to the court of common council, who, on each application, ordered the sum of to be paid by a proportionate assessment on the respective parishes in the city.

The building for the reception of these poor, appears to have been finished about the year , during the mayoralty of sir Robert Clayton, whose portrait, as the president and governor, formerly ornamented the court room. It was originally divided into parts; the , next , and called

the steward's side,

was chiefly for the accommodation of poor children; the west end, or side called

the keeper's side,

was for vagabonds and dissolute poor. In this latter place the females taken up in the street, were employed beating hemp, washing linen, &c. similarly to , and the men to hard labour. This part has long been abandoned by such characters, and is now remaining in ruins. At the end of the building, immediately behind the entrance from , was a chapel, which was pulled down about years ago; and, descending by a flight of steps was the remains of a temporary prison, called Ludgate Prison, where, on the demolition of the gate, in , the prisoners from Ludgate were confined. That portion of the workhouse which remains, is at present used as a paper-hanging manufactory.

At a small distance north-east from , was a place called, anciently, Tassel Close, which was let to the cross-bow makers, who used to practise a game on it of shooting at the popinjay. On the decline of archery, and the invention of gunpowder, this close was surrounded by a brick wall, and served as an artillery ground, where the gunners of the Tower used weekly to practise the art of gunnery. The last prior of

165

 

St. Mary Spital granted this artillery ground for thrice years, for the exercise of great and small artillery; and hence this ground became subject to the Tower. The artillery company received a charter from king Henry, which was afterwards confirmed by queen Elizabeth: and, in , an armoury was erected in it, containing sets of arms. The company, at length, grew so numerous, that this ground was too small for them; and when they removed to the present artillery ground, this spot was distinguished by the name of the old artillery ground. It is now converted into streets and lanes, but the name is still retained in .

Near the end of Catherine-wheel-alley the stocks originally stood; they were once stolen, but were restored and a whipping-post added.

 
 
Footnotes:

[] Canto ii, line 893.

[] Stow's Survey, folio, p. 173. In Strype's edition is an engraving of the monument, which is a square altar tomb.

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 Title Page
 Dedication
 CHAPTER I: The site, extent, buildings, population, commerce, and a view of the progressive increase of London
 CHAPTER II: List of the parishes and churches in London, with their incumbents, &c
collapseCHAPTER III: History and Topography of Aldersgate Ward
collapseCHAPTER IV: History and Topography of Aldgate Ward
collapseCHAPTER V: History and Topography of Bassishaw Ward
collapseCHAPTER VI: History and Topography of Billingsgate Ward
collapseCHAPTER VII: History and Topography of Bishopsgate Ward, Without and Within
collapseCHAPTER VIII: History and Topography of Bread-street Ward
collapseCHAPTER IX: History and Topography of Bridge Ward Within
collapseCHAPTER X: History and Topography of Broad-street Ward
collapseCHAPTER XI: History and Topography of Candlewick Ward
collapseCHAPTER XII: History and Topography of Castle Baynard Ward
collapseCHAPTER XIII: History and Topography of Cheap Ward
collapseCHAPTER XIV: History and Topography of Coleman-street Ward
collapseCHAPTER XV: History and Topography of Cordwainer's-street Ward
collapseCHAPTER XVI: History and Topography of Cornhill Ward
collapseCHAPTER XVII: History and Topography of Cripplegate Ward Within
collapseCHAPTER XVIII: History and Topography of Cripplegate Yard Without
collapseCHAPTER XIX: History and Topography of Dowgate Yard
collapseCHAPTER XX: History and Topography of Farringdom Ward Within
collapseCHAPTER XXI: History and Topography of Farringdon Ward Without
collapseCHAPTER XXII: History and Topography of Langbourn Ward
collapseCHAPTER XXIII: History and Topography of Lime-street Ward
collapseCHAPTER XXIV: History and Topogrpahy of Portsoken Ward
collapseCHAPTER XXV: History and Topography of Queenhithe Ward
collapseCHAPTER XXVI: History and Topography of Tower Ward
collapseCHAPTER XXVII: History and Topography of Vintry Ward
collapseCHAPTER XXVIII: History and Topography of Wallbrook Ward
This object is in collection:
Edwin C. Bolles papers
Subjects
London (England)--History
Antiquities
Permanent URL
http://hdl.handle.net/10427/44306
ID: tufts:UA069.005.DO.00068
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