History of Tufts College, 1854-1896

Start, Alaric Bertrand
1896

CHAPTER FOURTH: PRESIDENT CAPEN'S ADMINISTRATION

CHAPTER FOURTH: PRESIDENT CAPEN'S ADMINISTRATION

IN choosing a successor to Dr. Miner the first name to be considered was that of another veteran member of the Board of Trustees, the Hon. Israel Washburn, Jr., Ex-Governor of Maine. Although the committee appointed to confer with him received but little encouragement, he was elected to the office; but he declined it at once. Upon further consideration, the committee to which the matter was referred, decided that it would be for the best interests of the college to place one of its own graduates at its head; and on March 13, 1875, the Rev. Elmer Hewitt Capen, of the class of 1860, who was deeply interested in educational matters, and was at that time in charge of a prominent parish, was nominated for the presidency. His election was precipitated by a petition from the Faculty of the college, asking that he be called; and on June 2, 1875, his inauguration took place.

During the administration of President Capen the growth of the college has been wonderfully rapid, both upon material and intellectual lines. Under Dr. Ballou, in spite of financial deficiencies and the lack of facilities for work, a place was made in the world of letters for the young institution; under Dr. Miner this place was made secure by a substantial material support; under Dr. Capen PROGRESS has been the watchword of the college, and the scope of its work has been broadened and deepened, and the circle of its influence constantly widened, until it holds to-day a place in the front rank of educational institutions.

Soon after the accession of President Capen indications of an increasing spirit of liberality began to appear in the government of the college, one of the most marked being an increasing elasticity of the curriculum. The policy of raising the standard of all requirements and broadening the opportunities for elective work at once began. Thirty-two term-hours One term-hour = one recitation a week for one term, or its equivalent. was the amount of work required annually of each student, except in the Senior year, when but thirty hours were required. In the year 1877-78 the Juniors were allowed to elect four term-hours, and the Seniors seven; while in 1890- 91, the Sophomores were allowed to elect three, the Juniors twelve, and the Seniors fifteen. The required work in Latin, Greek, and Mathematics, which had extended over two years, was soon confined to one year and a half. In 1875 the Philosophical Course was extended to cover four years, the requirements for admission being the same as those of the regular course with the substitution of French for Greek. In 1890 elementary French or German was made requisite for admission to the regular course, and in 1891 a so-called Modern Language Course was established, leading to the degree of A. B., and requiring for admission the presentation of advanced work in French, with elementary preparation in German, or vice versa. An intermediate preparation in the Modern Languages was required for the Philosophical Course, which now practically coincided with the A. B. course except in its more elastic requirements for admission. The standard of work in the Engineering Department also has been raised steadily: in 1882 a course in Electrical Engineering was offered, and one in Mechanical Engineering in 1894. In 1892 the courses were extended to cover four years.

Naturally, so many progressive changes could not be made without necessitating numerous additions to the teaching force; and the membership of the Faculty of Letters has been more than doubled, having increased from eleven in 1874 to twenty-six in 1895. The strengthening of the department of Science began with the appointment of Professor Dolbear in 1874. In 1877, on the expiration of his term as Walker Special Instructor, Mr. Pitman was appointed Professor of Chemistry, thus leaving Professor Marshall free to devote his entire time to Mineralogy, Geology, and Natural History. Professor Pitman was absent from the college during the year 1881-82, and resigned his position at the beginning of the next year. During his absence the noted chemist, Arthur Michael, A. M. (later Ph. D.), had directed the work of the department, and upon Professor Pitman's resignation he was appointed to fill the vacancy. A wealthy man as well as an ardent scientist, he personally employed a number of instructors and assistants, and the laboratory at Tufts became well known as a seat of research. Professor Michael resigned his position in 1889, and Arthur M. Comey, Ph. D., who had served as assistant under Professor Michael in 1882-83, was called to the chair. Professor Comey served until 1893, when he resigned, and during the next year Frank W. Durkee, A. M., of the class of '88, who had been appointed Instructor in 1889, served as Acting Professor. In the following year Dr. Michael returned to Tufts, where lie now directs the work of the graduate department, Mr. Durkee having charge of the undergraduate work with the title of Assistant Professor. John E. Bucher, Ph. D., was appointed Instructor in Organic Chemistry in 1894, and Howard H. Higbee, Ph. D., Instructor in Quantitative Analysis in 1895. During the year 1894-95, T. H. Clark, Ph. D., served in the latter capacity. Several assistants are also employed. As a further step in the development of the scientific department, a chair of Biology was established in 1892, and filled by an enthusiast in his work, J. Sterling Kingsley, S. D., a graduate of Williams College. Under his direction this department has grown rapidly. The Natural History scholarships have been converted into two fellowships of two hundred and fifty dollars each, and are now held by two graduate students. One A. M. and one Ph. D. have already been granted in Biology.

Two other new departments have been established, - that of History in 1892; and that of Music in 1895. The former is in charge of Edwin A. Start, A. M., a graduate of the class of '84, who brought to his work, besides the preparation of a scholar, the experience of several years in journalism and political affairs. He has been obliged to create the department, but has done so very successfully, and now offers a comprehensive list of courses. In 1877 the instructorship in Vocal Music was discontinued, and no further work was done in that line until 1895, when a chair of the History and Theory of Music was created, with Leo R. Lewis, A. M., a graduate of the class of '87, as its incumbent. Mr. Lewis had been appointed Instructor in French in 1892, and he is still giving some courses in that language although devoting his principal energies to his special department. He has secured the gift of an exceptionally fine musical library; and his thorough knowledge of his subject and his ability as a teacher foreshadow success.

In the departments of Mathematics and Engineering a number of appointments have been made. In 1883 William L. Hooper, A. M., a graduate of the class of '77, was appointed Assistant Professor of Physics, and in 1890 he was made Professor of Electrical Engineering. He is an expert in electricity, and under his care the department of Electrical Engineering has become known among practical electricians for the thorough quality of its work. In 1893 Gardner C. Anthony, A. M., was appointed Professor of Technical Drawing, and also Dean of the newly established Bromfield-Pearson School. Frank E. Sanborn, a graduate of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, was appointed Walker Special Instructor in 1891, and on the expiration of his term of three years was made Instructor in Mechanical Engineering. Also in 1891, Frank T. Daniels, A. M. B., of the class of 1890, was appointed Assistant in Drawing and Surveying, and in the following year he became Instructor in Civil Engineering. In 1893 Horatio W. Myrick, A. M. B., also of the Class of '90, was appointed Instructor in Electrical Engineering, and the next year he was appointed to the Walker Instructorship also. He resigned both positions in 1896, -Frank G. Wren, '94, already an Instructor in Mathematics, being appointed to fill the latter. Practical working in wood and metal has been made a feature of the Engineering department. James M. Merrill served as Instructor in Carpentry in 1889-90, S. Thomas Kirk in 1890-91; and in 1893 George H. Furbish was engaged as a teacher and placed in charge of the shops in the Bromfield-Pearson School.

In 1891 the classical department received a valuable addition in Frank P. Graves, Ph. D., a graduate of Columbia University, who came to the Hill as Instructor in Greek and now holds the title of Professor of Classical Philology. In the same year David L. Maulsby, A. M., of the Class of '87 was appointed Professor of English Literature and Oratory. Professor M. T. Brown at this time went to reside in Ohio, and was made Emeritus. The appointment of Professor Maulsby removed one burden from the broad shoulders of Professor Shipman, who, having charge of the entire department of English together with Logic and Psychology, had perpetuated to an unnecessary extent the program of self-sacrificing hard labor of the earlier members of the Faculty. A further division of his work was accomplished in 1894 by the appointment of Thomas Whittemore, '94, as Instructor in English. Charles St. C. Wade, A. M., '94, was appointed Instructor in French in the same year; and a number of recent graduates of the college, and others, are at present serving as assistants in the departments of Modern Languages, Philosophy, and Engineering.

In 1893 a great change was made in the curriculum,-- a change which has given Tufts College a new prominence and made it a leader in the march of educational progress. The expansion of the Philosophical Course, and the establishment of the so-called Modern Language Course, had both been steps in one direction, - namely, the conforming of the college requirements to the preparatory training of English High Schools and such other preparatory institutions as furnished other than a strictly " Classical" course. These new courses offered by the college were merely compromises, and for several succeeding years President Capen, in his annual reports, expressed the hope that some more satisfactory arrangement would soon be made. At length, during the year 1892-93, Edwin A. Start, then serving his first year as a member of the Faculty, secured the appointment of a committee to consider a plan whereby the entire curriculum of the college should be remodelled, the object being to render it more elastic, and at the same time more productive of genuine scholarship than before. The committee consisted of President Capen, Professors Shipman, Comey, and Graves, and Mr. Start. A report, drawn up by Mr. Start, was presented to the Faculty by the committee, and was adopted after considerable discussion. Circular announcements were at once sent out, and the new system went into effect with the opening of the Fall term of 1893.

Under this plan, the requirement for the Bachelor's degree is the satisfactory completion of one hundred and twenty- eight term-hours of college work, the factor of a certain term of residence being eliminated. Any student capable of completing this amount of work, with the attainment of a high average, in three years, may receive the degree at the end of that time. One man has already done so, while another has attained to the Master's degree at the end of four years. Of this hundred and twenty-eight term-hours, fifty are occupied with prescribed work, but in all departments except English and Mathematics the requirements are by groups, not by subjects, thus allowing some choice.

Placed in tabular form the prescribed work, including a reasonable amount of Physical Training, is as follows:-

TERM HOURS LANGUAGES (Latin, Greek, French, German; each student to take three)18 ENGLISH (Rhetoric, Composition, Themes, Oratory)12 MATHEMATICS6 >SCIENCE (Physics, Chemistry, Biology; each student to take one)6 MENTAL AND MORAL SCIENCES (Philosophy, History, Political Science; each student to take one full or two half subjects)6 PHYSICAL TRAINING2 A total of50

A large portion of the prescribed work can be completed in the Freshman year, and at the beginning of the Sophomore year each student chooses a major subject, in which he must complete work amounting to eighteen term-hours. The student's major instructor becomes his official adviser in matters relating to his college course, and under his advice, the student chooses eighteen more term-hours of work in subjects which will aid him in his major study. The balance of his work--forty-two term-hours--he is at liberty to elect as he pleases, subject only to the arrangement of the college program. Nearly all the courses in the curriculum have been arranged for three recitations per week; and by a careful grouping of subjects on alternate days, there occur but few cases of a student being altogether debarred from taking any course on account of conflict in the program.

The advantages of this plan of arrangement are manifold and self-evident. To quote the circular which announced it to the world, it was adopted "in the belief that the true ground for promotion is intellectual attainment, and that the fixed requirement of a certain number of years of study, without regard to the mental power and achievements of the individual student, does not tend to encourage the highest scholarship." To quote still further: " It will be seen that this plan is at once liberal, controlled, and elastic. Through- out his course the student will have large liberty in choosing his work, but a considerable portion of that work will be arranged for him and directed by men who can judge of his requirements better than he can himself. A reasonable amount of guided specialization is provided for, and each student will be brought into personal relations with his major instructor, in a way that can hardly fail to produce good results in his college work." The expectations set forth in the above quotations have been fully realized. A change has been wrought in the intellectual life of the students. They no longer drag through the prescribed studies because they are prescribed, electing "snaps" whenever the oppor- tunity offers. Working for honors in a major subject means just so much preparation for a chosen profession, and the result is that while each student receives the benefit of a broad and liberal education, he accomplishes in some special line results really worthy of a scholar. The system has now been in operation nearly three years, and during this time has shown itself to be a step in the right direction of which Tufts College may well be proud. With a more logical system of entrance requirements to round out and complete it, it will leave little to be desired.

The material development of the college has kept pace with the intellectual. The library has grown rapidly. By the year 1886 it could no longer be accommodated in Ballou Hall, and a stack was built at the rear of Middle Hall, which is now the library building, although still accommodating a few students. Professor Keen had served as librarian during his life, and Professor Shipman, who succeeded him, occupied the position until 1884, when Miss Helen L. Mellen, who had for some time performed the active duties of the Barnum Museum office, was placed in charge. Among the principal gifts to the library are an alcove of books from Miss Mary E. Bacon, and about twenty-five hundred volumes from the late Thomas Whittemore, D. D. In 1880 friends of the college procured for it a considerable portion of the library of the late Dr. Chapin. The Joy Library Fund was increased to twenty thousand dollars in 1886, and soon after the library of the late W. H. Ryder, D. D., was given by Mrs. Ryder. The most recent additions to the library are the fine historical collection of the late Richard Frothingham, A. M., and the musical collection already mentioned.

Many buildings have been erected during this period. Goddard Chapel was dedicated on March 29, 1882. It was given by Mrs. Mary T. Goddard in memory of her husband, Thomas A. Goddard; and its tall campanile rises as a beautiful monument to the most modest, but one of the most large hearted benefactors of the college. The architect of the chapel is J. Philip Rinn, of Boston, and the edifice has been described by competent judges as one of the ten finest pieces of architecture in New England. The gymnasium, also a gift from Mrs. Goddard, was completed in 1884. Although its arrangements leave something to be desired, it has served the purposes of the college well until lately; the present body of students calls for a larger building. From 1885 to 1889, with the exception of the year 1886-87, Fremont Swain, M. D., was engaged as Gymnasium Director. In 1889 Mr. Durkee assumed this position, retaining it until 1895, when Charles C. Stroud '94 was engaged. W. R. Woodbury, M. D., of the class of '85, is now serving as Medical Examiner. He is also a lecturer in the Medical School, the establishment of which is chronicled in another chapter.

In 1882 the Barnum Museum, the gift of the great showman whose name it bears, was begun. Mr. Barnum gave $55,000 for the original building, and by his will left $40,000 more for the addition of two wings, one of which has already been built. The museum is an imposing structure of gray slate stone, and contains, in addition to large exhibition halls, roomy and well-lighted lecture rooms and laboratories for elementary, advanced, and graduate work in Biology, Mineralogy, and Geology. The new wing, especially, which was designed under the supervision of Dr. Kingsley, is a model in its arrangements for work. Mr. Barnum gave a large collection of stuffed animals to the museum, and in the main hall, calm and majestic as in life, Jumbo still draws around him a court of admirers. Through the efforts of Professor Marshall a noteworthy collection of minerals and fossils is also on exhibition.

Dean Hall, a three-story brick dormitory, erected with funds left by the late Dr. Oliver Dean, was completed in 1886. It is not beautiful to look at, but its rooms are the finest on the Hill. The Divinity buildings, Miner Hall and Paige Hall, will be spoken of in the next chapter.

The Bromfield-Pearson School was established in 1894, with funds left by the late Henry B. Pearson, and occupies a commodious brick building between Boston Avenue and College Avenue. It provides a course of technical instruction extending through two years, and also serves as a preparatory school for the Engineering department. Under the charge of Professor Anthony the school is doing very successful work. The building affords the best of opportunities for practical shop-work, and the Engineering students of the college are given instruction in this line. For a time previous to the erection of the building they were obliged to go to the Cambridge Manual Training School and elsewhere for this purpose.

Three other new buildings were completed in 1894, the Chemical Laboratory, the Common Building, and Metcalf Hall, -a dormitory for women. The Chemical Laboratory is a temporary wooden building, not unlike a shoe-shop in appearance; but it contains every facility for work, and will serve its purpose well until the erection of a new building. The Commons Building contains the college dining-room, or "Dive," a general book and supply store, and a post-office, while the second and third floors are occupied by rooms for students. Both these buildings are at the foot of the Hill, near the Bromfield-Pearson School. By the erection of the Chemical Laboratory and the Bromfield-Pearson building, the scientific apparatus has been removed from Ballou Hall, with the exception of that of the Physical department, which occupies the third floor of the building. The rooms formerly occupied by the department of Chemistry are now fitted up as lecture rooms with connecting department libraries for the departments of History and English Literature.

The increase in the number of buildings, and the improvement of the grounds, have made necessary the employment of a large force of janitors and all-round men, but among these there are still two faces familiar to graduates of years gone by. Patrick Byrne, the original farmer and general factotum of the college, is still in charge of the grounds, and has had the pleasure of seeing a son graduate in the class of 1894. Nicholas Dwyer, too, is an old stand-by, whose loyalty to the college is sincere and aggressive.

The financial contributions to the college have been steady and substantial. In 1885 Miss Harriet H. Fay left the amount necessary to support a professorship of English Literature, and in 1887 came a bequest of $25,000 from Henry B. Pearson to found a professorship in some branch of Natural Science, while numerous smaller contributions have been received. Recently Mrs. Robinson, widow of Charles Robinson, LL.D., late President of the Board of Trustees, and her son Sumner Robinson, A. M., LL.B., of the Class of '88, have announced their intention of erecting a costly scientific building; and by the will of the late Mrs. Helen M. Jackson a new recitation hall and the establishment of a professorship in Civics are provided. The tuition fee of the college has been raised from $60 to $75, and again from $75 to $100; but the number of scholarships has greatly increased, and the college has been enabled to grant a large number of gratuities, so that the present amount of college aid annually available is about eight thousand dollars.

The increase in the number of students has been rapid. In 1880 there were seventy-five undergraduates in all departments; in 1890 there were a hundred and forty-five; and at present there are two hundred and ninety-one excluding the matriculates in the new Medical School. This growth has necessitated the appointment of another financial officer to relieve the Treasurer of a portion of his duties, and the Rev. W. A. Start, A. M., of the Class of '62, was made Bursar in 1895.

The activity of the student body has kept pace with its numerical growth. The students have been treated as men, with the result that they have generally deported themselves as men. Probably there has been a greater variety of "high- jinks " than ever before, but only a few things have been done for which the perpetrators need feel seriously ashamed of themselves. It is perhaps true that, owing to an exaggerated class-spirit and the decline of a number of traditional customs, the tone of student life had fallen off at the end of the eighties, but in the early nineties began a renaissance, which has ended by making the standard exceptionally high. Hazing, never a very prominent feature of life at Tufts, received its death-blow in 1882. For several years the Sophomores had been becoming more and more exacting in their demands on the Freshmen, and some unusually rough treatment in the Fall of 1879 had made the class of '83 thoroughly warm. The class of '84, however, refused to be hazed, and, being a strong class, established its independence after some hard fighting. The next year the same class passed anti-hazing resolutions, and when the upper classes opposed these, the Sophomores deliberately established themselves as protectors of the Freshmen, Metcalf Hall Theta Delta Chi Charge-House putting under the pump one of their own number who refused to be bound by the action of the class. Of course, hazing of a mild sort continued to exist, and still exists, but no one is ever hurt, the annual " Freshman Visitation" being merely a regular part of the college program. There have been mythical hazing societies which have attempted to organize the fun and make it more lively, but they never have revived the ill-natured spirit which disappeared ten years ago. Of these societies only the names ever existed, and the names only remain. Kappa Gamma Rho was imagined into existence in 1887, and its successor is Rho Kappa Tau.

The introduction of co-education has made a vast difference in the life of the students. When the college was first opened nothing was said regarding this matter, as it was intended to place Tufts College on a footing with the other New England colleges, which were not co-educational. The fathers of the movement, however, would probably have been glad to see women admitted on the same terms as men; for when a communication appeared in the " Trumpet" asking if the college was to be co-educational, Mr. Whittemore's published reply was that he saw no reason why it should not be so. Gradually, as the problem of co-education began to assume more and more importance in the college world, a number of the Trustees began to favor the admission of women to Tufts. President Capen was entirely in sympathy with the idea, and advocated it on all possible occasions. The Faculty and Alumni were divided on the subject; but the students were thoroughly in opposition, and their feeling was so strong that some members of the Faculty declared that many men would be kept away if women were admitted. In the Spring of 1882, however, President Capen publicly expressed his views; and the matter of raising the requisite extra funds was taken in hand by the Women's Universalist Missionary Society of Massachusetts, in 1886. Mrs. Caroline B. Skinner, of Somerville, was the most ardent worker in behalf of the movement, but she did not live to see its successful issue. Dying in that same year, she bequeathed her diamond ring and camel's hair shawl with the request that they be converted into money and used to advance the cause in which her interest was centered. The sum derived from these gifts formed the first contribution toward enabling Tufts to open its doors to women. The trustees were reluctant to make the final decision, because of the lack of any suitable accommodations; but it was thought that the few young women entering during the first year or two might find homes near the Hill, and in 1892 the first women students entered Tufts College. Five matriculated in the College of Letters, and three in the Divinity School. Of the former four were entered as Freshmen, while the fifth, entering as a Senior, attained the distinction of being the first woman to graduate from Tufts. This was Miss Henrietta N. Brown, daughter of Professor Brown, and now the wife of Assistant Professor Durkee.

At first the girls were looked upon as intruders, and '95, the last bachelor class to graduate, took to itself great credit for its womanless condition; but now that a large number of women are in attendance this feeling has died away. Whether co-education is best or not in the long run, its influence on the young men is a refining one. In 1894 a beautiful home was provided for the young women by the erection of Metcalf Hall, the gift of Albert Metcalf, of Newton. This is a handsome three-story structure of yellow brick with grey sandstone trimmings, situated on Professors Row. It contains a reception room, a library, a dining-room with admirable kitchen conveniences, and a suite of rooms for a matron, as well as dormitory accommodations for twenty-four students. The plans were drawn by the architect of the chapel and museum, J. Philip Rinn. There being as yet no women on the Faculty, the Trustees in 1895 appointed a committee of ladies to serve as an advisory counsel for the girls. The present members of this committee are Mrs. E. H. Capen, Mrs. W. A. Start, Mrs. Albert Metcalf, Mrs. D. L. Maulsby, and Miss Grace Marvin, M. D. There are now more than sixty young women in the College of Letters and Divinity School, besides a large number in the Medical School.

Student organizations have multiplied with great rapidity during this period. Three more Greek-letter fraternities have established chapters on the Hill, and three local secret societies have been founded. The Tufts Chapter of Delta Upsilon was instituted in 1886. It has grown steadily, and now occupies a commodious chapter house on Sawyer Avenue, completed in 1894. The Beta Mu Chapter of Delta Tau Delta was instituted in 1889, and at once took a high rank in college society. A chapter house was rented in 1892, and a much more commodious one, on Curtis Street, in 1894. The Gamma Beta Chapter of Alpha Tau Omega was instituted in 1893. In 1891 a local Hebrew-letter society was established in the Divinity School, and since 1894 it has occupied a house of its own on Sawyer Avenue. There are in all four chapter houses on the Hill, Theta Delta Chi having erected a large and admirably arranged building at the corner of Packard and Talbot Avenues in 1893. These houses form a part of the many building improvements which have taken place on and about the Hill in the last few years, and they are a credit to the organizations owning them. In 1895 two local societies were formed among the young women of the college, - Alpha Kappa Gamma and Alpha Delta Sigma. Both are still in their infancy, but show every promise of a successful career.

Naturally the growing power of the fraternities in college affairs has often been resented by the non-society students, and in the years from 1884 to 1886 this resentment took an active form. The non-society students were at that time strong in numbers, and in 1884 they united with Zeta Psi to oppose Theta Delta Chi. The next year the aid of Zeta Psi was disregarded, and for a short time the non-society men were in complete ascendancy. The entrance of other fraternities has made a great difference in matters of this sort, however. The bitterness which had grown up between the Zetes and the Thetes has passed away; and, although inter-fraternity coalitions are constantly formed for political purposes, the number of organizations prevents any rancorous factional jealousy.

The complaint has often been made that the fraternities at Tufts have killed off the general literary societies. This may be true, for it is a fact that the latter class of organization has had but a precarious existence for a number of years. The Zetagathean of the Divinity School was short-lived. The Sawyer Club was formed as a successor to it about 1890, but this also was not long for this world. The Mathetican existed for many years on the prestige of its name, but more and more difficulty was found in obtaining a quorum for its meetings, and, at length, on Jan. 24, 1896, a faithful few met together and formally disbanded the society. Thus passed away in the fifty-second year of its age an organization which, in its day, had been as powerful a factor in the training of men as any portion of the curriculum. The records of the Mathetican are deposited in the college library; its funds- for it did not die in poverty -have been bequeathed to a new association which has just been organized,- the Tufts Debating Union. This society, formed under the spur of a movement toward intercollegiate debate among the New England colleges, promises to be active, for a time at least. It meets weekly, debating subjects of current interest.

In the musical and dramatic field a constant activity has been maintained. For a time the Glee Club almost ceased to exist, but it has developed steadily during the last twelve years, having taken on a new activity during the years from 1883 to 1887, when Professor Lewis was a student. Since his return to the Hill his interest in the club has not abated, and he has carefully trained it each season. The club has a carefully arranged constitution, providing for an advisory committee of the Faculty. For some years it has held an enviable reputation as an entertainment organization, its dates being easily filled every season. The Mandolin and Guitar Club co-operates with the Glee Club, and is also among the first of its class. It is the successor of a Banjo Club, which it superseded when the mandolin crowded out the banjo as a fashionable instrument. A college orchestra was maintained for many years, but died out in the late eighties for lack of interest. At several periods a quartette has been organized by some of the best singers in College.

The Tufts Dramatic Club was organized in 1876, its leading spirit being J. H. Bradbury, who has since become widely known as a comedian. Apparently, however, this club did not live long. In 1886 the Stuft Club was organized; those principally interested being C. H. Paterson, who was an actor for some years after graduating, L. R. Lewis, C. K. Bolles, and E. J. Crandall. It died with the departure from college of John Burgess Weeks in 1892. Mr. Weeks is now stage manager for Otis Skinner. In 1894, the class of '95 presented an original comedy entitled "Me an' Otis," the honors being divided between the author, C. H. Wells, and C. D. Clark. In 1895, under the direction of Professor Maulsby,- who, by the way, was also a charter member of the Stuft Club,--a grand reproduction of Nicholas Udall's comedy, " Ralph Roister Doister," was given in the Gymnasium. The leading rôle was played by Mr. Clark, who is now preparing for the stage in New York. Thus, up to the present time, every dramatic venture at Tufts has furnished the stage with an able comedian. The latest dramatic organization to be formed is the Modjeska Club, the purpose of which is the production of legitimate drama. It came into being in the Winter of 1895, and Goldsmith's "Good-natured Man" is announced for production this Spring.

Among other organizations may be mentioned the Evening Party Association, which has now been in existence for several years. Who its founders were is not known. For some time it had a hard struggle for existence; but hard work on the part of the managers in 1894-95 resulted in the payment of its old debts and its establishment on a sound basis. Six or seven parties are regularly given each year, and since the advent of the young women they have become almost exclusively college affairs. A branch of the National Young People's Christian Union was established on the Hill in 1891, and is doing much good in a quiet way. A Republican Club and a Prohibition Club were organized in 1892. The latter is active, the former resuming its existence as occasion requires. The Tufts Chess Club has been maintained most of the time; and a Bicycle Club, which was formed eight or nine years ago, was active until recently. Among other societies which have flourished at one time or another during the last few years may be mentioned a Sketch Club, a Camera Club, a Telegraphic Association, a Pedestrian Club, and an Engineering Fraternity. A graduate association known as the Tufts College Club flourished for a number of years, reaching its maximum strength in 1885 and 1886, but it is now practically extinct. The Tufts College Alumni Association has existed as a strong organization for many years. Alumni Day was celebrated at the Hill until 1888; an annual dinner is now served in Boston.

A number of social customs have been inaugurated during the past decade. The most important is Class Day, the credit for permanently establishing which belongs to the Class of '91. Class Day had been celebrated before, but always as a strictly Senior affair; and the custom had at length almost died out. The Class of '91 determined to enlist the sympathy of all the classes, and to that end made a canvass of the entire college. The program arranged was of a general nature. The occasion was a great success; and the succeeding classes were ready and eager to take up the custom. It has been celebrated ever since, with but few departures from the program offered by '91. The wearing of caps and gowns was introduced by the Class of '92, the members of which first wore them on May 8th of that year. About ten years previously Oxford caps with colored tassels had been worn for a short time by all the classes. The Junior Promenade was introduced by '91, the first being given on May 29, 1890. The custom has been followed by all the succeeding classes except '95 and '96, the former class substituting the play, "Me an' Otis," already mentioned.

The history of athletics during this period is well worth study. In the previous chapter anticipatory reference was made to the successes of the baseball and football teams during the first years of President Capen's administration. Both teams were already strong in 1875, and they soon dealt out defeat to the representatives of many larger institutions, including Harvard itself. The make-up of these two teams is a matter of historical interest, and is therefore given in full. In 1875 the football team was captained by L. W. Aldrich, '76; the other regular players being F. B. Harrington, '77; A. B. Fletcher, '76; P. N. Branch, '77; H. D. Nash, '77; C. L. Cushman, '78; A. P. French, '76; C. A. Sprague, '76; H. L. Whithed, '77; W. M. Perry, '78; and L. M. Ballou, '78. Harrington was captain and catcher of the baseball nine, and Ballou was pitcher; G. T. Knight, now of the Divinity Faculty, was 1st base; C. O. Murray, '77, 2d base; S. P. Record, '77, 3d base; C. R. Tenney, centre field; W. M. Perry, left field; W. W. Campbell, '78, right field; and D. R. Brown, '77, short stop. As has already been said, the strength of these teams lay to a great extent in the way in which the entire college took part in athletic sports. The system of specializing players which has since come into vogue in almost all colleges is radically wrong, for it seriously impairs enthusiasm, which is above all things necessary to a winning team. After the period of greatness followed a period of decline, in football especially, which lasted until quite recently. A very strong football team was put into the field in 1892, but there followed a period of weakness which is just beginning to give place to one of new strength. The development of baseball during the last few years has been steady, and in 1895 a remarkably fine nine was placed in the field. On April 20, 1895, a good " fair and square " game with Harvard on Holmes Field resulted in a victory for Tufts with a score of eleven to seven. Much good tennis playing has been done on the college courts, but for the last two years the game has not received the official attention it deserves. This is soon to be remedied, however.

The custom of holding an annual Field Day, which had been out of use for many years, was re-established by the Class of 1892. An ineffectual attempt was made to secure the co-operation of all the classes, and the meet was held by '92 alone on March 21, 1890. Although no records were broken the occasion was a success, and the rest of the college at once expressed a willingness to take up the matter. Accordingly a Field Day Association was formed, and the first regularly established college Field Day was held on May 31, 1891. An Indoor Meet in the Gymnasium was established soon after, and on June 7, 1892, the Class of '91 offered a silver cup, to be held each year by the class scoring the greatest number of points at the two Meets. The following table shows the best records of the college in the various events up to the present time: -

TIME OR DISTANCE. 100 yards dash, C. H. Dickens, '9410.1 sec. 220 yards dash, C. C. Stroud, '9423.1 sec. 50 yards dash, C. H. Dickens, '945.6 sec. 60 yards dash, G. H. Dickens, '946.8 sec. ¼ mile run, G. L. Thompson, '9755 sec. ½; mile run, G. M. Friend, '802 min. 15 sec. Mile run, B. B. Planter, '774 min. 59 sec. Mile walk, W. W. Russ, '939 min. 28 sec. 2 Mile Bicycle Race, J. F. Simpson, '976 min. 4.5 sec. Standing Broad Jump, C. C. Stroud, '949 ft. 9 in. Standing Broad Jump (indoor), Carpenter '999 ft. 9 in. Running Broad Jump, C. C. Stroud,'9418 ft. 9.5 in. Standing High Jump, G. C. Pierce, '964 ft. 7.2 in. Running High Jump, G. C. Pierce, '965 ft. 6 in. Hop, Step and Jump, C. C. Stroud,'9441 ft. Throwing Hammer, R. E. Healey, '9789 ft. Putting Shot, W. S. Cummings, '9635 ft. Throwing Baseball, C. M. Johnson,'93348 ft. 1 in. Fence Vault, H. A. Davis, '976 ft. 6.6 in. Pole Vault, F. H. Pember, '948 ft. 8.5 in. Running High Kick, E. K. Carpenter, '999 ft. 33 in.

A new Athletic Association was organized in September, 1891, with F. W. Perkins as its first President. The old organization had died out some years before, and the various branches of athletics, each upheld by those especially interested, were all suffering by reason of conflicting interests. The constitution of this association provided for an Advisory Committee consisting of three undergraduates, three alumni, and three members of the Faculty. The different branches of athletics were placed in charge of separate committees, over which the Advisory Committee exercised supervision. The membership fee was five dollars. In 1893 the athletic records of the college were investigated by the association, and medals were offered to those who should better them. In many ways the existence of the Athletic Association was beneficial, but its membership was small compared to that of the student body, and by the year 1895 its finances had sunk to a deplorable condition. It was then that the Trustees, at the desire of a majority of the students, decided to add six dollars to the regular gymnasium fee of four dollars, and devote the money thus raised to the purposes of out-door instruction and the improvement of the Tufts Oval, a new athletic field fenced off in 1894. This action was heartily indorsed by the students in mass meeting assembled, and since the Athletic Association, by virtue of the fact that its constitution confined the privilege of voting on athletic affairs to those who had paid the five dollars fee for the year, was practically killed by being deprived of its position of financial control, it was formally dissolved, and a new constitution for the government of athletics was adopted by the students as a whole. In framing this constitution many errors which experience had shown in the old organization have been avoided, but the only material difference between the two is the enlargement of the number of members, or electors. Each department of athletics is now in the hands of a single manager instead of a committee of three as heretofore, and several other minor changes have been made.

Altogether the athletic spirit of Tufts is growing broader; and though it is doubtful if it will ever again have the general character which it possessed when the college was smaller, the interest of a much larger share of the students is enlisted by thus drawing them into the enlarged Athletic Association. Among several good rules which have recently been adopted by the Advisory Committee is one which excludes all but students in regular standing from playing on the college teams.

Last among the various phases of college activity which have been reviewed in this chapter comes the college Press, but it by no means ranks at the end of the list in importance. The Press mirrors the life of the community which it represents; and journalism at Tufts has kept pace with the other rapidly broadening activities of the institution. In 1878 Zeta Psi and Theta Delta Chi reconciled their differences and again united in publishing an annual, which consisted of seventy-two pages, and was christened the " Brown and Blue " from the college colors. In the same year the " Collegian " was re-christened the "Tuftonian," which name, although lacking any philological foundation, has been thus perpetuated. In 1886 the paper was changed from a monthly to a bi-weekly, but it was made a monthly again in 1895, the " Tufts Weekly," an eight page news sheet, being established under the management of the same staff. This paper satisfies a long felt want, by giving the news of the college before it is stale, and by furnishing a medium for the publication of notices and college documents. The "Tuftonian" and the " Weekly" should now be placed under separate boards of editors, the former, by a change in management, being made to fill a place resembling that of the Harvard Graduates' Magazine. By the constitution of the Publishing Association the editorial staff of the papers consists of eleven editors, who are apportioned among the fraternities and other bodies of students interested according to the proportion of subscriptions furnished. The choice of the Editor-in-chief is left to the Faculty, and only once has it ever been taken from that body. The occasion was the non-society uprising in 1885, when the controlling forces refused to submit the appointment, electing C. M. Ludden, '86, on their own responsibility.

As in other colleges, the publication of an annual has fallen into the hands of the Junior Class. In 1888 the pamphlet had reached a considerable size, with numerous illustrations, and also numerous " grinds." Soon after followed a bound volume of the regular type, familiar to every one conversant with college life and customs. The " Brown and Blue " was issued regularly until 1894, when the Junior Class, wishing to show some degree of originality and offer something of permanent value, published a collection of "Tufts Songs." In the preparation of this work, the editors received valuable aid from Professor Lewis, and the book, which contains a large number of songs written by Tufts men, is a valuable contribution from a musical as well as a college point of view. The present volume represents another departure from the traditional custom. Up to the date of its publication, there have been only a few magazine articles to tell the history of the college, and only the quinquennial or triennial catalogues to furnish a record of its alumni. Tufts College has reached a point in its career when its history is worth writing,--when the writing of it as it should be written is already a task beyond the student whose time is largely occupied with other work; but those who have collected the material for this publication feel that what leisure they could afford could be spent in no better way than in an attempt at least to tell the story of their Alma Mater. At some future day- perhaps when the centennial of the college is celebrated- some one will take up the work and give to it the time and care which it deserves. Both time and care will indeed be requisite fifty years from now, for history is being made almost faster than it can be written, and the story of "Charlie's Light" will be the story of a lamp which has burned very brightly and illumined a wide-spreading circle with its rays. Bromfield-Pearson Building Commons Building

IN choosing a successor to Dr. Miner the first name to be considered was that of another veteran member of the Board of Trustees, the Hon. Israel Washburn, Jr., Ex-Governor of Maine. Although the committee appointed to confer with him received but little encouragement, he was elected to the office; but he declined it at once. Upon further consideration, the committee to which the matter was referred, decided that it would be for the best interests of the college to place one of its own graduates at its head; and on March 13, 1875, the Rev. Elmer Hewitt Capen, of the class of 1860, who was deeply interested in educational matters, and was at that time in charge of a prominent parish, was nominated for the presidency. His election was precipitated by a petition from the Faculty of the college, asking that he be called; and on June 2, 1875, his inauguration took place.

During the administration of President Capen the growth of the college has been wonderfully rapid, both upon material and intellectual lines. Under Dr. Ballou, in spite of financial deficiencies and the lack of facilities for work, a place was made in the world of letters for the young institution; under Dr. Miner this place was made secure by a substantial material support; under Dr. Capen PROGRESS has been the watchword of the college, and the scope of its work has been broadened and deepened, and the circle of its influence constantly widened, until it holds to-day a place in the front rank of educational institutions.

Soon after the accession of President Capen indications of an increasing spirit of liberality began to appear in the government of the college, one of the most marked being an increasing elasticity of the curriculum. The policy of raising the standard of all requirements and broadening the opportunities for elective work at once began. Thirty-two term-hours [1]  was the amount of work required annually of each student, except in the Senior year, when but thirty hours were required. In the year 1877-78 the Juniors were allowed to elect four term-hours, and the Seniors seven; while in 1890- 91, the Sophomores were allowed to elect three, the Juniors twelve, and the Seniors fifteen. The required work in Latin, Greek, and Mathematics, which had extended over two years, was soon confined to one year and a half. In 1875 the Philosophical Course was extended to cover four years, the requirements for admission being the same as those of the regular course with the substitution of French for Greek. In 1890 elementary French or German was made requisite for admission to the regular course, and in 1891 a so-called Modern Language Course was established, leading to the degree of A. B., and requiring for admission the presentation of advanced work in French, with elementary preparation in German, or vice versa. An intermediate preparation in the Modern Languages was required for the Philosophical Course, which now practically coincided with the A. B. course except in its more elastic requirements for admission. The standard of work in the Engineering Department also has been raised steadily: in 1882 a course in Electrical Engineering was offered, and one in Mechanical Engineering in 1894. In 1892 the courses were extended to cover four years.

Naturally, so many progressive changes could not be made without necessitating numerous additions to the teaching force; and the membership of the Faculty of Letters has been more than doubled, having increased from eleven in 1874 to

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twenty-six in 1895. The strengthening of the department of Science began with the appointment of Professor Dolbear in 1874. In 1877, on the expiration of his term as Walker Special Instructor, Mr. Pitman was appointed Professor of Chemistry, thus leaving Professor Marshall free to devote his entire time to Mineralogy, Geology, and Natural History. Professor Pitman was absent from the college during the year 1881-82, and resigned his position at the beginning of the next year. During his absence the noted chemist, Arthur Michael, A. M. (later Ph. D.), had directed the work of the department, and upon Professor Pitman's resignation he was appointed to fill the vacancy. A wealthy man as well as an ardent scientist, he personally employed a number of instructors and assistants, and the laboratory at Tufts became well known as a seat of research. Professor Michael resigned his position in 1889, and Arthur M. Comey, Ph. D., who had served as assistant under Professor Michael in 1882-83, was called to the chair. Professor Comey served until 1893, when he resigned, and during the next year Frank W. Durkee, A. M., of the class of '88, who had been appointed Instructor in 1889, served as Acting Professor. In the following year Dr. Michael returned to Tufts, where lie now directs the work of the graduate department, Mr. Durkee having charge of the undergraduate work with the title of Assistant Professor. John E. Bucher, Ph. D., was appointed Instructor in Organic Chemistry in 1894, and Howard H. Higbee, Ph. D., Instructor in Quantitative Analysis in 1895. During the year 1894-95, T. H. Clark, Ph. D., served in the latter capacity. Several assistants are also employed. As a further step in the development of the scientific department, a chair of Biology was established in 1892, and filled by an enthusiast in his work, J. Sterling Kingsley, S. D., a graduate of Williams College. Under his direction this department has grown rapidly. The Natural History scholarships have been converted into two fellowships of two hundred and fifty dollars

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each, and are now held by two graduate students. One A. M. and one Ph. D. have already been granted in Biology.

Two other new departments have been established, - that of History in 1892; and that of Music in 1895. The former is in charge of Edwin A. Start, A. M., a graduate of the class of '84, who brought to his work, besides the preparation of a scholar, the experience of several years in journalism and political affairs. He has been obliged to create the department, but has done so very successfully, and now offers a comprehensive list of courses. In 1877 the instructorship in Vocal Music was discontinued, and no further work was done in that line until 1895, when a chair of the History and Theory of Music was created, with Leo R. Lewis, A. M., a graduate of the class of '87, as its incumbent. Mr. Lewis had been appointed Instructor in French in 1892, and he is still giving some courses in that language although devoting his principal energies to his special department. He has secured the gift of an exceptionally fine musical library; and his thorough knowledge of his subject and his ability as a teacher foreshadow success.

In the departments of Mathematics and Engineering a number of appointments have been made. In 1883 William L. Hooper, A. M., a graduate of the class of '77, was appointed Assistant Professor of Physics, and in 1890 he was made Professor of Electrical Engineering. He is an expert in electricity, and under his care the department of Electrical Engineering has become known among practical electricians for the thorough quality of its work. In 1893 Gardner C. Anthony, A. M., was appointed Professor of Technical Drawing, and also Dean of the newly established Bromfield-Pearson School. Frank E. Sanborn, a graduate of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, was appointed Walker Special Instructor in 1891, and on the expiration of his term of three years was made Instructor in Mechanical Engineering. Also in 1891, Frank T. Daniels, A. M. B., of the class of 1890,

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was appointed Assistant in Drawing and Surveying, and in the following year he became Instructor in Civil Engineering. In 1893 Horatio W. Myrick, A. M. B., also of the Class of '90, was appointed Instructor in Electrical Engineering, and the next year he was appointed to the Walker Instructorship also. He resigned both positions in 1896, -Frank G. Wren, '94, already an Instructor in Mathematics, being appointed to fill the latter. Practical working in wood and metal has been made a feature of the Engineering department. James M. Merrill served as Instructor in Carpentry in 1889-90, S. Thomas Kirk in 1890-91; and in 1893 George H. Furbish was engaged as a teacher and placed in charge of the shops in the Bromfield-Pearson School.

In 1891 the classical department received a valuable addition in Frank P. Graves, Ph. D., a graduate of Columbia University, who came to the Hill as Instructor in Greek and now holds the title of Professor of Classical Philology. In the same year David L. Maulsby, A. M., of the Class of '87 was appointed Professor of English Literature and Oratory. Professor M. T. Brown at this time went to reside in Ohio, and was made Emeritus. The appointment of Professor Maulsby removed one burden from the broad shoulders of Professor Shipman, who, having charge of the entire department of English together with Logic and Psychology, had perpetuated to an unnecessary extent the program of self-sacrificing hard labor of the earlier members of the Faculty. A further division of his work was accomplished in 1894 by the appointment of Thomas Whittemore, '94, as Instructor in English. Charles St. C. Wade, A. M., '94, was appointed Instructor in French in the same year; and a number of recent graduates of the college, and others, are at present serving as assistants in the departments of Modern Languages, Philosophy, and Engineering.

In 1893 a great change was made in the curriculum,-- a change which has given Tufts College a new prominence and

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made it a leader in the march of educational progress. The expansion of the Philosophical Course, and the establishment of the so-called Modern Language Course, had both been steps in one direction, - namely, the conforming of the college requirements to the preparatory training of English High Schools and such other preparatory institutions as furnished other than a strictly " Classical" course. These new courses offered by the college were merely compromises, and for several succeeding years President Capen, in his annual reports, expressed the hope that some more satisfactory arrangement would soon be made. At length, during the year 1892-93, Edwin A. Start, then serving his first year as a member of the Faculty, secured the appointment of a committee to consider a plan whereby the entire curriculum of the college should be remodelled, the object being to render it more elastic, and at the same time more productive of genuine scholarship than before. The committee consisted of President Capen, Professors Shipman, Comey, and Graves, and Mr. Start. A report, drawn up by Mr. Start, was presented to the Faculty by the committee, and was adopted after considerable discussion. Circular announcements were at once sent out, and the new system went into effect with the opening of the Fall term of 1893.

Under this plan, the requirement for the Bachelor's degree is the satisfactory completion of one hundred and twenty- eight term-hours of college work, the factor of a certain term of residence being eliminated. Any student capable of completing this amount of work, with the attainment of a high average, in three years, may receive the degree at the end of that time. One man has already done so, while another has attained to the Master's degree at the end of four years. Of this hundred and twenty-eight term-hours, fifty are occupied with prescribed work, but in all departments except English and Mathematics the requirements are by groups, not by subjects, thus allowing some choice.

Placed in tabular form the prescribed work, including a reasonable amount of Physical Training, is as follows:-

  TERM HOURS
 LANGUAGES (Latin, Greek, French, German; each student to take three)18
 ENGLISH (Rhetoric, Composition, Themes, Oratory)12
 MATHEMATICS6
 >SCIENCE (Physics, Chemistry, Biology; each student to take one)6
 MENTAL AND MORAL SCIENCES (Philosophy, History, Political Science; each student to take one full or two half subjects)6
 PHYSICAL TRAINING2
 A total of50

A large portion of the prescribed work can be completed in the Freshman year, and at the beginning of the Sophomore year each student chooses a major subject, in which he must complete work amounting to eighteen term-hours. The student's major instructor becomes his official adviser in matters relating to his college course, and under his advice, the student chooses eighteen more term-hours of work in subjects which will aid him in his major study. The balance of his work--forty-two term-hours--he is at liberty to elect as he pleases, subject only to the arrangement of the college program. Nearly all the courses in the curriculum have been arranged for three recitations per week; and by a careful grouping of subjects on alternate days, there occur but few cases of a student being altogether debarred from taking any course on account of conflict in the program.

The advantages of this plan of arrangement are manifold and self-evident. To quote the circular which announced it to the world, it was adopted "in the belief that the true ground for promotion is intellectual attainment, and that the fixed requirement of a certain number of years of study,

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without regard to the mental power and achievements of the individual student, does not tend to encourage the highest scholarship." To quote still further: " It will be seen that this plan is at once liberal, controlled, and elastic. Through- out his course the student will have large liberty in choosing his work, but a considerable portion of that work will be arranged for him and directed by men who can judge of his requirements better than he can himself. A reasonable amount of guided specialization is provided for, and each student will be brought into personal relations with his major instructor, in a way that can hardly fail to produce good results in his college work." The expectations set forth in the above quotations have been fully realized. A change has been wrought in the intellectual life of the students. They no longer drag through the prescribed studies because they are prescribed, electing "snaps" whenever the oppor- tunity offers. Working for honors in a major subject means just so much preparation for a chosen profession, and the result is that while each student receives the benefit of a broad and liberal education, he accomplishes in some special line results really worthy of a scholar. The system has now been in operation nearly three years, and during this time has shown itself to be a step in the right direction of which Tufts College may well be proud. With a more logical system of entrance requirements to round out and complete it, it will leave little to be desired.

The material development of the college has kept pace with the intellectual. The library has grown rapidly. By the year 1886 it could no longer be accommodated in Ballou Hall, and a stack was built at the rear of Middle Hall, which is now the library building, although still accommodating a few students. Professor Keen had served as librarian during his life, and Professor Shipman, who succeeded him, occupied the position until 1884, when Miss Helen L. Mellen, who had for some time performed the active duties of the

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office, was placed in charge. Among the principal gifts to the library are an alcove of books from Miss Mary E. Bacon, and about twenty-five hundred volumes from the late Thomas Whittemore, D. D. In 1880 friends of the college procured for it a considerable portion of the library of the late Dr. Chapin. The Joy Library Fund was increased to twenty thousand dollars in 1886, and soon after the library of the late W. H. Ryder, D. D., was given by Mrs. Ryder. The most recent additions to the library are the fine historical collection of the late Richard Frothingham, A. M., and the musical collection already mentioned.

Many buildings have been erected during this period. Goddard Chapel was dedicated on March 29, 1882. It was given by Mrs. Mary T. Goddard in memory of her husband, Thomas A. Goddard; and its tall campanile rises as a beautiful monument to the most modest, but one of the most large hearted benefactors of the college. The architect of the chapel is J. Philip Rinn, of Boston, and the edifice has been described by competent judges as one of the ten finest pieces of architecture in New England. The gymnasium, also a gift from Mrs. Goddard, was completed in 1884. Although its arrangements leave something to be desired, it has served the purposes of the college well until lately; the present body of students calls for a larger building. From 1885 to 1889, with the exception of the year 1886-87, Fremont Swain, M. D., was engaged as Gymnasium Director. In 1889 Mr. Durkee assumed this position, retaining it until 1895, when Charles C. Stroud '94 was engaged. W. R. Woodbury, M. D., of the class of '85, is now serving as Medical Examiner. He is also a lecturer in the Medical School, the establishment of which is chronicled in another chapter.

In 1882 the Barnum Museum, the gift of the great showman whose name it bears, was begun. Mr. Barnum gave $55,000 for the original building, and by his will left $40,000 more for the addition of two wings, one of which has already

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been built. The museum is an imposing structure of gray slate stone, and contains, in addition to large exhibition halls, roomy and well-lighted lecture rooms and laboratories for elementary, advanced, and graduate work in Biology, Mineralogy, and Geology. The new wing, especially, which was designed under the supervision of Dr. Kingsley, is a model in its arrangements for work. Mr. Barnum gave a large collection of stuffed animals to the museum, and in the main hall, calm and majestic as in life, Jumbo still draws around him a court of admirers. Through the efforts of Professor Marshall a noteworthy collection of minerals and fossils is also on exhibition.

Dean Hall, a three-story brick dormitory, erected with funds left by the late Dr. Oliver Dean, was completed in 1886. It is not beautiful to look at, but its rooms are the finest on the Hill. The Divinity buildings, Miner Hall and Paige Hall, will be spoken of in the next chapter.

The Bromfield-Pearson School was established in 1894, with funds left by the late Henry B. Pearson, and occupies a commodious brick building between Boston Avenue and College Avenue. It provides a course of technical instruction extending through two years, and also serves as a preparatory school for the Engineering department. Under the charge of Professor Anthony the school is doing very successful work. The building affords the best of opportunities for practical shop-work, and the Engineering students of the college are given instruction in this line. For a time previous to the erection of the building they were obliged to go to the Cambridge Manual Training School and elsewhere for this purpose.

Three other new buildings were completed in 1894, the Chemical Laboratory, the Common Building, and Metcalf Hall, -a dormitory for women. The Chemical Laboratory is a temporary wooden building, not unlike a shoe-shop in appearance; but it contains every facility for work, and will

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serve its purpose well until the erection of a new building. The Commons Building contains the college dining-room, or "Dive," a general book and supply store, and a post-office, while the second and third floors are occupied by rooms for students. Both these buildings are at the foot of the Hill, near the Bromfield-Pearson School. By the erection of the Chemical Laboratory and the Bromfield-Pearson building, the scientific apparatus has been removed from Ballou Hall, with the exception of that of the Physical department, which occupies the third floor of the building. The rooms formerly occupied by the department of Chemistry are now fitted up as lecture rooms with connecting department libraries for the departments of History and English Literature.

The increase in the number of buildings, and the improvement of the grounds, have made necessary the employment of a large force of janitors and all-round men, but among these there are still two faces familiar to graduates of years gone by. Patrick Byrne, the original farmer and general factotum of the college, is still in charge of the grounds, and has had the pleasure of seeing a son graduate in the class of 1894. Nicholas Dwyer, too, is an old stand-by, whose loyalty to the college is sincere and aggressive.

The financial contributions to the college have been steady and substantial. In 1885 Miss Harriet H. Fay left the amount necessary to support a professorship of English Literature, and in 1887 came a bequest of $25,000 from Henry B. Pearson to found a professorship in some branch of Natural Science, while numerous smaller contributions have been received. Recently Mrs. Robinson, widow of Charles Robinson, LL.D., late President of the Board of Trustees, and her son Sumner Robinson, A. M., LL.B., of the Class of '88, have announced their intention of erecting a costly scientific building; and by the will of the late Mrs. Helen M. Jackson a new recitation hall and the establishment of a professorship in Civics are provided. The tuition fee of the college has been

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raised from $60 to $75, and again from $75 to $100; but the number of scholarships has greatly increased, and the college has been enabled to grant a large number of gratuities, so that the present amount of college aid annually available is about eight thousand dollars.

The increase in the number of students has been rapid. In 1880 there were seventy-five undergraduates in all departments; in 1890 there were a hundred and forty-five; and at present there are two hundred and ninety-one excluding the matriculates in the new Medical School. This growth has necessitated the appointment of another financial officer to relieve the Treasurer of a portion of his duties, and the Rev. W. A. Start, A. M., of the Class of '62, was made Bursar in 1895.

The activity of the student body has kept pace with its numerical growth. The students have been treated as men, with the result that they have generally deported themselves as men. Probably there has been a greater variety of "high- jinks " than ever before, but only a few things have been done for which the perpetrators need feel seriously ashamed of themselves. It is perhaps true that, owing to an exaggerated class-spirit and the decline of a number of traditional customs, the tone of student life had fallen off at the end of the eighties, but in the early nineties began a renaissance, which has ended by making the standard exceptionally high. Hazing, never a very prominent feature of life at Tufts, received its death-blow in 1882. For several years the Sophomores had been becoming more and more exacting in their demands on the Freshmen, and some unusually rough treatment in the Fall of 1879 had made the class of '83 thoroughly warm. The class of '84, however, refused to be hazed, and, being a strong class, established its independence after some hard fighting. The next year the same class passed anti-hazing resolutions, and when the upper classes opposed these, the Sophomores deliberately established themselves as protectors of the Freshmen,

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putting under the pump one of their own number who refused to be bound by the action of the class. Of course, hazing of a mild sort continued to exist, and still exists, but no one is ever hurt, the annual " Freshman Visitation" being merely a regular part of the college program. There have been mythical hazing societies which have attempted to organize the fun and make it more lively, but they never have revived the ill-natured spirit which disappeared ten years ago. Of these societies only the names ever existed, and the names only remain. Kappa Gamma Rho was imagined into existence in 1887, and its successor is Rho Kappa Tau.

The introduction of co-education has made a vast difference in the life of the students. When the college was first opened nothing was said regarding this matter, as it was intended to place Tufts College on a footing with the other New England colleges, which were not co-educational. The fathers of the movement, however, would probably have been glad to see women admitted on the same terms as men; for when a communication appeared in the " Trumpet" asking if the college was to be co-educational, Mr. Whittemore's published reply was that he saw no reason why it should not be so. Gradually, as the problem of co-education began to assume more and more importance in the college world, a number of the Trustees began to favor the admission of women to Tufts. President Capen was entirely in sympathy with the idea, and advocated it on all possible occasions. The Faculty and Alumni were divided on the subject; but the students were thoroughly in opposition, and their feeling was so strong that some members of the Faculty declared that many men would be kept away if women were admitted. In the Spring of 1882, however, President Capen publicly expressed his views; and the matter of raising the requisite extra funds was taken in hand by the Women's Universalist Missionary Society of Massachusetts, in 1886. Mrs. Caroline B. Skinner, of Somerville, was the most ardent worker in behalf of the

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movement, but she did not live to see its successful issue. Dying in that same year, she bequeathed her diamond ring and camel's hair shawl with the request that they be converted into money and used to advance the cause in which her interest was centered. The sum derived from these gifts formed the first contribution toward enabling Tufts to open its doors to women. The trustees were reluctant to make the final decision, because of the lack of any suitable accommodations; but it was thought that the few young women entering during the first year or two might find homes near the Hill, and in 1892 the first women students entered Tufts College. Five matriculated in the College of Letters, and three in the Divinity School. Of the former four were entered as Freshmen, while the fifth, entering as a Senior, attained the distinction of being the first woman to graduate from Tufts. This was Miss Henrietta N. Brown, daughter of Professor Brown, and now the wife of Assistant Professor Durkee.

At first the girls were looked upon as intruders, and '95, the last bachelor class to graduate, took to itself great credit for its womanless condition; but now that a large number of women are in attendance this feeling has died away. Whether co-education is best or not in the long run, its influence on the young men is a refining one. In 1894 a beautiful home was provided for the young women by the erection of Metcalf Hall, the gift of Albert Metcalf, of Newton. This is a handsome three-story structure of yellow brick with grey sandstone trimmings, situated on Professors Row. It contains a reception room, a library, a dining-room with admirable kitchen conveniences, and a suite of rooms for a matron, as well as dormitory accommodations for twenty-four students. The plans were drawn by the architect of the chapel and museum, J. Philip Rinn. There being as yet no women on the Faculty, the Trustees in 1895 appointed a committee of ladies to serve as an advisory counsel for the girls. The present members of this committee are Mrs. E. H. Capen,

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Mrs. W. A. Start, Mrs. Albert Metcalf, Mrs. D. L. Maulsby, and Miss Grace Marvin, M. D. There are now more than sixty young women in the College of Letters and Divinity School, besides a large number in the Medical School.

Student organizations have multiplied with great rapidity during this period. Three more Greek-letter fraternities have established chapters on the Hill, and three local secret societies have been founded. The Tufts Chapter of Delta Upsilon was instituted in 1886. It has grown steadily, and now occupies a commodious chapter house on Sawyer Avenue, completed in 1894. The Beta Mu Chapter of Delta Tau Delta was instituted in 1889, and at once took a high rank in college society. A chapter house was rented in 1892, and a much more commodious one, on Curtis Street, in 1894. The Gamma Beta Chapter of Alpha Tau Omega was instituted in 1893. In 1891 a local Hebrew-letter society was established in the Divinity School, and since 1894 it has occupied a house of its own on Sawyer Avenue. There are in all four chapter houses on the Hill, Theta Delta Chi having erected a large and admirably arranged building at the corner of Packard and Talbot Avenues in 1893. These houses form a part of the many building improvements which have taken place on and about the Hill in the last few years, and they are a credit to the organizations owning them. In 1895 two local societies were formed among the young women of the college, - Alpha Kappa Gamma and Alpha Delta Sigma. Both are still in their infancy, but show every promise of a successful career.

Naturally the growing power of the fraternities in college affairs has often been resented by the non-society students, and in the years from 1884 to 1886 this resentment took an active form. The non-society students were at that time strong in numbers, and in 1884 they united with Zeta Psi to oppose Theta Delta Chi. The next year the aid of Zeta Psi was disregarded, and for a short time the non-society men

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were in complete ascendancy. The entrance of other fraternities has made a great difference in matters of this sort, however. The bitterness which had grown up between the Zetes and the Thetes has passed away; and, although inter-fraternity coalitions are constantly formed for political purposes, the number of organizations prevents any rancorous factional jealousy.

The complaint has often been made that the fraternities at Tufts have killed off the general literary societies. This may be true, for it is a fact that the latter class of organization has had but a precarious existence for a number of years. The Zetagathean of the Divinity School was short-lived. The Sawyer Club was formed as a successor to it about 1890, but this also was not long for this world. The Mathetican existed for many years on the prestige of its name, but more and more difficulty was found in obtaining a quorum for its meetings, and, at length, on Jan. 24, 1896, a faithful few met together and formally disbanded the society. Thus passed away in the fifty-second year of its age an organization which, in its day, had been as powerful a factor in the training of men as any portion of the curriculum. The records of the Mathetican are deposited in the college library; its funds- for it did not die in poverty -have been bequeathed to a new association which has just been organized,- the Tufts Debating Union. This society, formed under the spur of a movement toward intercollegiate debate among the New England colleges, promises to be active, for a time at least. It meets weekly, debating subjects of current interest.

In the musical and dramatic field a constant activity has been maintained. For a time the Glee Club almost ceased to exist, but it has developed steadily during the last twelve years, having taken on a new activity during the years from 1883 to 1887, when Professor Lewis was a student. Since his return to the Hill his interest in the club has not abated, and he has

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carefully trained it each season. The club has a carefully arranged constitution, providing for an advisory committee of the Faculty. For some years it has held an enviable reputation as an entertainment organization, its dates being easily filled every season. The Mandolin and Guitar Club co-operates with the Glee Club, and is also among the first of its class. It is the successor of a Banjo Club, which it superseded when the mandolin crowded out the banjo as a fashionable instrument. A college orchestra was maintained for many years, but died out in the late eighties for lack of interest. At several periods a quartette has been organized by some of the best singers in College.

The Tufts Dramatic Club was organized in 1876, its leading spirit being J. H. Bradbury, who has since become widely known as a comedian. Apparently, however, this club did not live long. In 1886 the Stuft Club was organized; those principally interested being C. H. Paterson, who was an actor for some years after graduating, L. R. Lewis, C. K. Bolles, and E. J. Crandall. It died with the departure from college of John Burgess Weeks in 1892. Mr. Weeks is now stage manager for Otis Skinner. In 1894, the class of '95 presented an original comedy entitled "Me an' Otis," the honors being divided between the author, C. H. Wells, and C. D. Clark. In 1895, under the direction of Professor Maulsby,- who, by the way, was also a charter member of the Stuft Club,--a grand reproduction of Nicholas Udall's comedy, " Ralph Roister Doister," was given in the Gymnasium. The leading rôle was played by Mr. Clark, who is now preparing for the stage in New York. Thus, up to the present time, every dramatic venture at Tufts has furnished the stage with an able comedian. The latest dramatic organization to be formed is the Modjeska Club, the purpose of which is the production of legitimate drama. It came into being in the Winter of 1895, and Goldsmith's "Good-natured Man" is announced for production this Spring.

Among other organizations may be mentioned the Evening Party Association, which has now been in existence for several years. Who its founders were is not known. For some time it had a hard struggle for existence; but hard work on the part of the managers in 1894-95 resulted in the payment of its old debts and its establishment on a sound basis. Six or seven parties are regularly given each year, and since the advent of the young women they have become almost exclusively college affairs. A branch of the National Young People's Christian Union was established on the Hill in 1891, and is doing much good in a quiet way. A Republican Club and a Prohibition Club were organized in 1892. The latter is active, the former resuming its existence as occasion requires. The Tufts Chess Club has been maintained most of the time; and a Bicycle Club, which was formed eight or nine years ago, was active until recently. Among other societies which have flourished at one time or another during the last few years may be mentioned a Sketch Club, a Camera Club, a Telegraphic Association, a Pedestrian Club, and an Engineering Fraternity. A graduate association known as the Tufts College Club flourished for a number of years, reaching its maximum strength in 1885 and 1886, but it is now practically extinct. The Tufts College Alumni Association has existed as a strong organization for many years. Alumni Day was celebrated at the Hill until 1888; an annual dinner is now served in Boston.

A number of social customs have been inaugurated during the past decade. The most important is Class Day, the credit for permanently establishing which belongs to the Class of '91. Class Day had been celebrated before, but always as a strictly Senior affair; and the custom had at length almost died out. The Class of '91 determined to enlist the sympathy of all the classes, and to that end made a canvass of the entire college. The program arranged was of a general nature. The occasion was a great success; and the succeeding

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classes were ready and eager to take up the custom. It has been celebrated ever since, with but few departures from the program offered by '91. The wearing of caps and gowns was introduced by the Class of '92, the members of which first wore them on May 8th of that year. About ten years previously Oxford caps with colored tassels had been worn for a short time by all the classes. The Junior Promenade was introduced by '91, the first being given on May 29, 1890. The custom has been followed by all the succeeding classes except '95 and '96, the former class substituting the play, "Me an' Otis," already mentioned.

The history of athletics during this period is well worth study. In the previous chapter anticipatory reference was made to the successes of the baseball and football teams during the first years of President Capen's administration. Both teams were already strong in 1875, and they soon dealt out defeat to the representatives of many larger institutions, including Harvard itself. The make-up of these two teams is a matter of historical interest, and is therefore given in full. In 1875 the football team was captained by L. W. Aldrich, '76; the other regular players being F. B. Harrington, '77; A. B. Fletcher, '76; P. N. Branch, '77; H. D. Nash, '77; C. L. Cushman, '78; A. P. French, '76; C. A. Sprague, '76; H. L. Whithed, '77; W. M. Perry, '78; and L. M. Ballou, '78. Harrington was captain and catcher of the baseball nine, and Ballou was pitcher; G. T. Knight, now of the Divinity Faculty, was 1st base; C. O. Murray, '77, 2d base; S. P. Record, '77, 3d base; C. R. Tenney, centre field; W. M. Perry, left field; W. W. Campbell, '78, right field; and D. R. Brown, '77, short stop. As has already been said, the strength of these teams lay to a great extent in the way in which the entire college took part in athletic sports. The system of specializing players which has since come into vogue in almost all colleges is radically wrong, for it seriously impairs enthusiasm, which is above all things necessary to

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a winning team. After the period of greatness followed a period of decline, in football especially, which lasted until quite recently. A very strong football team was put into the field in 1892, but there followed a period of weakness which is just beginning to give place to one of new strength. The development of baseball during the last few years has been steady, and in 1895 a remarkably fine nine was placed in the field. On April 20, 1895, a good " fair and square " game with Harvard on Holmes Field resulted in a victory for Tufts with a score of eleven to seven. Much good tennis playing has been done on the college courts, but for the last two years the game has not received the official attention it deserves. This is soon to be remedied, however.

The custom of holding an annual Field Day, which had been out of use for many years, was re-established by the Class of 1892. An ineffectual attempt was made to secure the co-operation of all the classes, and the meet was held by '92 alone on March 21, 1890. Although no records were broken the occasion was a success, and the rest of the college at once expressed a willingness to take up the matter. Accordingly a Field Day Association was formed, and the first regularly established college Field Day was held on May 31, 1891. An Indoor Meet in the Gymnasium was established soon after, and on June 7, 1892, the Class of '91 offered a silver cup, to be held each year by the class scoring the greatest number of points at the two Meets. The following table shows the best records of the college in the various events up to the present time: -

A new Athletic Association was organized in September, 1891, with F. W. Perkins as its first President. The old organization had died out some years before, and the various branches of athletics, each upheld by those especially interested, were all suffering by reason of conflicting interests. The constitution of this association provided for an Advisory Committee consisting of three undergraduates, three alumni, and three members of the Faculty. The different branches of athletics were placed in charge of separate committees, over which the Advisory Committee exercised supervision. The membership fee was five dollars. In 1893 the athletic records of the college were investigated by the association, and medals were offered to those who should better them. In many ways the existence of the Athletic Association was beneficial, but its membership was small compared to that of the student body, and by the year 1895 its finances had sunk to a deplorable condition. It was then that the Trustees, at the desire of a majority of the students, decided to add six dollars to the regular gymnasium fee of four dollars, and devote the money thus raised to the purposes of out-door instruction and

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the improvement of the Tufts Oval, a new athletic field fenced off in 1894. This action was heartily indorsed by the students in mass meeting assembled, and since the Athletic Association, by virtue of the fact that its constitution confined the privilege of voting on athletic affairs to those who had paid the five dollars fee for the year, was practically killed by being deprived of its position of financial control, it was formally dissolved, and a new constitution for the government of athletics was adopted by the students as a whole. In framing this constitution many errors which experience had shown in the old organization have been avoided, but the only material difference between the two is the enlargement of the number of members, or electors. Each department of athletics is now in the hands of a single manager instead of a committee of three as heretofore, and several other minor changes have been made.

Altogether the athletic spirit of Tufts is growing broader; and though it is doubtful if it will ever again have the general character which it possessed when the college was smaller, the interest of a much larger share of the students is enlisted by thus drawing them into the enlarged Athletic Association. Among several good rules which have recently been adopted by the Advisory Committee is one which excludes all but students in regular standing from playing on the college teams.

Last among the various phases of college activity which have been reviewed in this chapter comes the college Press, but it by no means ranks at the end of the list in importance. The Press mirrors the life of the community which it represents; and journalism at Tufts has kept pace with the other rapidly broadening activities of the institution. In 1878 Zeta Psi and Theta Delta Chi reconciled their differences and again united in publishing an annual, which consisted of seventy-two pages, and was christened the " Brown and Blue " from the college colors. In the same year the " Collegian " was

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re-christened the "Tuftonian," which name, although lacking any philological foundation, has been thus perpetuated. In 1886 the paper was changed from a monthly to a bi-weekly, but it was made a monthly again in 1895, the " Tufts Weekly," an eight page news sheet, being established under the management of the same staff. This paper satisfies a long felt want, by giving the news of the college before it is stale, and by furnishing a medium for the publication of notices and college documents. The "Tuftonian" and the " Weekly" should now be placed under separate boards of editors, the former, by a change in management, being made to fill a place resembling that of the Harvard Graduates' Magazine. By the constitution of the Publishing Association the editorial staff of the papers consists of eleven editors, who are apportioned among the fraternities and other bodies of students interested according to the proportion of subscriptions furnished. The choice of the Editor-in-chief is left to the Faculty, and only once has it ever been taken from that body. The occasion was the non-society uprising in 1885, when the controlling forces refused to submit the appointment, electing C. M. Ludden, '86, on their own responsibility.

As in other colleges, the publication of an annual has fallen into the hands of the Junior Class. In 1888 the pamphlet had reached a considerable size, with numerous illustrations, and also numerous " grinds." Soon after followed a bound volume of the regular type, familiar to every one conversant with college life and customs. The " Brown and Blue " was issued regularly until 1894, when the Junior Class, wishing to show some degree of originality and offer something of permanent value, published a collection of "Tufts Songs." In the preparation of this work, the editors received valuable aid from Professor Lewis, and the book, which contains a large number of songs written by Tufts men, is a valuable contribution from a musical as well as a college point of view. The present volume represents another departure

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from the traditional custom. Up to the date of its publication, there have been only a few magazine articles to tell the history of the college, and only the quinquennial or triennial catalogues to furnish a record of its alumni. Tufts College has reached a point in its career when its history is worth writing,--when the writing of it as it should be written is already a task beyond the student whose time is largely occupied with other work; but those who have collected the material for this publication feel that what leisure they could afford could be spent in no better way than in an attempt at least to tell the story of their Alma Mater. At some future day- perhaps when the centennial of the college is celebrated- some one will take up the work and give to it the time and care which it deserves. Both time and care will indeed be requisite fifty years from now, for history is being made almost faster than it can be written, and the story of "Charlie's Light" will be the story of a lamp which has burned very brightly and illumined a wide-spreading circle with its rays.

 
 
 
Footnotes:

[1] One term-hour = one recitation a week for one term, or its equivalent.

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 Title Page
 Dedication
 PREFACE.
collapseHISTORICAL NARRATIVE
collapseBIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF THE FACULTY OF THE COLLEGE OF LETTERS
collapseBIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF THE FACULTY OF THE DIVINITY SCHOOL
collapseBIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF THE FACULTY OF THE MEDICAL SCHOOL.
collapseFRATERNITIES,REPRESENTED AT TUFTS COLLEGE, IN THE ORDER OF THEIR ESTABLISHMENT.
collapseTRUSTEES AND OTHER OFFICERS

Published by the Class of 1897. The original contains appendices with a directory of alumni, the college catalog, and the college charter. These were not included in this addition.

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